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Inukpasuit, Inuit and Viking contact in ancient times
The Arctic Sounder ^ | 12 Feb 2009 | Ronald Brower

Posted on 02/18/2009 6:45:35 AM PST by BGHater

There are many stories of ‘Qavlunaat,’ white-skinned strangers who were encountered in Inuit-occupied lands in times of old. Stories of contact between these foreign people and Inuit were passed down the generations and used mostly to scare children to behave “or the Qavlunaat will get them.”

This sparked my curiosity to explore both sides of the encounters from written records and Inuit oral legends to see if some of these events can be correlated. One must recall that these legends were passed down orally in the Inupiaq language.

Inuit myths and legends of contact with other people were passed from one generation to the next through story telling traditions. Many people have heard Pete Sovalik, a well-known Inupiaq story-teller tell this shortened version of a story relating to Qavlunaat and other races.

Taimaniqpaa_ruk - In Times of Old – Qavlunaat were one of the children of an Inuk woman who refused to marry; a Ui_uaqtaq. Her name was Sedragina, also known as Sedna in other Inuit regions. In her youth she was just an ordinary person – A young Inuk girl (agnaiyaaq) who grew up disliking men because of abuse committed to her as a child.

Having grown into a beautiful marriageable maiden, niviaq_siaq, men from many lands sought to marry her but she rebuked all men.

One time she was courted by a rich shaman’s son to no avail. Angered by her reluctance, the rich shaman called upon other equally strong shamuses to punish her. Together they cast a great spell upon her father’s lead dog that was transformed into a handsome young man by night but by day, he was just an ordinary lead dog.

Every evening he relentlessly pursued her for sexual favors until she was worn and tired for lack of sleep wherein she, in a weakened state, gave way to his wishes. In due time, she bore a litter of human and dog-like children having a variety of skin colors as many litters often do. These became the other races of man.

As they grew, she decided to send her children away toward the East, for they became a menace to the surrounding communities because of their wild behavior. Her father had also decided to end her miserable existence - to be rid of her and the shame she brought to his house.

In Inupiat legends her story is seen as the beginning of all other human races and of the sea animals. Hence modern Qavlunaat now know her as the Mother of the Sea, a Goddess deity, but in reality Inuit do not have gods. They believe that the visible world is pervaded by Anirniit, the powers, invisible forces or spirits that affect the lives of the living.

The story teller weaves in a passage of time when the children of Sedragina would return to their kin the Inuit. Their return would mark a time of change for the Inuit but the story tellers would not say what kind of change was to follow.

As hundreds of centuries passed, vague stories were heard of the return of these people now known as Qavlunaat but they slowly faded from legends passed down over the generations.

During the time when we lived in our little village of Iviksuk, our great uncle Owen Kiiriq would also tell tales during the dark months of winter in our little dwelling. Recalling a time that Inuit encountered another kind of race who already lived in our lands.

Kiiriq recalled that elders would call them Tunnit or Inukpasuit, the giants. They were treated as fearsome coastal dwellers and were considered enemies of Inuit. They spoke an Inuit language of an archaic type understandable to our ancestors.

Kiiriq would continue his tale and describe how Inupasuit were viewed as unkempt and unclean by Inuit standards. They were considered a danger to Inuit because they at times waylaid and captured unwary hunters.

Being smaller then them, our ancestors were considered a delectable prey. Once captured, they would be cooked and eaten with relish. Thus Inuit feared these giant beings and would attempt to wipe them out if they could. They were considered slow of thought but clever in their means of pursuit of game. Inuit were ever moving eastward and the Inupasuit soon fell into the lot of myths and legends in our great grandparents’ time.

My research led me to Farley Mowat, author of Westviking, who includes descriptive appendices called “The Vanished Dorset”.

Mowat provides a description by the Norse who encountered the Dorset (Tunnit) around A.D.1000 as being swarthy and ill looking with remarkable eyes.

Mowat refers to another encounter of the Tuniit in the Floamanna Saga where the Viking Thorgisl Orrabeinsfostri shipwrecked in Baffin Island around 997. There, he and his men encountered a giant people, describing the Tunnit.

The Tunnit had lived in the Arctic for a long period of time before contact with either Inuit or Vikings. They developed a culture based on seal hunting and wherever their sod houses are found they show a long period of occupancy as noted by their middens of mostly seal remains.

As climate changed, seals moved further north following the sea ice. Mowat suggest that as seals shifted their range, so did the Tunnit following their primary food source. This may be why Erik the Red did not encounter Inuit or Tunnit when he explored the Greenland coast around 981.

Inuit myths and legends have passed through generations of story tellers. Many have changed but a little over time. A number of Inuit legends are being studied by scholars to see if they can be historically correlated to evidence found in archeological sites in several locations.

Look for an interesting conclusion of this exposition in part two.

Ronald Brower is an Inupiaq language professor at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.


TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: baffinisland; godsgravesglyphs; inuit; myth; norse; norway; qavlunaat; sweden; thevikings; viking; vikings

1 posted on 02/18/2009 6:45:36 AM PST by BGHater
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To: SunkenCiv

ping. Maybe of interest.


2 posted on 02/18/2009 6:46:18 AM PST by BGHater (Tyranny is always better organised than freedom)
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To: BGHater
Stories, traditional knowledge, ect; is held in high regard by our local Indians. They don't believe nothing our govt tells them; and only 50 years removed from the stoneage.

We have these caves on bluff above the river; sheep winter caves actually. Indians don't go near them, or even talk about them, ha; bad deal luck all the way around the way they see it.

3 posted on 02/18/2009 6:58:18 AM PST by Eska ( e)
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To: BGHater
I'd never heard of the Tunit before - at least, by name.

The Tunit, Lost People of the North .

4 posted on 02/18/2009 7:06:24 AM PST by Paine in the Neck (Nepolean fries the idea powder)
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To: BGHater

I didn’t know Instapundit was a native American.


5 posted on 02/18/2009 7:40:44 AM PST by drubyfive
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To: BGHater

I think that’s highly suspect.

(Tunnit or Inukpasuit) “Once captured, they (the Inuit) would be cooked and eaten with relish.”

Ah, but where would they get the relish?


6 posted on 02/18/2009 8:24:12 AM PST by yefragetuwrabrumuy
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy

Hmmm. I censored my own comment.

Were they red-headed?


7 posted on 02/18/2009 8:32:15 AM PST by patton (SPQA - the last, the least and the lost)
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To: BGHater; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

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8 posted on 02/18/2009 5:17:20 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________ Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: BGHater

Farley Mowat, author of Never Cry Wolf, finally admitted that he manufactured all of his stories. I would never believe any of his “facts” as noted in this story.


9 posted on 02/18/2009 5:26:40 PM PST by darth
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To: BGHater
There has been speculation for years that the last stranded Vikings in Greenland disappeared by assimilating with the Inuit.

DNA studies have since proven this did not happen.

DNA Study To Settle Ancient Mystery About Mingling Of Inuit, Vikings

10 posted on 02/18/2009 5:58:35 PM PST by blam
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To: yefragetuwrabrumuy

For relish, Maybe they used Dulse, a red seaweed lichen.

Dulse is frequently mentioned in the sagas and other medieval writings and seems to have been eaten widely, up until the late 19th century; now they are mostly used as a snack.

There was a famous incident a few years ago, when a member of the Althing was taken to task by the Speaker for bringing food into the meeting hall and eating it at his desk; he maintained that he had not brought any food, just dulse, which wasn’t food anyway - citing Egill SkallagrÌmsson, who had chewed dulse when he was trying to starve himself to death.

Dulse can be eaten raw but it can be rubbery (someone compared it to chewing on a salted rubber band). Now it is usually dried (partially at least), cut into strips or shreds and added to skyr or porridge, soups, stews, bread and - well, just about anything. Or they were simply eaten with butter or some kind of


11 posted on 02/18/2009 6:32:54 PM PST by wildbill
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To: BGHater
“Stories of contact between these foreign people and Inuit were passed down the generations and used mostly to scare children to behave “or the Qavlunaat will get them.”

The Vikings would of made great *boogy men*

12 posted on 02/19/2009 4:35:31 AM PST by wolfcreek (There is no 2 party system only arrogant Pols and their handlers)
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To: blam
I saw a History Channel show a few years ago reporting on a multidisciplinary investigation of the settlements. Their conclusion was when it got too cold to raise their livestock, the Vikings just got on their boats and sailed back home.
13 posted on 02/19/2009 12:08:43 PM PST by colorado tanker ("I just LOVE clinging to my guns and my religion!!!!" - Sarah Palin)
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To: colorado tanker
"Their conclusion was when it got too cold to raise their livestock, the Vikings just got on their boats and sailed back home."

I've read that it got so cold that everything froze and they couldn't 'sail' ships...and, that many died there in Greenland, one at a time.

14 posted on 02/19/2009 1:19:21 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
Their reason for rejecting that theory was that they did not find bodies in places where they normally would find them after a famine or similar event, i.e. some randomness. Also, they did not find precious possessions, just some pretty ordinary stuff. I don't remember what else, but they felt the evidence pointed to an orderly evacuation.

I don't know if we'll ever know for sure, but it's an interesting theory.

15 posted on 02/19/2009 1:58:25 PM PST by colorado tanker ("I just LOVE clinging to my guns and my religion!!!!" - Sarah Palin)
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To: patton

“Hmmm. I censored my own comment.

Were they red-headed?”

Only if they were step-children.

;-)


16 posted on 03/02/2009 6:22:58 PM PST by GladesGuru (In a society predicated upon freedom, it is essential to examine principles,)
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17 posted on 03/26/2011 5:37:24 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
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