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Mathematics of Eternity Prove The Universe Must Have Had A Beginning
MIT Technology Review ^ | 04/26/2012

Posted on 04/26/2012 3:13:30 PM PDT by SeekAndFind

Cosmologists use the mathematical properties of eternity to show that although universe may last forever, it must have had a beginning

kfc 04/24/2012


The Big Bang has become part of popular culture since the phrase was coined by the maverick physicist Fred Hoyle in the 1940s. That's hardly surprising for an event that represents the ultimate birth of everything.

However, Hoyle much preferred a different model of the cosmos: a steady state universe with no beginning or end, that stretches infinitely into the past and the future. That idea never really took off.

In recent years, however, cosmologists have begun to study a number of new ideas that have similar properties. Curiously, these ideas are not necessarily at odds with the notion of a Big Bang.

For instance, one idea is that the universe is cyclical with big bangs followed by big crunches followed by big bangs in an infinite cycle. 

Another is the notion of eternal inflation in which different parts of the universe expand and contract at different rates. These regions can be thought of as different universes in a giant multiverse. 

So although we seem to live in an inflating cosmos,  other universes may be very different. And while our universe may look as if it has a beginning, the multiverse need not have a beginning.

Then there is the idea of an emergent universe which exists as a kind of seed for eternity and then suddenly expands. 

So these modern cosmologies suggest that the observational evidence of an expanding universe is consistent with a cosmos with no beginning or end. That may be set to change.

Today, Audrey Mithani and Alexander Vilenkin at Tufts University in Massachusetts say that these models are mathematically incompatible with an eternal past. Indeed, their analysis suggests that these three models of the universe must have had a beginning too.

Their argument focuses on the mathematical properties of eternity--a universe with no beginning and no end. Such a universe must contain trajectories that stretch infinitely into the past. 

However, Mithani and Vilenkin point to a proof dating from 2003 that these kind of past trajectories cannot be infinite if they are part of a universe that expands in a specific way. 

They go on to show that cyclical universes and universes of eternal inflation both expand in this way. So they cannot be eternal in the past and must therefore have had a beginning. "Although inflation may be eternal in the future, it cannot be extended indefinitely to the past," they say.

They treat the emergent model of the universe differently, showing that although it may seem stable from a classical point of view, it is unstable from a quantum mechanical point of view. "A simple emergent universe model...cannot escape quantum collapse," they say.

The conclusion is inescapable. "None of these scenarios can actually be past-eternal," say Mithani and Vilenkin. 

Since the observational evidence is that our universe is expanding, then it must also have been born in the past. A profound conclusion (albeit the same one that lead to the idea of the big bang in the first place).  

Ref: arxiv.org/abs/1204.4658: Did The Universe Have A Beginning?


TOPICS: History; Science
KEYWORDS: creation; eternity; evolution; universe
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To: DManA

You confidently state that you can’t see much of the matter that exists.
(dark matter).

take a look at this — what is your opinion?

http://www.space.com/15333-dark-matter-missing-sun.html

If dark matter (at a very high rate in our universe, somewhere near 70%) does not in fact exist, then most mathematical models of universe formation collapse.


51 posted on 04/26/2012 10:00:59 PM PDT by BereanBrain
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To: SirKit

Big Bang ping!


52 posted on 04/26/2012 10:04:29 PM PDT by SuziQ
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To: dragnet2

I did not claim the north sky was empty. I said, there is an empty space or area in the north sky.

I particular, I believe it’s behind/around Polaris. If we look around any object in space, and we continue to “zoom in” by increasing our resolution power of our device (currently hubble is about as good a visible light gets) we continue to see more structure.

http://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hu/db/images/hs-2006-02-a-print.jpg

The above is an image of the Polaris group (from hubble), that has no visible structure in the background. Note: this does not prove anything unless we continue to improve our resolution and can continue to see structure everywhere else other than in/around Polaris.

Now this is an great point of discussion — is there or is there not a uniform (loose definition here) distribution of mass in the universe? i.e. are there a empty vector through our universe?


53 posted on 04/26/2012 10:22:54 PM PDT by BereanBrain
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To: BereanBrain
I particular, I believe it’s behind/around Polaris.

You believe what is behind Polaris?

54 posted on 04/27/2012 12:46:45 AM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: SeekAndFind

What happens when gravity overcomes the force of the big bang and the universe begins to collapse? Will it collapse until it becomes so small that it explodes again?


55 posted on 04/27/2012 12:52:39 AM PDT by krogers58
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To: Intolerant in NJ

RE: ...and its parents were???.....

The cause does not necessarily have to be plural.


56 posted on 04/27/2012 4:49:55 AM PDT by SeekAndFind
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To: BereanBrain
I believe it’s behind/around Polaris.

You believe what is behind Polaris?

did not claim the north sky was empty. I said, there is an empty space or area in the north sky.

BTW, there are empty spaces all over our solar system, our home galaxy, interstellar space, the universe etc., which there are no visible planets, stars, galaxies, etc.

Outside of gravitational forces, there are even empty spaces between binary star systems.

How you picked out the Polaris region to imply or suggest something is hiding behind it, or that area of the universe seems empty, I absolutely have no idea.

57 posted on 04/27/2012 10:16:59 AM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: dragnet2

how does an empty space “hide”? you are making straw arguments here.


58 posted on 04/27/2012 6:05:08 PM PDT by BereanBrain
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To: BereanBrain
I believe it’s behind/around Polaris.

You believe what is behind Polaris?

did not claim the north sky was empty. I said, there is an empty space or area in the north sky.

BTW, there are empty spaces all over our solar system, our home galaxy, interstellar space, the universe etc., which there are no visible planets, stars, galaxies, etc.

Outside of gravitational forces, there are even empty spaces between binary star systems.

How you picked out the Polaris region to imply or suggest something is hiding OR is behind it, or that area of the universe seems empty, I absolutely have no idea.

how does an empty space “hide”?

Uh, one more time. You believe what is behind Polaris?

Why are you afraid to clarify your own comments?

59 posted on 04/27/2012 7:18:49 PM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: dragnet2

It’s a simple concept. Is there a “navel” of the universe?
If there were, could we see it?
There are a lot of theoretical physics/math surrounding this point — i.e. even if there were a “center” of the universe, which direction should we look for it?

In addition, should not space seem to be expanding in all directions.
There are conflicting observations, but it’s not clear we observe the universe moving from us in all directions (which theoretically an expanding universe from a big bang should produce).

The speculation about a empty area (e.g. a navel), could only be proven if we had sufficient resolution power to observe a vacated space, and matter going in different vectors around it.

What it seems we can observe today is the following

1) Not all parts of the universe are going away from us at the same speed
2) There is a *lot* of missing matter in the universe (dark matter) we can’t see (based on making the numbers work for the Big Bang Expansion).

Gerald L. Schroeder is an MIT Astrophysicist who has written 5-6 books on the harmony of science/scripture. I have read a few of his books. Here’s one.

http://www.amazon.com/Genesis-Big-Bang-Discovery-Harmony/dp/0553354132/ref=ntt_at_ep_dpt_3

He ranges from theoretical math to information theory, chaos theory, etc. a great read.


60 posted on 04/27/2012 8:07:25 PM PDT by BereanBrain
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To: SeekAndFind
The cause does not necessarily have to be plural...true - nice to hear we can at least consider a cause....
61 posted on 04/27/2012 9:42:03 PM PDT by Intolerant in NJ
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To: Sacajaweau
Prot: "I wanna tell you something Mark, something you do not yet know, that we K-PAXians have been around long enough to have discovered. The universe will expand, then it will collapse back on itself, then will expand again. It will repeat this process forever. What you don't you know is that when the universe expands again, everything will be as it is now. Whatever mistakes you make this time around, you will live through on your next pass. Every mistake you make, you will live through again, and again, forever. So my advice to you is to get it right this time around. Because this time is all you have."


62 posted on 04/27/2012 9:49:52 PM PDT by Lancey Howard
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To: BereanBrain
I believe it’s behind/around Polaris.

One last time, what do you believe what is behind Polaris?

63 posted on 04/28/2012 12:08:28 AM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: Son-Joshua

That’s what Kant said...It’s called FAITH.


64 posted on 04/28/2012 3:39:18 AM PDT by Sacajaweau
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To: varmintman
Had to post this.


65 posted on 04/28/2012 12:51:53 PM PDT by Mrs. Don-o (Evidence, and reasonable inference from evidence.)
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To: varmintman
OK, we need to have a better look at this. Posting it again, bigger

.

.


66 posted on 04/28/2012 12:54:16 PM PDT by Mrs. Don-o (Evidence, and reasonable inference from evidence.)
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To: varmintman
OK, we need to have a better look at this. Posting it again, bigger

.

.


67 posted on 04/28/2012 12:54:25 PM PDT by Mrs. Don-o (Evidence, and reasonable inference from evidence.)
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To: dragnet2

Nothing.

If there *is* one place in the universe I would look (if I could) for a “origin 0,0,0), it would be past the polaris system


68 posted on 04/28/2012 9:44:12 PM PDT by BereanBrain
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To: SeekAndFind
However, Hoyle much preferred a different model of the cosmos: a steady state universe with no beginning or end, that stretches infinitely into the past and the future. That idea never really took off.

This actually was the predominant theory from Aristotle's time until the 1950's, except among those of us who believe Genesis. Only about 2500 years or so.

69 posted on 04/28/2012 10:00:34 PM PDT by <1/1,000,000th%
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To: BereanBrain
I believe it’s behind/around Polaris.

One last time, what do you believe is behind Polaris?

Nothing.

I'll let you can get back to your meditation now.

70 posted on 04/28/2012 10:58:00 PM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: dragnet2

I guess you are the sole person in the universe then who can prove a negative.


71 posted on 04/28/2012 11:04:56 PM PDT by BereanBrain
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To: BereanBrain
I believe it’s behind/around Polaris.

What do you believe is behind/around Polaris?

Nothing.

There is no need to go any further here. See ya!

72 posted on 04/29/2012 9:07:02 AM PDT by dragnet2 (Diversion and evasion are tools of deceit)
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To: varmintman

E = MC squared

Seeing as how God is all powerful [E] then He could simply remove His power from the Universe and poof all matter [M] disappears too. Furthermore His Word says he’ll fold up creation like a scroll and then replace them with a new Heaven and a new Earth.


73 posted on 05/01/2012 11:56:46 AM PDT by BrandtMichaels
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To: Boogieman; Hot Tabasco

When Adam and Eve sinned death and destruction entered into all of God’s creation. But He promises in Revelation 21 or 22 iirc to reverse the curse then a.) restore this Earth and Universe as He intended for 1000 years and b.) create a new Heaven and Earth after the 1000 years.


74 posted on 05/01/2012 12:24:38 PM PDT by BrandtMichaels
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To: Boogieman; Hot Tabasco; All

I believe that before sin, God’s creation was perfect.

I freely admit it is mainly conjecture what a perfect world would look like, but didn’t God say he gave them the plants and fruit of the trees for food?

I’m an old school COBOL programmer so by my reckoning it is easy to see that it would require a far superior intelligence to write [and then after the fall re-write] the DNA that varies from approx one half-billion lines of quad-code [a, c, t, & g] for bacteria upto approx 50 billion for some of the more exotic and often times extinct DNA code found [i.e. the Marbled Lungfish, and the Paris Japonica with the largest known genome]. Incidentally, the larger the genome the more they are prone to extinction so it is good that mankind only has approx 3 billion LOC. But it is also very interesting the man made in God’s image is still considered to be the highest, and most complex life form which must be attributed mainly to intrinsic qualities not found in the physical genome.

Did you know man’s brain has an estimated 6 peta byte capacity [mega, giga, tera, then peta] and our brain [mainframe] and nervous system/spinal column [network] is over a million times as powerful as modern day personal computers?

In my own imaginations none of the present plants nor animals are the same as they were in Paradise. None of them needed a digestive tract that expelled waste b/c all food was 100% nutritious. So no carnivores [no sharp teeth nor claws] b/c none were meat-eaters. No plants were poisonous nor bacteria, or virii deadly. The whole creation was cursed by sin with death and destruction.

In the millennial reign of Christ, Revelation indicates the original order will be restored, the lamb will lie down with the lion, and even a child will place his hand in a nest of adders and not be harmed.

Furthermore, I believe the Noahic Flood brought forth the first rain, along with the bursting of the fountains of the great deep, and the tearing open of the upper atmosphere - Gen 7:11 and subsequently all manner of natural disasters, many local floods and the ice-ages. I also believe Dr. Brown has found much astrological, geological and fossil evidence in support of this in addition to what the Bible only hints.

Lastly, I would not doubt that mankind got too smart for his own good and is primarily responsible for all manner of natural disasters ~ in Noah’s day he most likely drilled approx 10 miles deep into Earth’s crust [probably mining for precious metals] and caused the fountains of the great deep to explode open [1 pint of supercritical water = 1 stick of dynamite], resulting in 40 days of torrential rain, tearing a rift in the crust and up through the upper atmosphere mostly north/south and circumventing the globe, caused the breaking up of the continents and tech-tonic plates, vulcanism, earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, typhoons, major uplifts of mountain ranges and even deeper crevasses in the oceans [crevasses that just happen to parallel all the major mountain ranges. This is a brief description of the hydroplate theory ~ for more see section II of:
Center for Scientific Creation - In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood
http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/IntheBeginningTOC.html

Is it really any wonder that the Bible records life spans for man of almost 1000 years pre-flood and only 120 years post-flood?

103 posted on Tuesday, May 01, 2012 1:41:30 PM by BrandtMichaels


75 posted on 05/01/2012 12:28:09 PM PDT by BrandtMichaels
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