I am a big fan of the Sony Cybershot. I have a model HX9V.
16.2 megapixel and it takes HD video.
You mentioned night shots. It has this feature to shoot photos in very low light. It takes about ten rapid images, then the internal chip in it, processes then together somehow. While on a trip last fall to the Holy Land, I got amazing shots inside in very low light.
Also has a cool auto feature for panoramic shots. You click, then just move your camera from left to right across the scene you want. No need to line up anything. The camera’s internal GPS “stitches” the horizontal scene together seamlessly.
You can do that in software, along with stitching panoramas.
Google exposure stacking software and panorama stitching software.
A program called Image Stacker can be had for less than $20 and can do wonderful things.
I would also recommend becoming familiar with Gimp, the free Photoshop clone.
For your price range, just stay with one name-brands and you'll do fine. Today's $100 cameras will give you roughly the same electronic performance of cameras costing 10 times that much 5 or six years ago, the only difference is, in all probability, the older cameras had better glass.
If you really want to maximize your money, buy used from a reputable dealer, just don't go too far back as your performance at high ISO will probably suffer.