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Unit 731 - Research and Bump List. Gets Disturbing, Read at Your Own Risk
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Posted on 11/12/2005 7:48:51 PM PST by Calpernia

The Failure of the Tokyo Trial

Wu Tianwei

"No. One War Criminal" Not Brought to Trial. "

"The Majority of Class A War Criminals Not Tried but Released."

"all the uncondemned Class A war criminals were set free by Gen. MacArthur in 1947 and 1948. Most of them immediately returned to the Japanese political arena, which was again dominated by the same Fascists and militarists though clad in democratic cloak in disguise."

"All Killers of "Human Experimentation" At Large. "

"Hundreds of doctors of the former Unit 731 are still practicing or living in retirement in Japan today. "

The Beginning, of the Tokyo Trial. About half a year after the opening of the Nuremberg Trail, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East began its trial of 28 Class A Japanese war criminals at Tokyo on May 3, 1946, which is known as the "Tokyo Trial." The hearings of the Trial dated back to 1928, when Marshal Chang Tsolin, warlord of Manchuria, was assassinated, and extended right to the Japanese surrender.

The background of the Tokyo Trial was somewhat different from that of the Nuremberg Trial. At the Cairo Conference, the three Allies, Britain, China, and the United States, issued a declaration on December 1, 1943, which spelled out that "the purpose of this war is to stop and punish Japanese aggression." The 5th article of the Potsdam Declaration of July 1945 issued by the same three Allies enunciated that "stem justice shall be meted out to all war criminals including those who have visited cruelties upon our prisoners." In the Instrument of Japanese Surrender of September 2, 1945, all matters related to the arrest and treatment of war criminals were specifically stipulated. In the meantime, the Commission of Crimes of the United Nations (established at London in the summer of 1943) made recommendation on the establishment of an international n-military tribunal for Japanese crimes and atrocities. U.S. State Department adopted the "Policy of Arrest and Punishment of War Criminals in the Far East," with which it notified the Supreme Command of the Allied Powers (SCAP) and 8 nations (Australia, Britain, Canada, China, France, Netherlands, New Zealand, the Soviet Union, and the United States) to organize the tribunal. The Moscow Conference of foreign ministers of the big four, Britain, China, the Soviet Union and U.S. decided the tribunal would be established at Tokyo. In January 1946, General Douglas MacArthur approved its charter to formally inaugurate the Tribunal. Although the United States played a major role in both the Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, having had her legal views and opinions well pronounced, she virtually dominated the latter, in which her policy toward Japan took precedence. The Tokyo Trial also was overshadowed by the Chinese civil war and the imminent Cold War that engulfed the American-Soviet relations. All this led to the Trial of the Class A war criminals unfinished and a hasty close of the Trial.

Nevertheless, the Tokyo Trial was based upon the concepts of war crimes initiated at the Nuremberg Trial, i.e., Crimes against Peace, Crimes against Humanity, and War Crimes and Aggressive War--but without the "collective guilt" as with the crimes of the Nazis. Each member of the I 1 -nation Far East Council, supposed to be a guiding and policy-making organ for the SCAP, appointed a judge each, with Sir William F. Webb of Australia as presiding judge, the other judges being E. Stuart McDougall for Canada, Ju-ao Mei for China, Henri Bernard for France, Delfin Jaranilla for the Philippines, Bernard Victor A. Roling for the Netherlands, Erima Harvey Northeroft for New Zealand, I.M. Zaryanov for the Soviet Union, Lord Patrick for Great Britain, and John P. Higgins for the U.S. (later replaced by Maj. Gen. Myron C. Gramer), and R.M. Pal for India. The chief prosecutor was American Joseph B. Keenan, each of the I 11 nations appointed an associate prosecutor, the Chinese prosecutor being che-chun Hsiang.

Japan then was under U.S. occupation and the U.S. provided for funds and manpower for the Trial; as a result, the U.S. assumed the entire work of prosecution. Still the biggest problem was that the Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur had the authority not only to select judges but "to reduce, but not to increase the sentences." Chief Prosecutor Keenan, a politician from the State of Ohio, cooperated slavishly with the Supreme Commander; under such circumstances, the Tokyo Trail dragged for two and a half years and closed on November 4, 1948, with its sentences meted out to the 28 Class A war criminals as tabulated below.

Seven death sentences:

Hideki Tojo: Gendarme Commander and Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army; Minister of the Army and Prime Minister (October 1941 to July 1944), launching the Pearl Harbor attack.

Kenji Doihara: Chief of Special Service of the Kwantung Army; one of the conspirators engineering the "September 18, 193 1 " Incident and kidnapping the "last emperor" of the Manchu dynasty with whom to inaugurate Manchukuo.

Seishiro Itagaki: One of the conspirators to engineer the "September 18, 193 1 " Incident, Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, and Minister of the Army.

lwane Matsui: Chief of Special Service of the Kwantung Army at Harbin, Commander-in-Chief of Japanese Central China Army, chief culprit of the Rape of Nanking.

Akira Muto: Deputy Chief of Staff of Japanese Central China Army, responsible for the Rape of Nanking and atrocities in Indonesia.

Heitaro Kimura: Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, deputy minister of the Army, army commander in Bunna, where he was responsible for the brutalization of Allied POWs especially to build the Siain-Bunna Railway.

Koki Hirota: As Foreign Minster, he introduced the "three principles" in dealing with China in 1935. Next year he became Prime Minister; he was the only civilian to receive death sentence.

Sixteen defendants sentenced to life imprisonment: Sadao Araki: Minister of the Army, Minister of Education, and leader of the "Imperial Way Faction."

Kingoro Hashimoto: As an artillery regiment commander, Colonel Hashimoto was a major culprit in

the Rape of Nanking,. He was behind assassinations and coups d'etat and published books for racist propaganda.

Shunroku Hata: Field Marshal, Commander-in-Chief of Japanese expeditionary army in China, Minister of the Army.

Yoshijlro Umezu: Commander-in-Chief of Japanese Army stationed in North China and later of the

Kwantung Army; Chief of General Staff representing Japan to sign the Instrument of Surrender on the USS Missouri.

Teiichi Suzuki: Expert on China masterminded Japan's wartime economy and was involved in drug trafficking in China.

Koichi Kido, Marquis: Minister of Education, Welfare, Home Affairs in various periods, and Lord Keeper of the Privy Council.

Kuniaki Koiso: Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, Governor of Korea then known as "Tiger of Korea," and Prime Minister.

Kichiro Hiranuma: Founder of the Kokuhonsha (society for national quintessence), Prime Minister, and President of the Privy Council.

Jiro Minanii: Commander-in-Chief of the Kwantung Army, Minister of the Army, Governor of Korea, and an early leader advocating the "Holy War" against China.

Takasumi Oka: Chief of Bureau of Military Affairs; Deputy Minister of the Navy; he was most responsible for the mistreatment of Allied POWs especially the "hellships."

Okinori Kaya: President of North China Development Company, plundering China's industry and resources; Minister of Finance with the knowledge of building the Siam-Burma Railway with POWs as slave laborers.

Naoki Hoshino: Chief of financial affairs in Manchuria; as chief cabinet secretary, being the war's most enthusiastic supporter in the cabinet, drafted the declarations of war against Britain and the United States.

Hiroshi Oshima: Lt. Gen. and Ambassador to Germany being considered "more Nazi than the Nazis" forged the Axis Pact with Germany and Italy.

Kenryo Sato: A confidant of Premiere Tojo, serving as Chief of the Bureau of Military Affairs and divisional commander in Indonesia and Burma, persecuting the Allied POWs.

Shigetaro Shimada: Vice Chief of Naval General Staff-, as Minister of Navy, he authorized the Pearl Harbor attack.

Toshio Shiratofi: Ambassador to Italy, a rabid supporter of military expansion, being a confidant of Mussolini and having forged the Axis Pact.

Two defendants received prison terms:

Shigenori Togo: Ambassador to Germany and Italy; Foreign Minister, 1941-42, 1945, being responsible for negotiations with the U.S. before the Pearl Harbor attack, but inimical to Nazi Germany. He was sentenced 20 years of imprisonment.

Mamoru Shigemitsu: Ambassador to China, Britain, and the Soviet Union; Forel-n Minister, 1943- 45, representing Japan to sign the Instrument of Surrender on the USS Missouri.

As to the other three defendants, Matsuoka died in 1946, Nagano died in 1947, and Okawa was set free because of insanity. Shumei Okawa, a staunch nationalist devoted to militarism, had been Chief of East Asian Economic Survey Bureau and participated in the March and October coups of 193 1, and the "September 18" Incident. He was jailed for the assassination of Premiere Tsuyoshi Inukai in 1932. In the first day of the Tokyo Trial, when the indictments to the war criminals were announced, he beat the head of Tojo. All charged against him were dropped after the conclusion of the Tokyo Trial and he was discharged from the mental hospital as mentally fit; he died nine years later.

Field Marshal Osarni Nagano served as deputy naval attach‚ in the Japanese Embassy at Washington, 1912-14 and became Minister of Navy in 1936. He was Chief of Naval General Staff from 1941 to 1944, planning the Pearl Harbor attack; died of natural cause during the Trial.

Yosuke Matsuoka came to America for study at the age of 14 and was graduated from Oregon University in 1900. He began his diplomatic career in 1904, first serving as consul at Shanghai. In 1927, he became Vice-President of the Southern Manchuria Railway Company and a rabid supporter for the annexation of Manchuria to Japan, by initiating the theory that "Man (Manchuria)-Mon (Inner Mongolia) is the Lifeline of Japan." In 1932, he became Chief of the Japanese Delegation to the League of Nations and in March of next year, he led the Japanese Delegation to withdraw from the League on account of the League's resolution that Japan was an aggressor for invading Manchuria. Upon returning to Japan, he was hailed as a hero for his defiance to the League and soon rewarded with the presidency of the Southern Manchurian Railway Company. In 1940, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs championing the Japanese-German alliance and the "Greater East-Asian Co-prosperity Order." Having reached a Rapprochement with Moscow by signing the treaty of neutrality in April 194 1, he advocated joining forces with Germany to attack the Soviet Union two months later, when Hitler launched the Barbarossa campaign to invade Russia. He died in a Tokyo hospital in 1946.

The Majority of Class A War Criminals Not Tried but Released. Most regrettably was the fact that, of the 70 Japanese apprehended for Class A war criminals, only the first group of 28 people were brought to trial, the rest which was divided into the 2nd and 3rd groups awaited to be tried in Sugamo prison of Tokyo. The International Prosecution Section of the SCAP, then realizing the magnitude of their crimes and the multitude of cases, decided to try the apprehended seventy in three groups, the first group of 28 war criminals all being major leaders in military, political, and diplomatic sphere. The 2nd group of 23 war criminals and the 3rd group of 19 war criminals were notorious, industrial and financial magnates, warmongers engaged in ammunition trade and trafficking in drugs, as well as some less known, but equally rabid, barbaric leaders in military, political, and diplomatic spheres. Notably among them were:

Nobusuke Kishi: Taking charge of industry and commerce of Manchukuo, 1936-40; Minister of Industry and Commerce under Tojo administration; and Prime Minister of Japan, 1957-60, having advocated revision of the new constitution to enlarge the Emperor's authority and curb the Diet's power.

Fusanosuke Kuhara: Leader of the newly-emerging Zaibatsu faction of Seiyukal (Political Friends Society).

Yoshisuke Ayukawa: Sworn-brother of Fusanosuke Kuhara, founder of Japan Industrial Corporation; having gone to Manchuria after the "September 18" Incident, where he founded the Manchurian Heavy Industry Development Company to dominate industry and mining of Manchuria.

Toshizo Nishio: Chief of Staff of the Kwantung Army, Commander-in-Chief of China Expeditionary Army, 1939-41; and Minister of Education.

Kichiburo Ando: Garrison Commander of Port Arthur and Minister of Interior in Tojo's cabinet.

Yoshio Kodama: Radical nationalist behind many coups and assassinations in the 1930s; setting up the Kodama special organ in occupied China engaged in exploiting Chinese resources- and after the war, remaining a major leader of Japanese underworld society.

Kazuo Aoki: Administrator of Manchurian affairs; Minister of Treasury in Nobuyoki Abe's cabinet and then following Abe to China as advisor; Minister of Greater East-Asian Ministry under Tojo.

Masayoki Tani: Ambassador to Manchukuo, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Concurrently Director of Intelligence Bureau; Ambassador to the Nanking puppet government; and after the war Ambassador to the United States.

Eiji Amo: As Chief of Intelligence Section of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Amo issued the "Amo Statement" in 1934, calling upon Western powers not to render assistance to China as the East Asian order was very much the Japanese responsibility; Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs; and Director of Intelligence Bureau in Tojo's cabinet.

Yakijiro Suma: As Consul General at Nanking, Suma was well known to the Chinese owing to his concocting many intrigue, particularly on the eve of the war; in 1938, he served at counselor at the Japanese Embassy at Washington; and after 1941, Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain.

Ryoichi Sasakawa: One of the leading Fascists and Militarists of Japan organized his private army of 15,000 men equipped with 20 warplanes and dressed in black shirt to emulate that of Mussolini, his idol after "September 18, 193 1 " Incident. Following the outbreak of the Pacific War, his army massacred thousands of innocent Chinese and Malayans for which he earned the name of "Tiger of Malaya." After the war, he kept his Mafia business in Japan involving drug trafficking, pornographic enterprises, gambling, and usury that made him the super rich, with which he had become the leading philanthropist of the world; he showered handsome donations to the United Nations, President Carter's Library, and one million dollars each to the leading universities of America.

Moreover all the uncondemned Class A war criminals were set free by Gen. MacArthur in 1947 and 1948. Most of them immediately returned to the Japanese political arena, which was again dominated by the same Fascists and militarists though clad in democratic cloak in disguise. Despite a western-style, democratic Japanese Constitution which MacArthur helped to adopt, Japanese political leaders, unlike their counterparts of West Germany, have run counter to the original promises and inclinations. totally ignoring their legal and moral obligations and responsibilities as a defeated nation, as they have pursued the policy of "Three Nos," no admission of aggression, no repentance and apology, and no compensations to their victims.

"No. One War Criminal" Not Brought to Trial. In both Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials, No. One war criminal was not brought to trial. Undoubtedly, had Hitler lived, he would have been brought to Trial, condemned and hanged as had other eleven Nazi leaders. Ironically, the Emperor's palace was just nearby the site where the Trial took place, but Hirohito, the No. One war criminal was free from being tried, a fact that has intolerably reduced the value of the Tokyo Trial. Before the end of the war, Australia and China had accentuated the necessity of trying the chief culprit Emperor Hirohito, but for the sake of expediency of governing Japan under occupation, the U.S. eventually took off Hirohito from the list of war criminals. Throughout the Trial, the issue of bringing Hirohito to Trial had frequently loomed up. While the debate over whether he should have stood to defend himself or as witness for other defendants had annoyed the postwar Japanese society.

Concerning the issue of the stealthy attack on Pearl Harbor, both Naval Chief of General Staff and Prime Minister Tojo admitted having consulted with Emperor Hirohito, at which Tojo expressed confidence in the result. Then the Presiding Judge Webb commented: "The Emperor then directed that the program be carried out. . . It will remain that the men who advised the commission of a crime, if it be one, are in no worse position than the man who directs the crime be committed." In spite of much he tried to defend Hirohito's innocence, Tojo was obliged to confess that "the Emperor had consented, though reluctantly, to the war" and that "none of us would dare act against the Emperor's will."

From the documents of the General Headquarters of the Army and Navy released by the Japan Defense Administration after the war, some logical conclusions can be easily drawn as follows: (1) All major campaigns, such as those of "August 13" of Shanghai, Wuhan, Changsha, Burma, and "Ichigo" had been meticulously studied by Hirohito before he ordered them to be carried out with his blessings; (2) the appointment or dismissal of a division commander (a division usually having the strength of 16,000 to 22,500 men) must have had the approval of Emperor Hirohito and, more often than not, he would have an audience with the appointee before being announced; and (3) any maneuver of troops above the divisional level and a new division being established had to have his approval. By all accounts, his authority over the army and navy was doubtless greater than Hitler's.

Hirohito's authority was clearly instanced by the following episode. After the Midway debacle on June 5, 1942 (the great loss of the Japanese navy has not been quite appreciated by Western scholars), Japan immediately shifted its strategy in the Pacific from offensive to defensive. In August 1942, U.S. forces launched an offensive, thus unfolding the four-month sanguinary jungle battle for Guadalcanal. For lack of coordination and deficient estimate of U.S. strength, the lives of over 20,000 Japanese soldiers were in jeopardy. Then the Japanese General Headquarters sent its chief of war operation section, Colonel Hattori, to Guadalcanal for an on-the-spot investigation. Hattori flew back to Tokyo on November 1 1, and was received by Emperor Hirohito the next day to present his detailed written report, during which Hirohito said: "As a large U.S. fleet was pressing on Guadalcanal, whether the Army should send reinforcement of its own air force without delay." Afterwards, the Army dispatched its air force to the Southeast Pacific theater but it was too late to save the Japanese army on Guadalcanal. As for the withdrawal of Japanese army from Quadalcanal, Emperor Hirohito on November 28, 1942 issued Ns order saying:

Today the Chief of General Headquarters said that whether or not we withdraw from Guadalcanal will be reported to me on the 30th. I am not satisfied with this kind of as a matter of factly report, but rather I wish to know what is the plan for defeating the enemy. The situation is so serious that the General Hqs. conference should be summoned to discuss the issue. Regardless of the date whether it be the end or the beginning of the year, I will be there. (Important Records of the Japanese Army Warring in China, Tr. Taipei, Bureau of Military History, Defense Ministry, 1992, Vol. 23).

The Imperial Conference was held in Emperor's palace on December 31 to decide the withdrawal from Guadalcanal with Emperor Hirohito presiding. From this, one should not fail to see that Emperor Hirohito was indeed the Conirnander-in-Chief of the Japanese Armed Forces. In fact, why the Japanese surrender procrastinated so long as it did until August 15, 1945, it was chiefly due to Hirohito's dictatorship. A few years ago, a courageous Japanese writer Hisashi Inoue wrote:

In February 1945, for example, as Japan was losing on Asian and Pacific battlefields, Prince Fumimaro Konoe, former prime minister and Imperial counselor, wrote the ruler: 'I believe that defeat, although tragic and regrettable, is inevitable' and urged him to accept the premise of defeat.

Ignoring this plea, Emperor Showa made a tragic mistake. Had he agreed then to a ceasefire, Tokyo would have been spared the air raid of March 10, 1945, when incendiary bombs leveled much of the capital, killing 100,000 people. The U.S. invasion of Okinawa which cost about 260,000 Japanese lives and 50,000 American casualties, would have been avoided. Atomic bombs would not have obliterated Hiroshima and Nagasaki, sparing another 200,000 lives. (The Japan Times Weekly, September 24-30, 1990.)

So that Emperor Hirohito must be held responsible for the deaths of 3 million Japanese, 35 million Chinese, 109,656 Americans, and many million Asian, his guilt was apparently greater than that of Hitler. How can one imagine that this No. One war criminal Kirohito was not brought to justice, as he was allowed to live a full life; when he died in 1989, he was buried with the most pompous funeral of the century. This alone showed the grave failure of the Tokyo Trial and that the sacrifices of Chinese, Japanese, Americans, and Asians were nearly in vain; for this, their souls cannot rest in peace!

All Killers of "Human Experimentation" At Large. Another colossal mistake the Tokyo Trial made was that the U.S. government and Supreme Commander MacArthur struck a deal with Lt. Gen. Ishii Shiro, former commander of Japanese biological warfare Unit 73 1, that he and all members of Unit 731 were to be exonerated from war crimes in exchange for data they had acquired through human experimentation of many thousands of Chinese, Koreans, Soviets, and even U.S. POWs. Without a shadow of doubt, Ishii's crimes had far exceeded those committed by the infamous Nazi doctor Josef Mengele for conducting human experiments, while Unit 731 had murdered the people many times the number of Jews, Gypsies, Polish, and Russians killed by the Nazi doctors!

Before the "Doctors' Trial" at Nuremberg formally began on December 9, 1946, there were 31 secondary war criminals for having conducted human experimentation that were tried at Buchwald, Germany, where many kinds of human experiments took place, and 22 of them were sentenced to death. The "Doctors' Trial" had convicted 16 out of 23 war criminals originally indicted: death sentences to 7 people including Hitler's personal doctor Karl Brandt; 5 life imprisonment; 2 twenty years term-n imprisonment; I twenty and ten years' term each.

Importantly, the I 0-article Nuremberg Code adopted by the "Doctors' Trial has been taken in total by the United Nations and Western countries. Its first article reads: "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential"; article 4: "The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury"; article 9: "During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible." Hence members of Unit 731 violated not only the Nuremberg code but also the 1925 Geneva Convention which outlaws the use of chemical and biological warfares and of which Japan is a signatory country.

Hundreds of doctors of the former Unit 731 are still practicing or living in retirement in Japan today. We earnestly hope that in their lifetime they could come to terms with the horrendous atrocities they had continued by pleading for forgiveness and making apology to their victims and their bereaved families as well as preparing to pay them fair monetary compensations. In so doing, not only can their souls be saved; in the meantime, they make the least contributions to their posterity and human society, while preserving history and maintaining truth and justice. Otherwise, their victims and families, basing on international laws and resolutions of the United Nations and backed up by millions of Chinese, Asians, and peace-loving people of the world, would take their case to the Japanese and international courts so as to attest that law and morality does exist in the human world.

TOPICS: Heated Discussion
KEYWORDS: atrocities; bumplist; japan; manchuria; manchurianborder; unit731; warcrimes; ww2
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To: bitt

Thanks for the ping!

51 posted on 11/14/2005 6:27:04 AM PST by Alamo-Girl
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To: DollyCali; bitt; Calpernia; Prime Choice; Enterprise
Thanks Calpernia.

Old news to us, but absolutely new to the younger citizens of today's Japan. I have worked in three Japanese companies by now, and I can personally attest that:

WWII is simply never mentioned

Japan's role in atrocities is not even on their mental radar

WWII is allotted as little as three pages in Japanese school texts, and is portrayed as a war of liberation waged by Japan against European colonial powers.

When the "Rape of Nanking" was published, I read it and passed the book along to a friendly Japanese colleague. He is now an ex-friendly colleague and his anger was unbelievable. Livid, he screamed (and I ain't kiddin' about the 'screamed' part) that it was a damned Chinese lie!

As far as Hiroshima and Nagasaki are concerned, they very much wish to be portrayed as innocent victims of this horrible nuclear attack. By now, however, very thorough research has shown that by ending the war, we saved several million Japanese lives, not to mention hundreds of thousands of Americans.

After the war, we generated the myth that the Sacred Empreror was not involved in all this, and in general, treated the Japanese far less harshly than the Germans.

BTW, another subject: had the Germans and the Japanese even minimally coordinated their efforts against the Soviet Union, it might well have been a different history that we read today!

52 posted on 11/14/2005 6:37:51 AM PST by Kenny Bunk (Valerie Plame was about as much of a Secret Agent as Aunt Jemima.)
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To: Kenny Bunk
BTTT for all that you and others have contributed here. We can neither forget nor excuse these atrocities. The moment we do, we condemn our required response to rid the world of the monsters who carried them out.

The destruction of evil and defense of liberty is never something for which we should apologize.

53 posted on 11/14/2005 6:44:38 AM PST by Prime Choice (Never excuse treason as "dissent.")
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To: Kenny Bunk

Old news to us, but absolutely new to the younger citizens of today's Japan. I have worked in three Japanese companies by now, and I can personally attest that:

WWII is simply never mentioned

Japan's role in atrocities is not even on their mental radar

It is not 'old news to us'. We were taught in school that Japan bombed us to make us get into the war. I never knew about any of this.

I started this thread for a reason and I am hoping I'm wrong. But there is info here now I want to see if connects to what started me on this crazy thought. Even if I'm wrong, no big deal. I definitely learned something.

JimRob should bill our property taxes for supplementing history the public school system lacked in.

54 posted on 11/14/2005 7:52:20 AM PST by Calpernia (
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>>>>The key figures in Unit 731 became rather successful after the war. A number held senior university posts in the field of medicine. One headed up a leading Japanese pharmaceutical company while others gained positions such as President of the Japan Medical Association or Vice President if the Green Cross Corporation.<<<<

Green Cross Corporation
(株式会社ミドリ十字; Kabushiki Gaisha Midori Jūji) was one of the premire pharmaceutical companies in Japan. The company merged into Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
(吉富製薬株式会社) on April 1, 1998, and renamed to Welfide Corporation (ウェルファイド株式会社) on April 1, 2000. Finally Welfide Corp. and Mitsubishi-Tokyo Pharmaceutical Inc.
(三菱東京製薬株式会社) were mereged to form Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation (三菱ウェルファーマ株式会社) on October 1, 2001.

Green Cross was founded in 1950 as Japan's first commercial blood bank and became a diversified international pharmaceutical company producing ethical drugs for delivery or administration by doctors and healthcare workers. It included war criminals such as Kitano Masaji who performed human experimentation in Unit 731 of the Japanese military during World War II.

Its products were extensively used in the treatments of a wide range of ailments. As well as supplying whole blood for transfusions, Green Cross was also active in developing blood derivative products such as coagulation factors, immunoglobulin and albumin. In the mid 1960's, it expanded into the non-plasma sector. Cardiovascular agents, coagulation/fibrinolytic agents, immunological agents, anti-inflammatory agents, albumin-based agents, blood plasma components and parenteral nutrition accounted for 71% of fiscal 1998 unconsolidated revenues; wholesale of diagnostic reagents, 14% and other, 15%. Unconsolidated revenues accounted for 59.5% of fiscal 1998 consolidated revenues. The company had eleven consolidated subsidiaries, three each in the United States and Japan, and one each in Germany, the United Kingdom, Barbados, China and Hong Kong. Overseas sales accounted for 41.9% of fiscal 1998 consolidated revenues.


HIV-tainted blood scandal (Japan)

Japan's HIV-tainted blood scandal, known in Japanese as 薬害エイズ事件 (yakugai eizu jiken) refers between one and two thousand cases in the 1980s in which Japanese patients with haemophilia contracted HIV via tainted blood products. Controversy centers on the continued use of non-heat-treated blood products after the development of heat-treatments that prevent the spread of infection.

Early years

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, is a communicable disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV. AIDS is currently considered incurable. The first reported cases of AIDS occurred in Los Angeles is 1981. See full article at AIDS.

It was not until 1985 that the first cases of AIDS were officially reported in Japan. As early as 1983, however, Japan's Ministry of Health and Welfare was notified by Baxter Travenol Laboratries (BTL) that it was manufacturing a new blood product, licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which was heat-treated to kill the HIV virus. BTL was interested in licensing this new product in Japan. Japan's own Green Cross Corporation, the main Japanese provider of blood products protested that this would constitute unfair competition, as it was "not prepared to make heat-treated agents itself" [Leflar]. The Ministry of Health responded by ordering screening of untreated blood products, clinical trials of heat-treatments, and a campaign to increase domestic blood donations. Green Cross meanwhile distributed letters of "safety assurance of unheated blood roducts" to patients, many of whom suffered from haemophilia [Miyamoto].

"AIDS Year One"

On January 17, 1987, Japan's AIDS Surveillance Committee reported that "for the first time" a Japanese woman had contracted AIDS. Described as a "habitual prostitute," the woman had reportedly had sexual intercourse with "a hundred men," including "non-Japanese," and had lived in Kobe with a "non-Japanese" sailor from whom the Committee concluded she had contracted HIV. On January 18, Shiokawa Yuichi, chair of the government comission in charge of AIDS policy, announced that the disease was now a threat to "ordinary people living ordinary lives." He proclaimed 1987 Japan's "AIDS Year One" [Treat].

Kobe exploded in panic. Thousands of people went in for testing and visited health centres, and "armies of reporters" tracked the woman down like a "criminal," publishing her photograph, real name, and address in newspapers. Much later it was admitted, after the woman's family filed a lawsuit, that she had never been a prostitute [Ikeda].

AIDS was seen as a foreign disease; some began to refer to it as a kurobune, literally a "black ship," a reference to the American invasion by Commodore Perry in 1853. "No Foreigners Allowed" signs began to appear at businesses throughout Japan; Japanese people were warned not to have sex with foreigners and to be wary of those who had. A government-produced pamphlet showed an image of the Statue of Liberty holding a book on AIDS and towering over a trembling Mount Fuji. Hospitals began advertising that they had no HIV-positive patients, and the Diet introduced a bill to ban HIV-positive foreigners from entering Japan. [Treat].

The tainted blood scandal exposed

In May and October of 1989, HIV-infected haemophiliacs in Osaka and Tokyo filed lawsuits against the Ministry of Health and Welfare and five Japanese drug companies. In 1994 two charges of attempted murder were filed against Dr. Abe Takeshi, who had headed the Health Ministry's AIDS research team in 1983; he was found not guilty in 2005. Abe resigned as vice-president of Teikyo University.

In January of 1996, Kan Naoto was appointed Health Minister. He assembled a team to investigate the scandal, and within a month nine files of documents related to the scandal were uncovered, despite the Ministry of Health's claims that no such documents existed. As Minster, Kan promptly admitted the Ministry's legal responsibility and formally apologised to the plaintiffs.

The reports uncovered by Kan's team revealed that, after the report about the possibility of contamination, untreated blood products were recalled by the Japanese importer. However, when the importer tried to present a report to the Ministry of Health, it was told that such a report was unnecessary. The Ministry claimed that there was a "lack of evidence pointing to links between infection with HIV and the use of unheated blood products." According to one official, "we could not make public a fact that could fan anxieties among patients" [J.E.N].

According to the files, the Ministry of Health had recommended, in 1983, that the import of untreated blood and blood products be banned, and that emergency imports of heat-treated products be allowed. A week later, however, this recommendation was withdrawn because it would "deal a blow" to Japan's marketers of untreated blood products [Updike].

In 1983 Japan imported 3.14 million litres of blood plasma from the US to produce its own blood products, as well as 46 million units of prepared blood products. These imported blood products were said to pose no risk of HIV infection, and were used in Japan until 1986. Heat-treated products had been on sale since 1985, but there was neither a recall of remaining products nor a warning about the risks of using untreated products. As a result, untreated blood preparations stored at hospitals and in patients' home refrigerators were used up; there have been cases reported in which individuals were diagnosed with haemophilia for the first time between 1985 and 1986, began treatment, and were subsequently infected with HIV, even though it was known that HIV could be transmitted in untreated blood preparations, and treated products had become available and were in use at that time.

As early as 1984, several Japanese haemophiliacs were discovered to have been infected with HIV through the use of untreated blood preparations; this fact was concealed from the public. The patients themselves continued to receive "intentional propaganda" which downplayed the risks of contracting HIV from blood products, assured their safety, and promoted their use. Of some 4500 haemophiliacs in Japan, an estimated 2000 contracted HIV in the 1980s from untreated blood preparations [J.E.N].


Matsushita Renzo, former head of the Ministry of Health and Welfare's Pharmaceutical Affairs Bureau, and two of his colleagues, were found guilty of professional negligence resulting in death. Matsushita was sentenced to two years in jail. A murder charge was also brought against him. Matsushita, who after retirement became president of Green Cross, is one of at least nine former Ministry of Health bureaucrats who have retired to executive positions in Japan's blood industry since the 1980s

55 posted on 11/14/2005 9:05:02 AM PST by Calpernia (
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HIV group defends SARS patients' rights

A group of people with HIV urged the government Wednesday to protect the rights of patients diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

The group, members of which contracted the AIDS virus in the 1980s from tainted blood products,, said it is concerned that public fears over SARS, which is spreading worldwide but has yet to be confirmed in Japan, will spark discrimination against sufferers.

The hemophiliacs, the next of kin of patients who have died and their supporters made a written request to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry on the matter.

They said they have suffered not only HIV/AIDS from the contaminated blood products but also social prejudice and discrimination.

They urged the ministry to ensure that local governments and medical institutions respect the rights of SARS patients and be prepared to accept them or offer advice, according to the request.

They also called for a careful examination of the seriousness and infectious power of the disease now that the ministry has newly designated SARS as an infectious disease for the first time under a law authorizing it to forcibly hospitalize patients.

The victims contracted HIV mainly from the now-defunct Green Cross Corp. blood products and, in a series of cases since 1989, sued the government over its failure to prevent the disaster.

Japan visit postponed

SHIZUOKA (Kyodo) The mayor of Zhuhai in China's Guangdong Province has postponed his visit to Japan due to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome in the region, officials said Wednesday.

Mayor Wang Shunsheng and his entourage had been slated to arrive in Japan on Monday to participate in a cultural exchange with the city of Atami, Shizuoka Prefecture. They informed Atami on Friday they wanted to postpone the trip, the officials said.

Wang and his group were to visit Atami on Thursday after making a tour of businesses in Tokyo.

The group had planned sightseeing trips, including to Kyoto, before returning home Monday.

Last week, the World Health Organization issued a rare advisory urging travelers to avoid Guangdong and Hong Kong due to the SARS epidemic.

The Japan Times: April 10, 2003

>>>>The victims contracted HIV mainly from the now-defunct Green Cross Corp.

See post 55 for Green Cross Corp's latest business name.

56 posted on 11/14/2005 9:49:35 AM PST by Calpernia (
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The New York Times May 8, 1997 4 Drug Companies Ordered to Pay Hemophiliacs

Four drug manufacturers whose blood products were said to have infected thousands of hemophiliacs with the virus that causes AIDS in the early 1980's will pay about $670 million in a settlement approved by a Federal judge.

Six thousand hemophiliacs were each to receive $100,000. In an earlier settlement in Japan, AIDS-infected hemophiliacs were paid $450,000 each. The office of Federal District Judge John Grady confirmed today that he had granted oral formal approval to the settlement on Tuesday. The settlement had won preliminary court approval in April 1996.

The settlement was ''one of the most horrible scenarios that can be imagined,'' said Ron Niederman, a spokesman for the Committee of 10 Thousand, which represents the hemophiliacs. ''In light of the damage they caused, the companies are getting off cheap.''

The companies, which admitted no wrongdoing but agreed to settle, were Bayer A.G. of Germany, the Green Cross Corporation of Japan, Rhone-Poulenc Rorer Inc., a French and American company and Baxter International Inc. of Deerfield, Ill.

Guy Esnouf, a Rhone-Poulenc spokesman, said that combined the companies would pay a total of up to about $670 million, of which about $600 million would go to individual hemophiliacs.

To resolve insurance complications and insure that the hemophiliacs will be able to keep their money, the companies will pay $12 million to the Federal Government and $18 million to 25 state governments and private insurers, he said. In addition, the companies face up to $40 million in legal fees, Mr. Esnouf said.

Bayer will shoulder 45 percent of the total cost, Baxter and Rhone-Poulenc 20 percent each and Green Cross 15 percent.

The settlement does not entirely end the decade-old controversy stemming from the infection of 6,000 to 8,000 United States hemophiliacs by contaminated Factor VIII and Factor IX blood clotting agents. About 550 hemophiliacs opted out of the class-action settlement and might pursue litigation against the companies on their own, Mr. Niederman said. He was among those opting out and planned to press his case ''to the bitter end.''

Also, the companies were still in discussions with 25 other states and the Prudential Insurance Company of America over settling remaining insurance matters, Mr. Esnouf said.


The New York Times
February 25, 1997
Japan Blood Supplier, Facing H.I.V. Penalty, to Be Acquired

The Green Cross Corporation, a troubled Japanese company at the center of a big H.I.V.-tainted blood scandal, will be acquired by another pharmaceutical company, and its name will cease to exist, the companies said today.

The buyer, Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., will exchange six-tenths of a share of its stock for each share of Green Cross in a deal worth 110 billion yen, or about $900 million.

While the two companies said the combination was aimed at giving them the size needed to compete more effectively, some analysts termed it a rescue of Green Cross that might have been engineered by the Japanese Government. Green Cross, based in Osaka, denied Government involvement.

The largest manufacturer of blood products in this country, Green Cross is facing estimated payments of 24 billion yen, or $195 million, as its share of a settlement with hemophiliacs who had become infected with H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS, from contaminated blood-clotting products. The companies said today that payments to the hemophiliacs would continue to be made.

About 1,800 hemophiliacs in Japan were infected with H.I.V. and more than 400 have died. In their lawsuits, the hemophiliacs said that the Health and Welfare Ministry had permitted Green Cross and four other drug companies to continue to sell unsterilized blood-clotting products well after heat-treating technology that kills viruses had become available.

Hospitals have been boycotting Green Cross products. And three former company presidents await trial on criminal charges of professional negligence resulting in death.

Yoshitomi, also based in Osaka, is a midsize drug company specializing in tranquilizers. It had sales last year of 101.6 billion yen, or $828 million. Roughly one-fifth of Yoshitomi is owned by Takeda Chemical Industries, a leading Japan drug concern.

Green Cross was started as a private blood bank in 1950. One of its founders, Ryoichi Naito, had been an officer in the notorious Unit 731 of the Imperial Army, which conducted germ-warfare experiments on civilians and prisoners in China during World War II.

Green Cross's American subsidiary, the Alpha Therapeutic Corporation, is one of four companies that recently agreed to settle a lawsuit brought by 600 H.I.V.-infected hemophiliacs in the United States.

Green Cross has long employed many retiring health ministry officials. Hemophiliacs contended that the ministry delayed approval of heat-treated blood products to allow Green Cross time to catch up to foreign rivals.

57 posted on 11/14/2005 10:02:18 AM PST by Calpernia (
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The secret history of anthrax
Declassified documents show widespread experimentation in '40s
Editor's note: This is Part 1 of a two-part report on the history of the deadly bacterium anthrax. Part 2 will detail the usage and production of anthrax since World War II.

By H.P. Albarelli Jr.
© 2001

The rash of anthrax attacks in the U.S. following the World Trade Center tragedy has spurred widespread interest and concern about what many believe to be a formerly obscure disease. The history of anthrax as a biological weapon, however, reveals a story quite opposite of public consensus.

The first allegations of the use of anthrax as a weapon were made against Germany during World War I. German agents stand accused of infecting cattle and horses with the disease in Bucharest in 1916 and in France in 1917. According to a top-secret 1943 report written by George W. Merck, pharmaceutical magnate and biological-warfare adviser to President Roosevelt, the U.S. possessed "incontrovertible evidence" that "as early as 1915" German agents in New York City's harbor "inoculated horses and cattle with disease-producing bacteria."

Dr. W. Seth Carus, an expert on bioterrorism and special adviser to the Department of Defense, writes in an April 2000 working paper that in 1915 German agents carrying bottles filled with liquefied anthrax infiltrated the horse pens in Manhattan's Van Courtland Park with the objective of injecting the animals there with crude cork-topped needles.

Other declassified U.S. military intelligence documents reveal that in 1916 a covertly placed Prussian medical officer, Dr. Anton Dilger, cultivated anthrax spores in a surreptitious laboratory in Chevy Chase, Md., for use against draft animals in Baltimore's port. Also, that same year in Argentina, German undercover operatives combed out across several ports, infecting European-bound horses and cattle with sugar cubes laced with anthrax.

British intelligence documents and cable intercepts from 1916-1918 reveal that the Germans infected nearly 5,000 mules and horses employed in Mesopotamia and that agents in August 1916 sent anthrax to Romania to infect sheep being transported to Russia. British documents also reveal that German agent Baron Otto Karl Von Rosen was apprehended attempting to infect draft reindeer in Norway with a vial filled with anthrax.

Dr. Theodor Rosebury, a former U.S. Army microbiologist, claimed in his 1949 book, "Peace or Pestilence," that German agents operating out of Switzerland during World War I attempted "with possibly some level of success" to spread anthrax and cholera among the "human populations of surrounding countries." Apart from Rosebury's sketchy and unverifiable account, there is no known evidence that any country seriously contemplated employing anthrax against human targets during World War I.

This was most likely because of the devastating effectiveness of the poison gases that were widely deployed during the war by both sides and a global mindset that the use of germ warfare against humans was unthinkable. But that changed decidedly in the mid-1930s.

After noting that the Geneva Protocol of 1925 prohibited "the use of bacteriological methods of warfare," a young Japanese army officer and bacteriologist, Dr. Shiro Ishii, nonetheless convinced his superiors in 1935 that he be allowed to research the many potentialities of germ warfare. By 1937, the ambitious Ishii had established a vast germ warfare complex in Pingfan, a small village outside the Manchurian city of Harbin. The complex, innocuously dubbed Unit 731, was composed of over 150 buildings and nearly 3,500 researchers and employees.

Ishii's scientists concentrated their studies on anthrax, as well as typhus, plague, cholera, botulism, smallpox, tularemia and encephalitis. Bacteria were grown in massive amounts in huge aluminum tanks scattered throughout the site. It is estimated that by 1940, Unit 731 manufactured over five tons of anthrax for placement into bombshell casings.

Ishii's mammoth complex nearly doubled in size and personnel after Japanese forces claimed that Russian agents attacked Japanese soldiers in China with anthrax and cholera, killing nearly 6,000 troops and 2,000 horses.

Unit 731 began conducting tests around the clock with anthrax. Several types of steel-walled anthrax bombs were developed and tested extensively. In 1938, Ishii himself designed a prototype porcelain anthrax bomb that shattered upon impact, scattering millions of deadly spores into the air.

To give Japanese agents the ability to target individuals in close-in and covert contacts, Ishii's scientists developed anthrax-infected chocolates and chewing gum, as well as fountain pens, hatpins and umbrellas tipped with the deadly disease.

In addition to anthrax-filled artillery shells, Unit 731 experimented extensively with hot-air balloons filled with the deadly disease.

Declassified documents from Fort Detrick, a military research facility in Frederick, Md., (the installation's name was changed from Camp Detrick after the war) partially portray a frightening scenario that might have been had World War II gone on much longer.

Beginning in late 1944, areobiologists at Camp Detrick were placed on high alert after several reports were received from western states that large balloons, some up to 150 feet around, had been sighted silently floating over populated areas.

Somewhat skeptical at first, Camp Detrick scientists quickly realized that something serious was amiss after three balloons fell to earth in California, Montana and Washington state. All were composed of a unique lightweight silky material and bore distinctive Japanese markings.

By March 1945, over 250 balloons had been discovered in nine western states, including Hawaii, and in western Canada. The few declassified documents released by the Army on the balloons reveal nothing about their contents but do note that each was armed with an incendiary device. A top secret Chemical Corps report written in 1947 by Rexmond C. Cochrane states that one balloon that fell in Montana killed a woman, that another in Oregon "killed six men in a hunting party," and that in May 1945, "five women and children in Georgia were killed while tampering with a charge fixed to one of the grounded balloons."

A massive research program like Ishii's obviously required numerous experimental subjects or guinea pigs, and there is overwhelming and chilling evidence that Ishii's unit much preferred human subjects to animals. British investigative journalists Peter Williams and David Wallace recount in their book, "Unit 731," that Ishii deliberately located his complex "in remote northern Manchuria so he could experiment on human beings." Ishii's human experiments with anthrax were especially horrendous.

According to declassified Army documents written after the war, Unit 731 human subjects, many of whom came from the Mukden POW camp and included women and children, "were tied to stakes and protected with helmets and body armor" but "their legs and buttocks were bared and exposed to shrapnel from anthrax bombs exploded yards away." Wounded thusly, the subjects were untreated but studied closely so as to ascertain how quickly they would die. Documents reveal that none lived longer than a week.

Other human subjects were surreptitiously fed food laced with anthrax and other bacteria and then monitored to measure the arrival of death. Some subjects were forced to drink liquids contaminated with anthrax and typhoid germs.

According to congressional hearings held in Washington, D. C., in September 1986, former American POWs were among Ishii's experimental subjects.

Said Montana Congressman Pat Williams at the start of the hearings: "These men are victims of a terrible secret, born 44 years ago deep in Manchuria in Japanese POW camps. This perhaps has been the longest kept secret of World War II, long denied by Japan and long concealed by the U.S. government."

The hearings produced a litany of horror stories told by former American POWs. These survivors of Japanese atrocities maintained that after they were set free at the end of the war they were sent home under strict orders "not to talk about their experiences."

Following the hearings, an Army spokesman stated that the U.S. had no "documentary evidence to corroborate the allegations" of the former POWs, because all records related to Ishii's activities had been returned to the Japanese government in the late 1950s, and no copies had been retained.

Amidst the fury of the early months of World War II, the U.S., Britain, Canada and Russia all secretly initiated sophisticated biological warfare programs in response to frequently exaggerated intelligence reports that they were being outpaced in their research by Nazi scientists. Ironically, Army documents released in the 1980s reveal that the U.S. intelligence community had gleaned precious little about the grotesque activities of Ishii's Unit 731 until near the end of the war.

That Nazi Germany never seriously embarked down the germ warfare trail has perplexed many historians and journalists. Perhaps one of the primary reasons for this was that Hitler, who had been the victim of a near fatal gas attack in World War I, found the subjects of biological and gas warfare to be abhorrent.

This is not to maintain that the Nazis conducted no biological warfare studies. They did, and as might be expected, many of these experiments conducted under the auspices of the esoteric-leaning Ahnenerbe Institute were performed on concentration camp prisoners. Most of these crude experiments were conducted at the Dachau and Ravensbrueck camps and were overseen by Dr. Walter P. Schreiber, a major general in the Nazi army. Schreiber, according to declassified Army intelligence documents and Nuremberg Tribunal testimony, was considered one of Germany's experts on anthrax. Eminent historian and former investigative reporter Linda Hunt reveals that Schreiber's litany of horrors included experiments in which camp prisoners were injected "with phenol to see how long it took them to die."

In July 1998, London's Daily Telegraph reported that in June 1944 Britain's Special Operations Executive hatched a plot to assassinate Hitler by sending a lone agent into Germany "to impregnate [Hitler's] clothing with anthrax." According to the article, the plot was never carried forward because of concerns that "successful liquidation" would turn Hitler into an unintended martyr. The article quoted one British officer who argued against the plot as saying, "It would almost certainly canonize [Hitler] and give birth to the myth that Germany would have been saved if he had lived."

British and Canadian researchers were especially aggressive in their pursuit of anthrax as a weapon of mass destruction. In the summer of 1942, after conducting anthrax experiments at their germ warfare center at Porton Down, England, the British initiated a series of large anthrax-bomb tests on Gruinard, an uninhabited island off the coast of Scotland. The first bomb exploded, infecting and killing about 30 test sheep in less than a week's time. Subsequent tests killed larger numbers of livestock. Camp Detrick liaison officer to Porton Down, William Sarles, witnessed the Gruinard Island tests.

As might have been expected, spores eventually made their way to the Scottish mainland, causing an outbreak of anthrax. As a result of the Gruinard tests, the island was so badly contaminated that it has been completely sealed off to visitors. Over the years, there have been reports that the remaining animals of the island display prominent manifestations of genetic change.

Declassified Porton Down documents reveal that the British, as early as 1941, began a battery of anthrax experiments involving spraying anthrax spores from aircraft. By early 1942, the British had also launched a series of experiments at Porton Down that involved the aerial dispersal of anthrax over herds of sheep and cattle. These same experiments led to the production of what British researchers called "cattle cakes." These were thick, compressed whey wafers dipped into anthrax and foot-and-mouth cultures. The Canadians were only slightly behind the British with their own anthrax tests conducted on a desolate prairie called Suffield near Calgary and Medicine Hat. Few details about these tests have ever been publicly released.

Encouragement for anthrax research in Britain came from the highest levels. Winston Churchill's closest scientific adviser, Lord Cherwell, informed the prime minister in early 1944 that because of the "appalling potentiality" of anthrax, Britain had no choice but to develop bombs filled with the disease. In response, Churchill ordered his military leaders to request 500,000 anthrax bombs from the United States.

Since 1942, the U.S. Army had been conducting an ongoing series of secret experiments with anthrax, often in cooperation with biological warfare scientists with the Canadian military. The Canadians were producing anthrax spores at the rate of about 150 pounds per month at a secluded location on Grosse Ile, a St. Lawrence seaway island near Quebec. Before its conversion to the bacteriological cause, the island had served as a quarantine station for immigrants wishing to enter Canada.

Grosse Isle anthrax production was slow and problematic, provoking U.S. officials to decide to produce their own anthrax spores at a multi-million dollar production facility built near Vigo, Ind., south of Terre Haute. Originally designed in 1942 by the Army as a conventional munitions plant, the newly equipped plant held 12 20,000-gallon tanks that within less than one-month's time could produce enough anthrax for 500,000 bombs. In June 1944, following the British request for a half-million bombs, the U.S. decided to produce one million anthrax bombs, half of which would be stockpiled in the U.S. for possible use.

Ed Regis, in his book "The Biology of Doom," says the shell casings for the Vigo anthrax bombs were to be "manufactured by the Electromaster Corporation, a commercial bomb maker in Detroit, Mich." and that "high explosives would be made by the Unexcelled Manufacturing Company of Cranbury, N.J."

Prior to development of the Vigo plant, the U.S. produced anthrax spores in large quantities – some say well over two tons – at Camp Detrick. Weapons research of the disease began in early 1943 after Dr. Ira Baldwin of the University of Wisconsin was hired to direct research at the just-opened Frederick installation. Baldwin was less than enthusiastic about anthrax as a weapon, as were many of his handpicked scientists. Most notably siding with Baldwin was Dr. William A. Hagen, a member of the National Research Council's Biological Warfare Committee, the group that paved the way for the creation of Camp Detrick. Hagan, affiliated with Cornell's New York Veterinary College, believed that exploitation of anthrax was too risky because the disease thrives long after use in the ground and elsewhere and is highly resistant to environmental changes.

Initially, Baldwin left the vast majority of anthrax research to Lord Trevor Stamp, a British bacteriologist who was married to an American. Stamp, who had worked at Porton Down, set up his laboratory in an area that was nicknamed "Old McDonald's farm" by a number of his colleagues. Former Camp Detrick researchers who knew Stamp report that he was often at odds with Baldwin over anthrax research, but that he "generally won out on most clashes" because he had friends in high places. Not the least of these friends was Stanley Lovell, director of the OSS Research and Development program, Merck, the essential godfather of the U.S. biological warfare program, and several high-ranking U.S. Army Chemical Corps officers who deeply resented civilian Baldwin's placement as director of Camp Detrick.

By early 1944, largely due to Lord Stamp's skillful advocacy and work, Camp Detrick engaged a full-blown anthrax weapons development program that rapidly resulted in the cultivation of large amounts of anthrax spores within the confines of the Maryland facility. Additionally, the program produced several hundred prototype anthrax cluster bombs. Expansion of the program into the Vigo operation was viewed at the time as an essential step in keeping pace with the military's wartime objectives.

Fort Detrick officials maintain that the Vigo plant was "never used to produce pathogenic agents" and that it was abandoned at the end of the war and leased to a large pharmaceutical company for private use. There has never been an official public accounting for the millions of anthrax spores and hundreds of anthrax bombs that were produced by Camp Detrick scientists prior to the re-equipping of the Vigo plant.

H.P. Albarelli Jr. is an investigative journalist who lives in Florida. His articles on the mysterious death of Frank Olson and West Nile virus also appear on WorldNetDaily.

Feds' involvement in anthrax experiments
Records show conflicting reports about bacterium's use as weapon
Editor's note: This is Part 2 of a two-part report on the history of the deadly bacterium anthrax. Part 1 covers the experimentation and usage of anthrax up to and during World War II. This installment investigates the history of the United States government's involvement with the bacterium since the end of the war.

By H.P. Albarelli Jr.
© 2001

Following the end of World War II, the United States made a determined decision – in response to the steady flow of Cold War intelligence asserting that the Russians were aggressively developing an offensive biological weapons program – to increase America's biological warfare capacity rather than curtail it.

A declassified 1975 Pentagon report states that "to understand and evaluate" the decision that resulted in the "subsequent proliferation" of biological research in the U.S., "it is necessary to first examine the threat to the free world as it was perceived at that time." Continues the report, "Of particular importance in this effort was the intensified struggle between the free world and communists and the generally accepted thesis that supremacy must be maintained in all matters which involved the communist bloc."

In a number of sections, the Pentagon report cited a January 1945 top-secret Joint Intelligence Committee study that identified several Soviet biological research stations. Chief among these was Vozrozhdeniya Island in the Sea of Aral and Gorodomyla Island in Lake Seliger. Both locations were used extensively for anthrax weaponry development.

In the final months of World War II, the United States raced the Soviets to capture any and all documents pertaining to Nazi and Japanese biological research. This effort was preceded by what has been described as "a murderous intelligence operation" launched in 1943 to capture key German scientific personnel.

Formally dubbed the Alsos Mission, the operation was conceived by Dr. Vannevar Bush, director of the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development, Maj. Gen. George V. Strong, chief of Army intelligence, and Maj. Gen. Leslie R. Groves, head of the U.S. atomic project at Los Alamos. Lt. Col. Boris T. Pash was chosen by Groves to head the mission. Pash would go on to direct Program Branch 7, a top-secret Army assassination unit, and then become a member of the CIA's ironically titled Health Alteration Committee, which vigorously explored assassination techniques using anthrax-tipped and other biological weapons.

The Alsos Mission at its start focused on finding Nazi nuclear scientists but was expanded near the war's end to include the capture of Germany's top biological researchers. Alsos agents were especially interested in finding Nazi anthrax expert and SS major general, Dr. Walter P. Schreiber (see Part 1 of this article), but in 1945 Soviet troops captured Schreiber first.

In 1948, Schreiber inexplicably turned up in West Berlin claiming that he had escaped. Remarkably, despite his being wanted for war crimes and strong suspicions that he was acting as a double agent for the Russians, Schreiber was hired to work with the U.S. Army's Counter Intelligence Corps. Linda Hunt reveals in her book, "Secret Agenda," that Schreiber was employed at Camp King, a large POW interrogation center in Oberusal, Germany.

In the first quarter of 1951, a team of three scientists from Fort Detrick, a military research facility in Frederick, Md., who were attached to the CIA-funded Special Operations Division traveled to Germany to interview Schreiber. The team, which included Dr. Frank R. Olson, then Special Operations Division branch chief for planning and intelligence activities, was charged with learning all that it could about a Nazi SS project that employed "psychochemical drugs" during concentration camp interrogation experiments.

Schreiber and SS Col. Wolfram Sievers, director of the Ahnenerbe's Institute for Scientific Research, oversaw the project, which was conducted from 1942 to November 1943. Seivers was hung in 1948 after being tried at Nuremberg.

On Oct. 7, 1951, the New York Times reported that Schreiber was in Texas working for the U.S. Air Force. The article made no mention of Schreiber being a war criminal. Former Nuremberg prosecutors and several Jewish groups were outraged to learn of Schreiber's presence in the U.S. and complained to the White House. Nothing happened, and in February 1952 the New York Times reported that pressure to take action against Schreiber was mounting due to his performing "medical experiments on unwilling concentration camp victims."

After his employment contract with the Army and Air Force expired, the CIA blocked plans to send Schreiber back to Germany and in May 1952 helped arrange his relocation to Buenos Aires where he was employed as an expert on "disease and epidemics" by the Argentine government. Some former Fort Detrick researchers who declined to be identified maintained that Schreiber, on at least two occasions, lectured at the Frederick, Md., facility. Others maintain that Schreiber was relocated to Argentina so he could help facilitate the flow to the United States of other fugitive Nazi scientists hiding there.

In the Pacific

After the Allied victory over Japan, U.S. Army and intelligence agents also moved swiftly to capture Japan's Unit 731 anthrax-bomb technology and other research. The initial job fell to Col. Murray Sanders, a Camp Detrick (its name during the war) bacteriologist. Earlier, Sanders had been part of Camp Detrick's investigation team into the Japanese balloon incidents. Sanders had sounded the first alarm about the mysterious balloons flying over the U.S. possibly being armed with anthrax.

Decades later, in an interview, Sanders said, "Anthrax is a tough bug. It's sturdy. It's cheap to produce, and [the Japanese had] used it in China." In a 1985 interview with the Miami Herald, Sanders revealed that he was "duped" by the Japanese during his nine-week investigation of Unit 731 and that had he known about torturous experiments on innocent human beings conducted by bacteriologist Dr. Shiro Ishii, "I would have been very happy to be part of the firing squad."

Unable to interview Ishii because the scientist was in hiding in Japan's mountains, Sanders spent two weeks in Japan questioning Dr. Ryoichi Naito, a high-ranking Unit 731 bacteriologist who oversaw many of Ishii's horrific anthrax experiments. At the time, Sanders was unaware that in 1939, Naito had visited New York's Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in an attempt to obtain samples of lethal viruses. Refused, Naito unsuccessfully attempted to bribe employees of the Institute only to be again turned away.

When Sanders arrived back at Camp Detrick he discovered that he had contracted a severe case of tuberculosis, and he was bedridden for months. He told his replacement on the investigation, Lt. Col. Arvo T. Thompson, executive assistant to Dr. Ira Baldwin and George Merck, that he "strongly suspected" that the Japanese had conducted extensive human experiments but had been unable to obtain any definitive evidence.

Thompson, along with friends and colleagues, Olson and John Schwab, had been among the very first recruits to Camp Detrick. All three men had been initially headquartered at Maryland's Edgewood Arsenal while assisting Baldwin, Camp Detrick's first research director, in finding a suitable location for the nation's first biological warfare center. During the war, all three dealt extensively with the development of anthrax weapons. Schwab helped oversee the development of the Vigo anthrax plant in Indiana. Thompson directed anthrax experiments at Horn Island Testing Station in Pascagoula, Miss. Olson, during 1943 and 1944, oversaw aerobiology research concentrating intensively on anthrax.

Thompson, called "Tommy" by his friends, was given orders to aggressively follow up Sanders' work with the central objective of keeping all that he learned away from the Russians.

In Japan, Thompson interviewed Ishii, who had been captured by the U.S. Army Counter Intelligence Corps. He found Ishii to be "often evasive" but still managed to glean a great deal of information from the scientist. Thompson was ordered not to discuss his sessions with Ishii with anyone.

A top-secret U.S. Army Far East Command report on Thompson's findings reads: "The value to the U.S. of Japanese biological weapons data is of such importance to national security as to far outweigh the value accruing from war-crimes prosecution." A 1956 FBI memorandum reveals that by the mid-1950s the U.S. knew everything about Ishii's human experiments but agreed not to prosecute in exchange for Japan's scientific data on germ warfare.

In May 1951, scientists at Fort Detrick were shocked to learn that Thompson had "committed suicide" while on another special assignment in Tokyo. The circumstances surrounding Thompson's death have never been publicly revealed. Two years later, Olson would also "commit suicide" under circumstances so unusual that eventually he became an icon of American mysteries. Not long before Thompson's death, according to Sanders and other former Fort Detrick researchers, Ishii was secreted into the United States to lecture at Camp Detrick. Sanders, in an interview before his death in 1988, also claimed that Ryoichi Naito was brought to Camp Detrick to lecture American researchers on Unit 731's human experiments.

Pertinent to note is that in 1996, Naito was caught up in a huge scandal in Japan that involved the shipment of HIV-infected blood to the United States. The same HIV-infected blood was sold to Japanese hemophiliacs. The company responsible for the shipments and sales of the tainted blood was Green Cross, a private blood bank founded in 1950 by Naito and two other Unit 731 researchers. Naito died in 1982 shortly after the Japanese media began referring to Green Cross as the "Vampire Blood Bank."

Anthrax in Korea?

The use of biological weapons, including anthrax bombs, by the U.S. during the Korean War is a continuing subject of heated controversy – that biological weapons were designated a top priority by the Joint Chiefs of Staff is not. Biological warfare "offers fabulous opportunities" read one Pentagon report produced at the start of the Korean War.

In October 1950, the Air Force ordered 5,000 anthrax bombs from Fort Detrick. Other large orders soon followed, but reportedly the Air Force was concerned about the ramifications of their use. Read one declassified document written in 1950: "The Air Force could be fairly accurate in predicting what a biological warfare attack would do to a city full of monkeys, but what an attack would do to a city full of human beings remained the $64,000 question."

By the time the call for an accelerated anthrax weapons program came from military leaders to Fort Detrick, debate over the use of the disease had ceased. In June 1944, Baldwin had been forced to resign over the issue.

Enlisted officers at the facility resented Baldwin, a civilian, from the start. Officers felt strongly that control of Fort Detrick should be totally in the hands of the Army. Gen. William N. Porter, head of the Army's Chemical Corps, which oversaw Fort Detrick's operations, kept Baldwin and much of his staff in the dark about all major anthrax decisions. Baldwin was told nothing about Britain's order for 500,000 anthrax bombs or about the decisions that led to the creation of the Vigo production plant.

When the Vigo plant was near operational, Baldwin was told of its existence and ordered to oversee safety issues concerning its huge anthrax-producing tanks. Because of deep concerns about faulty engineering, Baldwin refused and subsequently resigned.

At the same hour trouble was brewing along Korea's border, the Army was busy establishing a number of additional anthrax testing sites in the United States. Chief among these was the Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas that featured a number of huge underground anthrax fermenters. In 1967, the commander of Pine Bluff informed investigative journalist Seymour M. Hersh that the facility could "produce 100 gallons of a [biological warfare] agent in two days."

Dugway Proving Ground near Salt lake City, Utah, was used extensively by Fort Detrick researchers for anthrax testing. The 2,000 square mile site is notorious for a number of testing accidents that decimated nearby livestock herds. A declassified Army report reveals that anthrax was deployed at Dugway on well over 150 separate testing occasions between 1951 and 1960. Additional testing related to anthrax weapons during the Korean War was conducted at Fort Terry on Plum Island, N.Y., located off the coast of Long Island.

A declassified Department of Army report dated Feb. 24, 1977, contains a lengthy list of locations where "biological field testing of anti-personnel biological simulates involving the public domain" were held. Included on the list are San Francisco, Panama City, Florida, Washington, D.C., Hawaii and New York City. In 1953 and 1954, Fort Detrick scientists working with the CIA conducted secret tests with anthrax simulates in New York City's subway system.

In December 1951, a Reuters's news dispatch reported that the U.S. commander of troops in Korea, Gen. Matthew Ridgeway, secretly brought Ishii to Korea as a biological warfare consultant to the U.S. military. Subsequent news reports stated that Ishii made two trips to Korea as a consultant for the Army.

In early 1952, the North Korean and Chinese governments accused the U.S. of employing biological weapons. North Korea's foreign affairs minister alleged that the U.S. had dropped hundreds of bombs filled with anthrax, plague and cholera on his country. The Pentagon scoffed at the notion and flatly denied any and all accusations.

To further bolster their charges against the U.S., the Chinese released the "confessions" of 25 captured American airmen. Along with the confessions, China also released a batch of photographs that they claimed were of "American germ bombs" dropped on North Korea.

The United States categorically denied the charges and maintained that the POW pilots and airman had been "brainwashed" into making any confessions. The U.S. demanded that the World Health Organization and the Red Cross be called to investigate the allegations, but the Chinese refused to officially recognize either organization as impartial.

Historians Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman write convincingly in their book, "The United States and Biological Warfare," that the U.S. extensively experimented with and deployed biological weapons, including anthrax, during the Korean War. They offer "hard evidence" that the Pentagon lied to Congress and to the American public about wartime activities in Korea and paint a vivid portrait of the U.S. Army and Camp Detrick researchers methodically exploiting captured data on Japanese experiments.

Other biological warfare historians have sharply ridiculed the meticulous research of Endicott and Hagerman. Ed Regis wrote in a 1999 New York Times book review that the two historians advanced evidence "fabricated" by the North Koreans and Chinese.

'Ethnic weapons'

Anthrax has also factored into the darker side of biological research known as "ethnic weapons." Simply put, ethnic weapons – sometimes called "genetic weapons" – are those biological means developed to incapacitate and kill specific ethnic or racial groups.

A November 1970 U.S. Army Command Military Review article by Carl A. Larson, head of the Department of Human Genetics at Sweden's Lund University, stated, "The immense laboratory of human natural variations provides many instances of sharp differences in the activities of well-defined enzymes." Larson writes on to detail various enzyme deficiencies including the susceptibility of southeastern Asians "to a poison to which Caucasoids are largely adapted" and underscores that "Europeans, as well as Americans of African descent, have among their members about 50 percent slow [enzyme] inactivators."

Concluded Larson, "Surrounded with clouds of secrecy, a systematic search for new incapacitating agents is going on in many laboratories. During the first half of [1969], several laboratories reported factors engaged in passing over the genetic message from DNA, the primary command post, to RNA, which relays the chemical signal. The enzymatic process for RNA production has been known for some years, but now the factors have been revealed which regulate the initiation and specificity of enzyme production. Not only the factors have been found, but their inhibitors. ..."

During Camp Detrick's fledgling years, anthrax factored into ethnic weaponry when scientists there began questioning whether certain "geographical groups" better withstood anthrax attacks than others.

According to British science writer and former diplomat Wendy Barnaby, "The U.S. Navy thought of [ethnic weapons] as long ago as 1951 presumably on the basis of the observation that [African-Americans] are much more likely than whites to die from Valley Fever, a disease caught from a fungus endemic in California's San Joaquin Valley."

The future of anthrax

Without doubt, the post-9-11 anthrax attacks have left Americans deeply concerned about the future possibilities of bioterrorism conducted on American soil. Many people believe that the recent anthrax attacks marked the beginning of such activity in the U.S., but a cursory review of the history of "biocrimes" involving anthrax reveals a disturbing picture that has escaped serious public scrutiny.

A copiously researched working paper on bioterrorism produced by the Department of Defense last year reveals that in the past 10 years alone there have been a startling number of cases in the United States involving the threatened use of anthrax.

For example, in July 1997 a number of large U.S. cities, including Tampa, Atlanta, Dallas, Phoenix and Miami, received a fax that stated that their water supplies had been targeted for contamination with anthrax and botulinum toxin.

In March 1998, a canister marked "anthrax" was found inside a rented car in San Antonio, Texas. In October 1998, three abortion clinics in Louisville, Ky., received letters claiming to contain lethal amounts of anthrax.

In November 1998, a Wal-Mart store in Indiana received an anthrax letter threat. The store was evacuated. On Nov. 18, 1998, an office worker at Ocean Drive, a Miami-based magazine, opened a letter that contained an anthrax threat and a white powder. Workers in the office were treated with ciprofloxacin on the recommendations of the FBI and Army officials.

Also in November 1998, a high school in Virginia Beach, Va., received a telephone threat that the school contained an anthrax bomb. The caller said, "People will die. That is all."

A mail sorter in Pembroke Pines, Fla., on Nov. 21, 1998, found an envelope that had the words, "Congratulations, you have been exposed to anthrax," written on an outside flap. The following month, postal workers in Coppell, Texas, found similar messages on envelopes.

In February 1999, the Los Angeles Times received a letter that claimed to contain anthrax. The same month the U.S. State Department received a letter that claimed to hold anthrax. In February 1999, according to Capitol Hill police, "several congressional offices" received threats in letters that claimed to contain anthrax and other lethal biological agents.

The list goes on and on, numbering well over 100 incidents in the past three years, occurring in virtually every part of the country. Readers of the list can't help but wonder what nexus, if any, these incidents had to events following the World Trade Center attacks.

Another strange and recent incident involving anthrax occurred in March 2000 in Irvine, Calif. Anthrax containers were found buried in the yard of Dr. Larry C. Ford, a biomedical researcher who specialized in infectious diseases. According to Ford's lawyer, the doctor worked for the CIA for nearly 20 years.

Ford committed suicide after his business partner, James Patrick Riley, chief of Biofem, Inc. was shot and wounded by a masked gunman. After Ford killed himself, a number of newspapers alleged that he and Riley had corporate ties with biological warfare development in apartheid-era South Africa and with Israel. Ford was also linked to Dr. Neil Knobel, former chief medical officer for the South African Defense Forces. During the apartheid-era, Knobel oversaw South Africa's notorious Project Coast, a covert biological program directed by Dr. Wouter Basson, nicknamed "Dr. Death." South African newspapers have claimed that Basson considered employing everything from anthrax to AIDS against black militants during the struggle against apartheid.

Ironically, only one week before the World Trade Center attacks, the New York Times published an article that stated, "Over the past several years, the United States has embarked on a program of secret research on biological weapons that, some officials say, tests the limits on the [1972] global treaty barring such weapons." Written by Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg and William Broad, the article told of a secret CIA project, code-named Clear Vision, that since 1996 built and tested several model anthrax bombs that were replicated on "a Soviet-designed germ bomb that agency officials feared was being sold on the international market."

The CIA project grew out of concerns that Russian scientists "had implanted genes from Bacillus cereus, an organism that causes food poisoning, into the anthrax microbe."

Recently, according to Dr. Meryl Nass, an expert on anthrax, the strain of anthrax used in this fall's mail attacks was identified as coming from a U.S. Department of Agriculture laboratory in Ames, Iowa, "where it was originally isolated in 1950." Nass, in an exclusive interview with WorldNetDaily, said that the strain "has been out there for decades and shared with many other labs."

According to Nass and other anthrax experts, the Ames strain has been shared with the British biological warfare center at Porton Down, Fort Detrick and several colleges and universities. He stated that researchers favored the Ames strain because it "was long known as the most virulent strain against which vaccines were tested."

Oddly, following the October revelations that the Ames strain was the original source of the post-9-11 attacks, officials at Iowa State University destroyed all Ames specimens "by baking them in an autoclave," a special oven used to sterilize surgical instruments. Iowa State officials reported that they had received permission from the CDC and FBI to destroy the anthrax.

H.P. Albarelli Jr. is an investigative journalist who lives in Florida. His articles on the mysterious death of Frank Olson and West Nile virus also appear on WorldNetDaily.

58 posted on 11/14/2005 10:18:41 AM PST by Calpernia (
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To: Calpernia; Kenny Bunk; Prime Choice

interestingly enough, Clive Cussler's latest 'Dirk Pitt' novel contains plenty of info about these porcelin dual ingredient bombs and their plans for use during the waning days of the war...

59 posted on 11/14/2005 5:19:33 PM PST by bitt ('George Bush was to go up in flames this Fall, not Paris.'...Richard Baehr)
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To: Calpernia; Domestic Church; DAVEY CROCKETT; LibertyRocks; ExSoldier; appalachian_dweller; ...

History of the Japan experiments on POWs.

Calpernia has enough information here to write a book, covers it all, none of it pretty, not to be read if you are depressed.

I know that Bill, a Germam POW, told me that the prisoners who had been held by the Japanese, went through far more than he did.

The two that I knew, never fully recovered.

One was dangerous, very violent at times.

The other was depressed and would sit in the corner, not speaking for weeks.

Both attempted to be good husbands, until the memories came.

They have perfected all the bio warfare that we fear the terrorists know today.

60 posted on 11/14/2005 8:24:29 PM PST by nw_arizona_granny (WAKE UP AMERICA !!!!)
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To: nw_arizona_granny
When I was doing research for my screenplay on the POW camps of North Korea and their many Death Marches I would interview the Korean war vets I encountered during the long waits when I'd go for my VA checkups. Those were some stories of broken bodies and broken souls.
61 posted on 11/14/2005 8:43:42 PM PST by ExSoldier (Democracy is 2 wolves and a lamb voting on dinner. Liberty is a well armed lamb contesting the vote.)
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To: Calpernia
Have you read Judith Miller's book, Germs?

The second chapter concerns Japan's Unit 731, and the U.S. germ warfare program at Ft. Detrick, MD and Ft. Douglas, UT.

62 posted on 11/14/2005 8:48:04 PM PST by ntnychik
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To: ntnychik

No I haven't. But I will add that to my list.

Thank you for the title.

63 posted on 11/15/2005 5:09:36 AM PST by Calpernia (
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Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation
- Corporate Profile
- Research and Development

Corporate Profile
Press Releases
Research & Development
Annual Report
Corporate History

Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical
Industries, Ltd.
Green Cross Corporation   Tokyo Tanabe Co., Ltd. Mitsubishi Chemical


Motosaburo Tanabe establishes a druggist house at head offices' present location


Incorporated as Motosaburo Tanabe Shoten

Product launch of topical analgesic, Salomethyl

Product launch of Japan's first ascorbic acid agent, Ascoltin

Product launch of Japan's first ascorbic acid agent, Ascoltin

Tanabe Company established in Peking and Tanabe Shoten in Hoten, Manchuria in joint ventures with Gohei Tanabe Shoten (present-day Tanabe Seiyaku Co., Ltd.)

Established as Nippon Tar Industries

Takeda Kasei Co.,Ltd. is established by Chobei Takeda & Co.,Ltd (present-day Takeda Chemical Industries,Ltd.) and Nippon Kasei Chemical Company Limited (present-day Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation)

Yoshitomi Plant completed at Higashi-Yoshitomi-mura, Fukuoka prefecture, with production and research

Trade name changed to Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.

Listed on Tokyo and Osaka stock exchanges



Becomes member of newly founded Tokyo Pharmaceutical Wholesale Ltd.

Tanabe Yoko, founded in Shanghai in partnership with Gohei Tanabe Shoten

Motosaburo Tanabe establishes a druggist house at head offices' present location

Production restarted at Oji Plant, largely destroyed in wartime air raid

Blood Plasma Corporation of Japan established with head office and plant in Osaka


Listed on Osaka stock exchange

Achieves Japan's first successful commercialization of synthetic vitamin B2

Product launch of Urso, agent for improvement of liver, gall bladder and digestive functions

Trade name changed to Mitsubishi Chemical Industries, Ltd.

Lucidol Yoshitomi, Ltd. (present-day ATOFINA Yoshitomi, Ltd.) established

Seiwa Kosan, Ltd. (present-day Welfide Service
Corporation) established

Pharmopsychiatry Research Foundation (present-day Mitsubishi Pharma Research Foundation) established

Trade name changed to Green Cross Corporation

Yodogawa Plant completed at Takatsuki, Osaka prefecture

Taiwan Green Cross Co., Ltd. established as joint venture with Taiwanese enterprise

International Reagents Corporation established in Kobe



Product launch of Hibon, vitamin preparation for treatment of hypercholesterolemia

Oji Plant research section amalgamated with clinical development section to form developmental research department

Expansion of Central Research Laboratories completed at Yoshitomi Plant

Seiwa Engineering, Ltd. (present-day Yoshitomi Engineering, Ltd.) established

Seiwa Animal Research Laboratory (present-day Seac Yoshitomi, Ltd.) established


Central Distribution Center (present-day Kansai Distribution Center) completed at Neyagawa, Osaka prefecture>

Safety Evaluation Laboratories completed at Fukusaki, Hyogo

Alpha Therapeutic Corporation established in United States

Osadano Plant completed at Fukuchiyama, Kyoto prefecture

New Ashikaga Plant begins operation

Product launch of world's first lactase preparation, Galantase

Pharmaceutical Research Department established

Mitsubishi Kasei Institute of Life Sciences (present-day Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences) established


Research Center (present-day Yokohama Research Center of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation) established

Independent sale of pharmaceuticals begun

Seiwa Warehouse Ltd. (present-day Yoshitomi Warehouse Co., Ltd.) established Welfide Medicinal Research Foundation) established

Tokyo Research Laboratories moved to upgraded facilities at Iruma, Saitama prefecture

Ryoichi Naito Foundation for Medical Research (present-day Mitsubishi Pharma Research Foundation) established

Central Research Laboratories moved to upgraded facilities (present-day Osaka Research Laboratories) at Hirakata, Osaka prefecture

Business alliance formed with Mitsubishi Chemical Industries, Ltd. (present-day Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation)

Product launch of Bonzol, therapeutic agent for endometriosis

Product launch of pulmonary surfactant preparation for respiratory distress syndrome, Surfacten

Product launch of Theodur, a bronchodilator for asthma (first market release)

Product launch of topical corticosteroid, Myser

Trade name changed to Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation

Product launch of long-acting α1-blocker, Vasomet

Nabari Training Center completed at Nabari, Mie prefecture

Chemical products division established as separate company, Yoshitomi Fine Chemicals, Ltd.

New manufacturing facility completed at Yoshitomi Plant

Yoshitomi Research Institute of Neuroscience in
Glasgow (YRING) established in Britain

Green Cross Guangzhou Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., established in China as joint Japanese-Chinese venture

Green Cross Corporation of America (present-day Welfide International Corporation) established


Product launch of antiallergic agent, Alegysal

Product launch of anti-platelet agent, Anplag

Kazusa Research Center established at Kazusa Academia Park,Chiba prefecture

Merger agreement signed with Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation

Product launch of hypercholesterolemia agent, Cholebine

Trade name changed to Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation following merger with Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co., Ltd.



GenCom Co. established as joint venture with Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., and Kyowa
Hakko Co., Ltd., for exploration of human genetic

Two companies merge as new Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.

Two companies merge and establish subsidiary Mitsubishi-Tokyo Pharmaceuticals, Inc., to take over combined pharmaceutical operations

Trade name changed to Welfide Corporation

Psychiatric Drugs Division is spun off and integrated and with subsidiaries of Welfide Corporation to create Yoshitomiyakuhin Corporation

Welfide acquires all shares of affiliate Korea Green Pharm Co., Ltd.

Partial transfer of shares in International Reagents Corporation to Sysmex Corporation

Yoshitomiyakuhin Corporation begins co-promotion with Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., of antipsychotic Lullan Tablets (perospirone hydrochloride hydrate)

Transfer of hospital solutions business and Toyama Plant to Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc.


Yokohama Research Center and Kazusa Research Center integrated to form Research Center

MTP Europe Ltd. (present-day Mitsubishi Pharma Europe Ltd.) established in London

Product launch of world's first ethical brain-protecting agent, Radicut

The Creation of Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation
Mitsubishi Pharma America, Inc., and Mitsubishi Pharma Europe Ltd.established (October)
Shanghai Office opened (December)
Sales release of airway secretion cell normalizing agent Cleanal TABLETS 200mg (December)

Yoshitomiyakuhin Corporation began co-promotion with GlaxoSmithKline of antidepressant Paxil tablet (July)
New quinolone antibacterial agent Pazucross INJECTION released (300mg and 500mg) (September)
Biological Products Division established as separate company Benesis Corporation (October)
API Corporation formed by integrating Yoshitomi Fine Chemicals,Ltd., with the active pharmaceutical ingredients business and part of the fine chemicals business of the Specialty Chemicals Company operated by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (October)

Mitsubishi Pharma Deutschland GmbH established (June)
Mitsubishi Pharma withdraws from US plasma fractionation business by transferring plasma fractionation operations of US subsidiary Alpha Therapeutic Corporation to Probitas Pharma S.A. of Spain (July) and Baxter Healthcare Corporation of US (October)
Active pharmaceutical ingredients business transferred to API Corporation (October)
Healthfood business transferred to IWAKI & CO., LTD. (November)

OTC pharmaceuticals business transferred to Sato Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (March)
VitaminB2 business transferred to DAIICHI Fine Chemical Co., Ltd. (April)

Copyright(C) Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

64 posted on 11/15/2005 5:31:13 AM PST by Calpernia (
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See post 55 for reference


Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation
- Corporate Profile
- Research and Development

Corporate Profile
Press Releases

Research & Development
Annual Report
Press Release

January 27,1999
Welfide Corporation

Increase in Capital of US Subsidiary

For the purpose of increasing the capital stock of Alpha Therapeutic Corporation (President: Ralph M. Galustian), a US subsidiary of Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. (President: Akio Kamakura), Yoshitomi announced that it has decided to increase the capital of Green Cross International, Inc. (President: Akio Kamakura), Alpha's holding company.

Outline of Capital Increase:
  Hoping to meet Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) requirements, which are increasing year by year, and increase capacity to produce plasma products inter alia IGIV (immune globulin intravenous), Alpha Therapeutic Corporation (Alpha) began a 5-year project for renewing and enhancing manufacturing facilities, which started in 1998.
  In November, 1998, Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. (Yoshitomi) announced its mid- to long-range conceptual plan for the 21st century and declared that the intensive expansion of international business would be an important task. In the hope of achieving it, Yoshitomi has decided to support Alpha's above project financially and increase the capital of Green Cross International, Inc. (GCI), Alpha's holding company based in the United States so that GCI will add twenty-five (25) million US dollars to Alpha's paid-in capital.

Contents of Capital Increase:
1) Process:
  Yoshitomi increases GCI's capital, and GCI adds the same amount of capital to Alpha's capital stock.
2) Amount Added to Capital:
  Twenty -five(25) million US dollars
3) Date:
  End of January 1999

  Alpha's new production facilities are subject to the approval of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after completion. Operation is scheduled to begin next year and expand step by step, and by 2004, when all plans are completed, capacity for manufacturing IGIV, a leading product of Alpha, will have nearly doubled. As a result, Alpha will be able to not only enhance the safety of plasma products but meet the US market demand for blood products inter alia IGIV.

Outlines of Green Cross International, Inc. and Alpha Therapeutic Corporation
Green Cross International, Inc. (GCI)
Company Name: Green Cross International, Inc.
Location of Head Office: Los Angeles, California, USA
President: Akio Kamakura
Stock Ownership: Wholly (Including Indirectly) Owned by Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical
Sales Revenue: 384 Million US Dollars(Year Ended Dec. 1997)
Number of Employees: 7 (As of Nov. 1998)
Main Business: Holding Company

Company Name: Alpha Therapeutic Corporation
Location of Head Office: Los Angeles, California, USA
President: Ralph M. Galustian
Stock Ownership: Wholly Owned by Green Cross International, Inc.
Sales Revenue: 384 Million US Dollars(Year Ended Dec. 1997)
Number of Employees: 2,690 (iAs of Nov. 1998)
Main Business: Manufacturing and Selling of Plasma Products
For more information, please contact the Public Relations Department of Yoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. (Phone: 06-6201-1696).

Copyright(C) Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

65 posted on 11/15/2005 6:18:31 AM PST by Calpernia (
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To: bitt; devolve; PhilDragoo

Ping to my post #62

66 posted on 11/15/2005 2:06:00 PM PST by ntnychik
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To: Kenny Bunk

I worked for a Japanese company a number of years ago. The Japanese who lived in the US got one heck of an education about WWII. There was one engineer close to my own age (mid twenties at the time) who honestly didn't know anything about Pearl Harbor, Midway, or any major battle in the Pacific.

He said that it was forbidden to talk about it back home, the shame and anger was to great.

67 posted on 11/18/2005 5:44:30 AM PST by redgolum ("God is dead" -- Nietzsche. "Nietzsche is dead" -- God.)
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To: redgolum
He said that it was forbidden to talk about it back home, the shame and anger was to great.

Japan is a an intensely tribal, completely xenophobic, and very racist society. They are self-selected as a Master Race, in ways Goebbels might have wished he thought of!

I think you'll find the "shame" factor among the older generation that actually knows something of the war, is engendered by the fact that they lost. The "anger" comes in because, as Children of the Sun God, they think they did not really lose, and could have gone on fighting until they were either 'honorably' wiped out,which was the plan, or WE gave up.

These folks are actually very PO'd that we have America, and they don't.

68 posted on 11/18/2005 8:06:31 AM PST by Kenny Bunk (Valerie Plame was about as much of a Secret Agent as Aunt Jemima.)
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To: Grampa Dave

Skim this thread, look at post 55. Then think about the enviro whacko thread we were just on.

69 posted on 11/18/2005 8:43:46 AM PST by Calpernia (
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To: Kenny Bunk

>>>>and could have gone on fighting until they were either 'honorably' wiped out,which was the plan, or WE gave up.

>>>These folks are actually very PO'd that we have America, and they don't.

Regardless, from our private mail, about whether the bird flu is just a virus or not....

The doctors from 731 did go on to start and run pharm companies and teach at universities...

What about the tainted blood incidents?

I have more threads on tainted blood I've not put here yet because I'm still looking at them for a comfortable connection before I post them. Guangdong has been having lots of unethical things done to their villagers and the WHO did trace SARs back there after the AIDs outbreak.

Do you think the fighting ever did stop?

70 posted on 11/18/2005 8:51:44 AM PST by Calpernia (
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To: ExSoldier

A few days behind on finding my comments and answering them.

why don't you publish your findings/interviews as stand alone articles?

More people need to know the truths about POW camps, today they all think they were nice places like we have in Cuba.

Few people know of the Russian involvement or that our POW's were taken to Russia.

71 posted on 11/21/2005 5:50:09 PM PST by nw_arizona_granny (WAKE UP AMERICA !!!!)
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To: nw_arizona_granny
why don't you publish your findings/interviews as stand alone articles?

First of all that would give away the plot of my script just as my agent is saying that some big players in Hollyweird are starting to take interest. Also there are lots of books on the subject, my favorite being: Remembered Prisoners of a Forgotten War by Lewis Carlson.

72 posted on 11/21/2005 6:31:49 PM PST by ExSoldier (Democracy is 2 wolves and a lamb voting on dinner. Liberty is a well armed lamb contesting the vote.)
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Cover-up as China closes off HIV villages

73 posted on 11/30/2005 9:19:33 PM PST by Calpernia (
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To: Calpernia

Mark to finish later.

74 posted on 12/05/2005 10:48:32 AM PST by Nik Naym
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New York Mob Indictment Charges 32 People

75 posted on 02/23/2006 8:28:00 PM PST by Calpernia (
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New York Mob Indictment Charges 32 People

Current yakuza members fall under three general categories: tekiya (street peddlers), bakuto (gamblers), and gurentai (hoodlums). The peddlers and gamblers trace their roots back to the 18th century while the hoodlums came into existence after World War II when the demand for black market goods created a booming industry. Traditionally the tekiya, medieval Japan's version of snake-oil salesmen, worked the fairs and markets while the bakuto worked the towns and highways. The gurentai, by contrast, modeled themselves on American gangsters of the Al Capone era, using threats and extortion to achieve their ends. After World War II, in the governmental power void caused by the Occupation, the gurentai prospered, and their ranks swelled. They also brought organized crime in Japan to a new level of violence, replacing the traditional sword with modern firearms, even though guns were now officially outlawed in the country as a result of the surrender.


The yakuza's influence is more pervasive and more accepted within Japanese society than organized crime is in America, and the yakuza have a firm and long-standing political alliance with Japan's right-wing nationalists. In addition to the typical vice crimes associated with organized crime everywhere, the yakuza are well ensconced in the corporate world. Their influence extends beyond Japanese borders and into other Asian countries, and even into the United States.


After the Japanese surrendered to the Allied powers, he [Yoshio Kodama] was classified a Class A war criminal—a distinction reserved only for cabinet ministers, ultra-nationalists and high-ranking military leaders—and served two years in prison before being released as part of a general amnesty. A fervent anti-Communist with access to valuable information regarding Communist movements in China and Japan and an army of street criminals at his disposal, Kodama became an attractive asset for the occupying forces. Just as Lucky Luciano provided the Mafia's services to the invading Allied forces in Sicily during World War II, Kodama acted as go-between for the G-2 section of the occupational forces and the yakuza, and was able to mobilize battalions of gangsters to carry out his political will. The CIA paid him $150,000 in 1949 to use his underworld connections to smuggle a shipload of tungsten out of China, a shipment that never arrived, although Kodama kept his fee.

Kodama used the yakuza to suppress anything that might be considered a Communist initiative. In 1949 Kodama ordered one crime group, the Meiraki-gumi, to disrupt a labor movement at the Hokutan Coal Mine. A fervent nationalist, Kodama used his clout in the hope that the honor and glory of the Japanese empire could one day be restored. To that end he modernized the bickering and disorganized yakuza gangs and brokered coalitions between the larger factions, throwing their combined support to the conservative, anti-Communist Liberal Democratic Party. Personally Kodama detested warfare and abhorred street hoods, although they were an important part of his power base. Ironically his dream was to insure a peaceful Japan.

Kodama was a pivotal figure in the notorious Lockheed scandal that emerged in 1976 when it was revealed that the aircraft giant had paid the godfather more than two million dollars to influence the Japanese market away from McDonnell-Douglas and Boeing and toward Lockheed. To do this, Kodama sent a gang of sokaiya (shareholders' meeting men) to disrupt a meeting of All Nippon Airways stockholders. The sokaiya spread rumors of an illegal million-dollar loan made to the president of the company, Tetsuo Oba, who had rejected Lockheed's bid for a new fleet of passenger aircraft. The pressure mounted on Oba, and he was soon forced to resign. His replacement was handpicked by Kodama, and the new president was more favorably disposed to purchasing Lockheed's wide-bodied jets. In 1976 Carl Kotchian, Lockheed's president, was called to testify before a United States Senate committee investigating the Lockheed scandal. The ripple effect of his shocking testimony reached back to Japan, spurring the national police to investigate Kodama's participation in the scandal. Though the police could not uncover enough proof to prosecute Kodama on charges stemming from the Lockheed incident, they found that he had evaded taxes on more than $6 million. The public was outraged by the enormity of Kodama's tax-fraud scheme. In fact, a distraught young actor who had been a great admirer of Kodama's attempted to crash a small airplane into Kodama's suburban Tokyo house.


A Korean gang from Osaka, the Meiyu-kai, was [Yakuza's next leader, Kazuo Taoka] Taoka's next target, and its defeat gave the Yamaguchi-gumi a controlling share of the Osaka rackets. Operating like a wartime commanding general, Taoka moved in on the Miyamoto-gumi next and swallowed their ranks into his own. In the 1960s even the great Kodama had to negotiate with Taoka to keep the Yamaguchi-gumi from muscling into Yokohama.

In 1972 Kodama brokered a historic pact between the Yamaguchi-gumi and Tokyo's powerful Inagawa-kai. The deal was sealed at Taoka's home in a traditional sakazuki ceremony in which blood brotherhood was sworn over elaborately poured cups of sake. After the sake was consumed, the empty ceremonial cups were wrapped in paper and put away inside the representatives' kimonos. The men then clasped one another's hands, and a go-between declared the ceremony completed. The Yamaguchi-Inagawa alliance created a yakuza behemoth with only four of Japan's prefectures free of their control.


The Korean yakuza are a powerful presence in Japan, despite the fact that Koreans suffer discrimination in Japanese society. Although Japanese-born people of Korean ancestry are a significant segment of the Japanese population, they are still considered resident aliens. But Koreans, who are often shunned in legitimate trades, are embraced by the Japanese yakuza precisely because they fit the group's "outsider" image. The man who paved the way for Koreans in Japanese organized crime was the Korean yakuza godfather Hisayuki Machii.


Sex-related enterprises are the yakuza's bread and butter, and they cater to the wild side of Japan's overworked, buttoned-down "salary men." The yakuza smuggle truckloads of pornographic films and magazines into Japan from Europe and America. They control prostitution rings throughout the country, commonly holding young women from other Asian countries captive as indentured servants and forcing them to work as "comfort workers." The Japanese euphemistically refer to the act of prostitution as "selling spring," and Japanese johns have a taste for very young women, as demonstrated by the national obsession with young women in school-girl outfits complete with short pleated skirts and knee socks. The yakuza buy unwanted female children from China--where the law restricts couples to only one child and the cultural preference is for boys--for as little as $5,000 and put them to work in the mizu shobai (literally the "water business"), the yakuza's network of bars, restaurants and nightclubs. [Big Apple Oriental Tours? ]


The yakuza also make millions of dollars a year through corporate extortion, and the sokaiya (shareholders' meeting men) are the masters of this enterprise. Sokaiya will buy a small number of shares in a company so that they can attend shareholders' meetings. In preparation for the meeting, the sokaiya gather damaging information about the company and its officers; secret mistresses, tax evasion, unsafe factory conditions, and pollution are all fodder for the sokaiya. They will then contact the company's management and threaten to disclose whatever embarrassing information they have at the shareholders' meeting unless they are "compensated." If management does not give in to their demands, the sokaiya go to the shareholders' meeting and raise hell, shouting down anyone who dares to speak, making a boisterous display of their presence, and shouting out their damaging revelations. In Japan, where people fear embarrassment and shame much more than physical threats, executives usually give the sokaiya whatever they want.


Another sokaiya scam is to set up booster clubs that solicit donations for non-existent causes. They also throw gala events to which the invited businessmen are expected to bring cash gifts for their hosts. Such events have been known to net more than $100,000 in a single night. The sokaiya have also organized beauty pageants for the purpose of shaking down corporate "sponsors," and sokaiya golf tournaments come with pricey entrance fees for their corporate players. These corporate racketeers have also been known to sell blocks of tickets to theater events at grossly inflated prices. Anything to extort money out of legitimate companies in the most polite and indirect way possible.


The yakuza have also put down roots in California where they have made alliances with Korean and Vietnamese gangs and furthered their traditional partnerships with the Chinese triads. Los Angeles is particularly attractive because of the influx of young actresses desperate to get their big break in the film industry. Yakuza shills have become adept at luring these vulnerable women into porn films and prostitution. Japanese men, whether on sex tours or at home in Japan, often desire western women, particularly blondes.

Like most American organized crime groups, the yakuza love Las Vegas, where gambling—both legal and illegal—is everywhere. Showgirls and hookers are also plentiful in Vegas, and the yakuza are instrumental in steering Asian tourists to establishments owned by Americans who pay substantial "finder's fees."

Yakuza members have even been spotted in New York City, where they have made loose alliances with the American Mafia. Although cultural differences and the language barrier make a strong bond nearly impossible, the two groups have been able to cooperate in illegal gambling operations, with the yakuza channeling Japanese tourists to illicit after-hours casinos around the city.


76 posted on 02/23/2006 9:39:12 PM PST by Calpernia (
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Pakistani national in one of the
apartments in Manila. Murad was a
member of an international terrorist
group planning to kill Pope John Paul II
on his scheduled visit to Manila from
January 10–15 for the Celebration of the
World Youth Day. Pieces of evidence
recovered revealed the group’s plan to
bomb U.S commercial airlines plying the
Manila - Hong Kong - Los Angeles. route.
This plot was to be the centerpiece of the
so-called “Oplan Bojinka” which was an
intricate network of international
terrorists using the Philippines as a
venue of their terrorists activities. The
bombing of a Philippine Airlines jet
bound for Japan from Cebu on December
11, 1994 was a test-run to Oplan Bojinka.
It can be recalled that one Japanese
national was killed while several others
were wounded during the incident.
4. Free Vietnam Revolutionary Group
(FVRG) Terrorist Cell
The presence of this terrorist cell was
recently discovered with the arrest of Vu
Van Doc, a U. S. citizen of Vietnamese
origin, Huynh Thuan Ngoc, a Swiss
citizen of Vietnamese origin and Makoto
Ito, a Japanese national on August 30,
2001. One of the arrested suspects, Vu
Van Doc, who operates a terrorist cell in
the Philippines is a member of the Free
Vietnam Revolutionary Group (FVRG),
the military arm of the Government of
Free Vietnam (GFV), a worldwide
organization engaged in liberating the
Republic of Vietnam from communist
The arrested suspects were reportedly
planning to conduct bombing activities
targeting the Vietnamese Embassy in
Manila on or before September 2, 2001,
which is the National Day of the Republic
of Vietnam.

77 posted on 02/23/2006 10:11:33 PM PST by Calpernia (
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Terrorism in the Middle East

Law Enforcement Sensitive

New Trends in Financing (continued)

* Human trafficking
o Middle East (Afghanistan and Central Asian Republics)
+ Linked with organized crime—Russian Vory
o Cambodia, and Philippines
+ Linked with madrasas in Southeast Asia (children)
+ Linked with organized crime—Yakuza
+ A word about Abu Sayyaf
* Kidnapping and extortion
o Links to Hezb’Allah
o Links to FARC and ELN

78 posted on 02/23/2006 10:16:21 PM PST by Calpernia (
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Modernization of the Yakuza

Restoration Years

The Meiji Restoration, starting in 1867, gave Japan a rebirth and its first of many transformations into an industrial nation. Political parties and a parliament were created, as well as a powerful military.

The yakuza also began to modernize, keeping in pace with a rapidly changing Japan. They recruited members from construction jobs and dockworkings. They even began to control the rickshaw business. Gambling, however, had to be even more covert, as police were cracking down on bakuto gangs. The tekiya, unlike the bakuto, thrived and expanded, as their activites were not illegal, at least not on the surface.

The yakuza began to dabble in politics, taking sides with certain politicians and officials. They cooperated with the goverment so they could get official sanction, or at least some freedom from harassment.

The government did find a use for the yakuza --- as aid to ultranationalists, who took a militaristic role in Japan's adaption into democracy. Various secret societies were created and trained militarily, trained in languages, assassination, blackmail, etc. The ultranationalist reign of terror lasted into the 1930's, consisting of several coups d'etat, the assassination of two prime ministers and two finance ministers, and repeated attacks on politicians and industrialists. The yakuza provided muscle and men to the cause and participated in "land development" programs in occupied Manchuria or China.

Things changed, however, when Pearl Harbor was bombed. The government no longer needed the ultranationalists or the yakuza. Members of these groups either worked with the goverment, put on a uniform, or were put into jail. (Kaplan, p31-40)

Occupation Years

The American occupation forces in post-war Japan saw the yakuza as a primary threat to their work. They began investigations into yakuza activities. In 1948, their work stopped, as the forces thought their investigation was over and the threat was at an end, or at least diminished.

However, the forces had rationed food, thereby giving the black market business to keep the gangs in wealth and power. The gangs were able to act unhindered since the civil police was unarmed. Some occupation officials even aided the yakuza.

The gurentai began to form during the occupation, as there was a power vacuum in the government, as the occupation swept away the topmost layer of control in government and business.

The gurentai could be seen upon as Japan's version of the Mob, its leader similar to what Al Capone was to the Mob. They dealt in black marketeering, for the most part, but also they went so far as to use threat, extortion and violence in their activities. Their members were the unemployed and the repatriated. The goverment used one gurentai as a controller of Korean labor, even though he was apprehended with criminal items.

The occupation forces soon saw that the yakuza was well organized and continuing to operate under two oyabun supported by unidentified high-level goverment officials. They admitted defeat in 1950, as they realized that they could not protect the Japanese people from the yakuza. (Kaplan, p43-52)

In the post-war years, the yakuza became more violent, both on the individual and collective scales. Swords had become a thing of the past, and guns were now becoming the new weapon of choice. They chose ordinary citizens, not just the other vendors or gamblers or specific group targets anymore, as their targets for shakedowns and robberies.

Their appearances also changed, taking American movie gangsters (a la Guys and Dolls) as their influence. They started wearing sunglasses, dark suits and ties with white shirts, and began to sport crewcuts.

Between the years of 1958 and 1963, the number of yakuza members rose by over 150%, to 184,000 members, more than the Japanese Army. There were some 5200 gangs operating throughout Japan. Yakuza gangs began to stake out their territories, and bloody and violent wars began to break out between them. (Kaplan, p89-99)


The man who brought peace between many of the yakuza factions was named Yoshio Kodama.

Kodama was in jail for the early part of the occupation, placed in the same section as cabinet officers, military, and ultranationalists. He himself was part of the ultranationalist group Kenkoku-kai (Association of the Founding of the Nation). In the late 1930's and early 1940's he worked as an espionage agent for the Japanese government, touring East Asia. He worked on a major operation to obtain strategic materiel needed for the Japanese war effort.

By the end of the war, he had obtained the rank of rear admiral (an impressive feat at the age of thirty-four), and was advisor to the prime minister. He was rounded up with other government officials in 1946 and placed in Sugamo Prison to await trial. The occupation forces saw Kodama as a high security risk, should he ever be released, due to his fanatacism with the ultranationalists.

Kodama had made a deal with the occupation forces G-2 section, and upon his release, was working for the intelligence branch of G-2. He was the principal go-between for G-2 and the yakuza by 1950. (Kaplan, p63-9)

In the early 60's, Kodama wanted the yakuza gangs, who were now fighting one another, to join together into one giant coalition. He deplored the warfare, seeing it as a threat to anticommunist unity. He used many of his connections to secure a truce between the gangs. He made a fast alliance between Kazuo Taoka, oyabun of the Yamaguchi-gumi faction, and Hisayuki Machii, a Korean crimeboss in charge of Tosei-kai. The alliance broke the Kanto-kai faction for good. Kodama continued to use his influence to mediate the alliance between the Inagawa-kai and its Kanto allies and Yamaguchi-gumi. The truce that Kodama had envisioned was now at hand.

Yoshio Kodama was then referred to as the Japanese underworld's visionary godfather. (Kaplan, p93-99)

Modern Yakuza


The oyabun to the Yamaguchi-gumi from the mid 1940's until his death in 1981 was Kazuo Taoka. He was the third oyabun of the faction.

Taoka had survived many assassination attempts, including one in 1978, when he was shot in the neck by a member of the Matsuda (a rival yakuza clan who had sworn vengeance on the Yamaguchi-gumi for the death of their oyabun) during a limbo dance exhibition at the Yamaguchi-gumi household. (Kaplan, p127-9)

The Yamaguchi-gumi is Japan's most powerful syndicate. Their symbol is a rhombus-shaped pin worn on the lapel of their suits. The combination of the pin plus the showing of their tattoos could get them anything they wanted.

However, the pin was not always as powerful as they seemed. In 1980, when the Yamaguchi-gumi attempted to expand their territory into Hokkaido, they were met at the Sapporo airport by 800 members of local gangs who united to keep the Yamaguchi-gumi out of their area. Nearly 2000 anti-riot-equipped police kept the two groups apart. The Yamaguchi-gumi were prevented from opening their headquarters in Sapporo. (Kaplan, 129-30)

In July 1981, Taoka suffered and died from a heart attack, ending his 35-year rule as oyabun. His death was celebrated by his yakuza underlings in the finest yakuza style. Police raided Yamaguchi-gumi homes and offices across Japan, arresting 900 members, and taking such contraband as firearms, swords, and amphetamines.

The funeral was grand indeed, bringing in members from nearly 200 gangs, singers, actors, musicians, and even the police (who attended dressed in riot gear). (Kaplan, p130)

Taoka's successor was to be his number-two man, Yakamen. However, he was in prison and was not due to be released until late 1982. During the absence of Yakamen, everyone (including the police) was surprised to see that the new temporary leader was Taoka's widow, Fumiko. However, Yakamen did not succeed Taoka, for he died of cirrhosis of the liver. The entire structure of Yamaguchi-gumi was now in chaos.

The Yamaguchi-gumi controlled over 2500 businesses, sophisticated gambling and loan-sharking, and invested heavily in sports and other entertainment under Taoka's 35-year rule as oyabun. They operated under the same patterns that had existed for the yakuza for over 300 years, basically depending upon the oyabun-kobun relationship that controlled the day-to-day management of the syndicate. The syndicate was grossing well over {\$460} million per year. Their management style was envied by such organizations as the Mafia and General Motors.

The Yamaguchi-gumi had 103 bosses or various rank from well over 500 gangs. Each of these bosses fared well, making over {\$130,000} annually. A syndicate head would make {\$43,000} per month ({\$360,000} annually after deducting \$13,000 per month for entertainment and office expenses). Of course, this would depend upon the number of soldiers the boss had under him. (Kaplan, p131-2)

The Yamaguchi-gumi began to deal in narcotics now, primarily amphetamines. Other fields of choice brought in a high capital: moneylending, smuggling, and pornography (hard pornography is illegal in Japan). Rigging baseball games, horse races, and public property auctions were commonplace for yakuza. Seizing real estate, entertainment halls, hospitals, and English schools were also done by the yakuza. (Kaplan, p133-4)

During Fumiko Taoka's rule, the membership of Yamaguchi-gumi rose to 13,346 members from 587 gangs by the end of 1983. Their control stretched to 36 of Japan's 47 prefectures. A council of eight high-ranking bosses took control, under the guidance of Fumiko Taoka, in 1983. However, the syndicate had to select a new godfather. Masahisa Takenaka became the new oyabun, as everyone preferred his militant style over Hiroshi Yamamoto's (his opponent) interi (intellectual) yakuza.

Yamamoto, in a fit of anger after losing, took 13,000 men from the Yamaguchi-gumi and created the Ichiwa-kai, one of Japan's top three syndicates. In 1985, Ichiwa-kai assassins slaughtered Takenaka, creating a bloody gang war. (Kaplan, 136-7)

Kazuo Nakanishi became the new oyabun for Yamaguchi-gumi and declared war on the Ichiwa-kai. Police interfered and arrested nearly a thousand mobsters and confiscated many weapons. The Yamaguchi-gumi was desperate to win, so they turned to operations in the US to fund their war. They had obtained many highly illegal weaponry, including rocket launchers and machine guns, in exchange for narcotics, however the conspirators were arrested, including Masashi Takenaka, Masahisa's brother, and Hideomi Oda, the syndicate's financial controller. The Yamaguchi-gumi was thrown back into chaos. (Kaplan, p137-8)

Yakuza Structure

The structure of the yakuza is easy to follow, once the oyabun-kobun relationship is understood.

As an example to explain the structure of command of a yakuza clan, the Yamaguchi-gumi (as of November 1991) will be used.

The oyabun, Yoshinori Watanabe, is the head of the clan, residing at the Yamaguchi-gumi headquarters in Kobe. He obtained the position of the fifth oyabun (or kumicho, supreme boss) in 1989. His original gang was the Kobe-based Yamaken-gumi.

Kazuo Nakanishi remains as a saiko komon, or a senior advisor. He resides in Osaka, with 15 sub-gangs under his control, giving him 439 members.

Saizo Kishimoto is the so-honbucho, the headquarters chief, with 6 gangs (108) members under his control in Kobe.

Masaru Takumi is the wakagashira, or number-two man. He controls 941 members in 41 gangs in Osaka.

Testuo Nogami is the fuku-honbucho, an assistant, with 8 gangs (164 members) in Osaka.

Under the kumicho are various komon (advisors), Shingiin (counselors), kumicho hisho (kumicho's secretaries), kaikei (accountants), and wakagashira-hosa (underlings of the second-in-command).

Keisuke Masuda is the number three man (shateigashira), residing in Nagoya with 4 gangs consisting of 111 members under his care. He also has severeal shateigashira-hosa to aid him.

There are 102 senior bosses (shatei, "younger brothers") and numerous junior leaders (wakashu, "young men"), making up then 750 gangs with 31,000 members in the Yamaguchi-gumi. (Delfs, p 30-31)

The Yakuza and Today's Japan

Today's Japan does not appreciate the "noble" workings of the yakuza. In fact, on March 1, 1992, the Japanese goverment passed the Act for Prevention of Unlawful Activities by Boryokudan (yakuza or criminal gangs) Members.

This act designates the term boryokudan as a group with more that a certain precentage of membership having a criminal record. It also identifies organizations with strong violent or criminal tendencies.

The act mainly prohibits the boryokudans from realizing profits made from forms of extortion not covered in previous existing laws, i.e., protection rackets. (Shinnosuke, p353-4)

The yakuza is avoiding being called a boryokudan, mostly by trying to hide behind actual businesses they use as fronts. They have also published a book as of late, entitled "How to Evade the Law," which was distributed among the members of the Yamaguchi-gumi. In fact, 77 gangs affiliated with the Yamaguchi-gumi are registered as businesses or religious organizations. (Ormonde, p48)

In March of 1992, wives and daughters of yakuza members marched in protest of the new laws through the Ginza. The following month, high-ranking yakuza argued that they are not truly evil; their code of chivalry (similar to bushido, the Way of the Warrior) and samurai values calls upon them to defend the interests of society's weaker members, and their conduct expresses their noble values, not violence. (Shinnosuke, p356)

However, these arguments were proven wrong in the public eye, when members of the yakuza ambushed and stabbed filmmaker Itami Juzo over an anti-yakuza movie entitled "Minbo no Onna" (A Woman Yakuza Fighter). A boryokudan defector commented on the attack, and was later found shot in the leg. (Shinnosuke, p356)

Even outsiders of the yakuza have protested the new laws against them. Over 130 lawyers, professors, and Christian ministers proclaimed that the yakuza countermeasures were unconcitutional, basically on the grounds that they infringed basic rights, such as the freedom of assembly, the choice of occupation, and the ownership of property. (Shinnosuke, p358)

In fact, even ordinary citizens are against the yakuza.

Citizens of the neighborhood of Ebitsuka, a neighborhood of Hamamatsu, 130 miles SW of Tokyo, did not want yakuza activity in their backyard. The yakuza were operating out of a green building, that the neighbors quickly termed as burakku biru ("black building"). The citizens videotaped everyone who went in and out of the building, noting specifically the ones wearing flashy suits, dark glasses, short hair and hints of tattoos on their arms. The yakuza retaliated against the citizens, smashing windows of the local garage mechanic, stabbing the town's lawyer in the lung, and slashing another activist in the throat.

However, after police arresting half of the gang, the Ichiri Ikka, led by Tetsuya Aono, abandoned the burakku biru in an out-of-court settlement, as they did not want to stir up trouble for gangsters elsewhere. (Chua-Eoan, p42)

Yakuza in Business and Politics

The yakuza has always been involved in politics and business right from the start. The groups are always hungry for more power and money, wherever they can find it.

In 1987, Noboru Takeshita was elected prime minister in Japan. There were always suspicions of gangster ties in the election. When questioned on the accusations in 1992, Takeshita denied knowing at the time that the yakuza were involved.

What happened was this: during one of his speeches, a group was blaring comments against Takeshita. Some other group of people had silenced the commentators.

The Liberal Democratic Party kingmaker was made to resign from politics in October 1992 when he admitted to receiving Y500m ({\$4}m) from a delivery firm, Sagawa Kyubin. The owner of the firm, Hiroyasu Watanabe, paid the kingmaker for trying to help save his business. Watanabe admitted to asking Ishii Susumu, the late head of the Inagawa-kai, to silence the group. Susumu called in a gang from Kyoto, the Aizu Kotetsu, to do the job. Aizu Kotetsu had a grudge against Takeshita due to a confidence job (paying Y4 billion for a Y500m gold screen). Takeshita denied the screen deal, although money from it was given to his secretary.

Shigeaki Isaka, who was very close to the leader of Aizu Kotetsu, would help Takeshita win the election, in order to have a hold over him, possibly for future blackmail. (Economist, p33)

There is another yakuza incident that hits closer to home. West Tsusho, a Tokyo-based real estate firm, bought two American companies with help from none other than Prescott Bush, Jr, President Bush's elder brother.

What wasn't known at the time was that West Tsusho is an arm of the a company run by the Inagawa-kai's leader, Ishii Susumu.

Tsusho purchased Quantum Access, a Houston-based software firm) and Asset Management International Financing \& Settlement, a New York City-based company.

Bush received a {\$250,000} finder's fee for Asset Manangement, as was promised another {\$250,000} per year for three years in consulting fees. Bush was unaware at the time that he was being a middleman for mob activity. (Time, Jun 24, 1991, p25)

A Bleak Future?

With the anti-yakuza countermeasure act in place, the future for the yakuza seems bleak, at least in Japan. The North American expansion could do very well, as they channel nearly {\$10} billion into legitimate investments not only in the US, but in Europe as well.

The FBI is gearing up to handle the new threat from the yakuza, now that their handling of the Mafia is nearly complete. However, their investigations will be difficult, as they can operate through shell corporations without the close scrutiny that hampers crooks in other companies. Also, money laundering is not a crime in Japan, so the investigations into the money angles of the yakuza will be extremely difficult. (Castro, p21)

79 posted on 02/24/2006 5:40:49 AM PST by Calpernia (
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1930 -   Max Theiler begins work on Yellow Fever vaccination

1932 - Brazil has outbreak of 'Hepatitis' - blamed on vectors from Gambia

1935 - Max Theiler (from S. Africa) begins work on Yellow Fever vaccination
at The Rockefeller Medical Institute

1936 - Theiler uses Pasteur's Process to pass Yellow Fever through Mice
brains, rather than rabbits. (rearrangements in RNA genomes PMID: 7596811)

1937 -  Japan's Ishii begins Unit 731 south of Harbin, Heilongjiang

1938 - 1 Million Brazilians now infected with Rockefeller's/Theiler's Yellow
Fever/HBV vaccination. Program was funded by Rockefeller foundation and a
very interesting book reporting this was published. The mosquitoes were thought to have been
introduced by a ship traveling from the West Coast of Africa.

1939 - Japan's General Ishii's Aide comes to NY and Rockefeller to obtain
"sample" of Yellow Fever/HBV  virus.  Japanese  Army doctor, Dr. Ryoichi
Naito, visited the laboratory with credentials from the Japanese military
attached in Washington to obtain a sample of that strain of the Yellow Fever


1939 ~ 1945 WWII - A series of outbreaks after vaccination for measles and
yellow fever.

1940 - Rockefeller funding Medical experiments with humans in both Germany
and Japan, involved with Russians.

1941-  Dec. 7th, Pearl Harbor attacked. Allied Troops to be deployed in high
Yellow Fever areas- S. Pacific, N. Africa, etc..

1942 - US begins "Defensive Biological Warfare Program".

1942 - Rockefeller's Yellow Fever/ HBV vaccine given to US Army Soldiers and
Allied Troops.  330,000 infected.
(Note from Tricia: It was later learned blood samples from the infected troops also had Hep C and it is the first record of the disease.)

1942 - Ft. Detrick's 'Defensive' Biological Warfare Program begins.

1942 - Schering taken over by the US Government.

1943 - Acute Hepatitis causes a few deaths in the Military

1943- Through sophisticated testing, the researchers pinpointed 1943 to 1949
as the years in which HCV initially spread in Japan

1944 - E.J. Cohn begins to develop first generation 'Immune Serum Globulin',
ISG.  More are contaminated.

1945 - Nuclear Testing conducted in areas now high in HBV rates.

1945 - WWII Ends in Europe and Asia.  Veterans go home and donate blood in
all 50 States.

1945 - Thorotrast used as a treatment for TB in England.  (alpha particles
cause cancers decades later)  Same trail that has the hep infected blood
also has the Thorotrast trail.

1940's - "A containment effort would seek to prevent outbreaks" (hence:
immunizations of the with Yellow fever vaccination
contaminated with HBV) "successful Brazilian Anopheles gambiae effort of the
1930s...was repeated around Aswan during the 1940s" Note: Aswan is in
Egypt.....highest HCV rates in the World today. Want to bet what vaccination
they used in Egypt during the 40's and in Italy to fight Yellow Fever?

1940's - A similarly intensive post-WWII effort against endemic An.
labranchiae on Sardinia (Italy) "almost eradicated" the target insect on
that island, but did eliminate malaria.  Although that extraordinary effort
did not attain its goal, it influenced anti-malaria policy profoundly.  I
know of no other elimination effort that attained
its stated goal and none against an endemic vector or pest.

1946 - German War Crimes Trial

1947 - Rockefeller Manufactures 28 Million Doses of the Yellow Fever/HBV
vaccine by this date.  No record of any destroyed.  All used?

1947 - Mac Callum (1947): classified viral hepatitis into two types, Viral
hepatitis A - Infectious hepatitis, Viral hepatitis B - Seum hepatitis

1948 - Japan's War Crimes Trials

(Note from Tricia:  
1948 Experimentation with Hepatitis  
April 5, 1948 letter from C.J. Watson, M.D., Army Epidemiological Board to Dr. McLeod, with a copy to Dr. Stokes and others

Dear Dr. MacLeod: I have given careful consideration in the past few weeks to the matter of using volunteers in penal institutions for experimentation, with particular reference to hepatitis.) 

1949 - Japan's Ishii shares work with US and German George Merck

1950 - Korean War begins- massive blood drives in the US.

1951- Polio push.  Thorotrast used as a radioactive injectable dye- cancers.

1951 - Max Theiler wins Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on a Yellow
Fever Vaccination at the Rockefeller Institute.

1951 - German George Merck appointed to head US's, Ft. Detrick's,
'Offensive' Bio-Warfare Program.

1952 - Occupation of Japan ends.

1952 - Adenovirus magically appears only in Military basic training
recruits from the mid west- meet the "new" 1918 Spanish Flu.  Half mammalian
and half avian- or bird.

1955 ~ 1956 - Massive epidemic of water-borne hepatitis occurred in Delhi,

1958 - Interferons first used in cell research.

1959 - Test developed to measure elevated liver enzymes.

1962 - Cancer research begins with Adenovirus on mouse cell

1960's - Variants that cause 'serum jaundice' emerge in the research

1963 - Mass smallpox vaccinations in Poland in 1963 and the epidemic
situation of
viral hepatitis (PMID: 5858724)

1964 - Treatment of Chronic Hep (Germany) in literature.

1965 - International collaborative assay of the international reference
of anti-yellow-fever serum. (PMID: 5294595)

1965 - Blumberg discovered Australia antigen (later known to be HBsAg) in
aborigines and showed that the antigen was present at high frequency in
patients with leukemia and in children with Down's syndrome.

1965 - Blumberg reported "Australia antigen" in Australian aborigines.

1965 - "chronic hepatitis caused by serum hepatitis" - Japan Symposium on
Serum Hepatitis, PMID: 5894570

1966 - Treatments for Chronic Hep discussed (German)
           - looking at ways to reduce incidence of serum hep
           - Literature on Iron levels with Chronic Hep (Soviet)

1966 - Mass inoculation with Yellow fever vaccination from the Rockefeller
Institute and given by pet-o-jets.

1969 - Literature looking at Lymph involvement (Italy)

1970 - Dane discovered Dane particle (complete HBV particle).

1970 - Krugman and co-workers reported on the Willowbrook hepatitis studies
which live hepatitis virus injected was injected into mentally retarded
children in order to study the course of the disease process (Krugman, 1971;
Krugman & Giles, 1970).

1971 - Literature looking at Chronic Hep in Hemodialysis (Eng)

1971 - Literature looking at the pathogenesis of arthritis associated with
viral hepatitis.
Complement-component studies.

1972 - Magnius discovered HBeAg

1972 - Viral hepatitis abroad. Incidence in Catholic missionaries. PMID:

1973 - Feinstone, Purcell identified HAV.

1974 - CDC claims to have determined a Non-A, Non-B, hepatitis exists.
Begins to track it as a "non specific" hepatitis.

1975 - Antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen in immune serum globulin.
A collection of 1,278 lots of immune serum globulin (ISG) prepared by 19
United States manufacturers between 1962 and 1974 were tested for the
hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS). Ten lots
(0.8%), all of which were produced between 1962 and 1965 by two different
manufacturers, were weakly positive for HBSAg (by radioimmunoassay). Seven
hundred and seven lots (55.3%) were positive for anti-HBS (by passive
hemagglutination). PMID: 1198681

1975 - Vietnam War officially ends in March- Siagon falls by May.

1975 Jul-Aug - Literature about Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

1975 Sep-Oct - Va cooperative study of post-transfusion hepatitis,
1969-1974: incidence and
characteristics of hepatitis and responsible risk factors. PMID: 1235478

1975 - Literature about Dental infection with hepatitis B.

1975 - Literature about severe viral hepatitis type B in infancy;.

1975 - Stated: "Unlikely that immunization against HBV will ever provide
absolute immunity" (Sierra Leone = has one of the highest HCV rates today in
the World today) Some considerations regarding active immunization with
HBsAg. Krugman has demonstrated that injection of heated serum containing
conferred some protection against subsequent challenge with live hepatitis B
virus (HBV). Thus newly imported animals may be incubating HB infection, and
could give rise to false positive results in inactivation trials, unless
quarantined for a four to six month period prior to use. We have therefore
established a laboratory for chimpanzee trials in West Africa, and plan to
utilize only animals captured by trapping and held in strict isolation from
the time of capture. Three chimpanzees who received a massive transfusion of
plasma one year after resisting challenge with aliquots of the same plasma
inoculated intraperitoneally, all developed severe hepatitis, accompanied in
two cases by HBs antigenemia, despite strong anamnestic anti-HBs responses
in all three animals. PMID: 1204972

1975 - Ten with HBV e antibodies were blood donors- 95 units of blood. PMID:

1970's - Liver Cancer rates begin to skyrocket in the US

1976 - Blumberg reported "Australia antigen" in Australian aborigines in
1965. Awarded Nobel prize in 1976.

1977 - HDV Discovered in 1977 by Rizetto, in nuclei of hepatocytes from
patients with
chronic HBV infection, and originally was thought to be HBcAg.
Superinfection: HDV infection occurs in persons with chronic HBV infection.

1977 - Rizzetto described delta antigen (HDV).

1977 - Application of a screening test for antibody the hepatitis B core

1979 - GRID, or AIDS first described in National Media

1980's, HBV vaccinations given some attention because of AIDS

1980 - 1984, Dr. Koop Surgeon General- never speaks on hep

1981 - Literature describes patients who developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

1982 - 500 with AIDS in NY and San Fran.

1982 - PPSB = pooled human clotting preparation.  "cardiac surgery (56%)
developed hepatitis"
"all cases were of the non-A, non-B type." "frequency of carriers of the
causative virus is apparently not different from that with B virus."
(because TTV = HBV lite.)PMID: 6816565

1983 - Balayan recovery of HEV.

1983 - Cutler and Baxter settle out of court in 1988 for contaminated blood

1980's - HBV vaccination contaminated with HIV here and in France.  Wolf
Smuzness (Ft. Detrick) involved- now there is the Smuzness NY Blood Center.
Coincidence?  Not likely.

1984 - Nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in Taiwan.

1988 - HCV Discovered, Chiron group (Choo, Kuo, Houghton) cloned and
identified HCV.

1988 - HDV discovered (found only with HBV)

1988 - Cutler and Baxter settle out of court for 1983 contaminated blood

1988-1992 A. Novella Surgeon General (now NY Health Commissioner). Never
speaks on hep.

1989 - Literature about the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis
B virus infection in
Australian Naval personnel.

Before 1989 - HCV diagnosis was made only by "exclusion diagnosis" ---
non-A, non-B hepatitis. Over 90 % of post-transfusion hepatitis in Taiwan
was HCV hepatitis.

1989 - HCV isolated

1989 - 1989 - First HCV generation reagent for detection of anti-HCV was
developed, containig recombinant and synthetic antigens --- C100-3 (NS3 and
NS4, NS:

1990 - Enomoto:  HCV-K1-PT, HCV-K2a, HCV-K2b

1990 - 1st Test developed for HCV detection

1991 - Second HCV generation reagent --- C22(core), C33c(NS3), and

1991 - Reliable test developed for HCV detection in Commercial Blood

1991 ~ 1992 - Investigators in Japan reported the discovery of a new
hepatitis virus and called it as hepatitis virus F, but failed to be
substantiated in the subsequent research.

1992 - Reliable test in place to test blood supply and other blood products

1992 - Rockefeller Foundation's campaign against yellow fever in Mexico
sought "to advance the economic and political interests of U.S. capitalism"

1992 - Early 90's...AIDS Community wants Ribavirin.  FDA says no.

1992 - 1993 Jocelyn Elders Surgeon General

1992 - Houghton (1992): HCV-I, HCV-II, HCV-III

1992 - Okamoto (1992): I, II, III, IV 9 major groups, and 30+ subtypes
Implications of viral factors: (genotypes, level of viremia, quasispecies
nature) controversial severity of liver damages, response to interferon
therapy, transmission from mother to infant

1993 - Uchida of Japan reported by PCR study that the so-called hepatitis
virus F might be a mutant of HBV, just could not be verified by commercially
available reagents because of the defect pre-C gene, mutation of core gene
and S gene, which come to be HBsAg (-) and anti-HBc (-) in serological
tests. (Uchida T: Microbiol Immunol 37: 425 ~ 439, 1993; J Hepatol 18: 369 ~
372, 1993)

1994 - Simmonds suggested classification system: major groupings (Arabic
numerical in order
of discovery), subtypes designated by lower-case letters previopus
Enomoto (1990): HCV-K1-PT, HCV-K2a, HCV-K2b, Houghton (1992): HCV-I, HCV-II,
HCV-III, Okamoto (1992): I, II, III, IV, 9 major groups, and 30+ subtypes,
Implications of viral factors: (genotypes, level of viremia, quasispecies
nature) controversial severity of liver damages, response to interferon
therapy, transmission from mother to infant

1994 - 1998 No Surgeon General.  CDC, NIH, FDA, HHS, all left to guide
themselves.  AIDS funding dominates and all large Academic Institutions get
a piece of the funding prize.

1994 - Deka reported an isolation of a virus named HFV (Hepatitis
French [origin] Virus) on intravenous inoculation of stool extract from
sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis, in New Delhi, India, however, no follow-up
report was noted. (Deka N; et al.:J. Virol; 68:7810~5, 1994)

1995 - A model for rearrangements in RNA genomes. Theiler's (mice) murine
encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV).  PMID: 2436048

1995 - Third HCV generation reagent --- C22(core), C33c(NS3), C200(NS3+NS4),
and NS5.

1995 - Genotype I (1a) found in China near Unit 731 activities and 98% in
Moldova, Russia.

1995 - Simons (Abbott) identified new novel virus termed GBV-C.

1996 - Linnen (Genelab) identified another novel virus termed HGV.

1996 - GBV-C and HGV are identified to have the same/or very similar
structure and contain two flavivirus sequences related to, but far distinct
from the HCV.

1996 - Chang's group at NTUH reported (JAMA) successful prevention of HBV
infection by nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in 1984 in

1997 - Chang's group at NTUH (1997): reported (NEJM) decrease in annual
incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in children ascribed to
vaccination against HBV on newborn babies launched in 1984 in Taiwan.

1997 - Dr. Foster withdraws nomination after bruising battle for Surgeon
General Nomination

1997 - TTV--Transfusion Transmitted Virus is a new virus first reported in
Japan in 1997 by T. Nishizawa in patients with fulminate hepatitis and
chronic liver
disease of unknown etiology.

1997 - Dec. No awareness or info about HCV anywhere but on Internet.

1998 - Merck and Company earns $900 Million in HBV Vaccine sales.  School
Boards and State Legislatures begin to practice Medicine and mandate HBV
shots by statutory requirement.  No long term studies available.  Research
says "caution"  may be nervous system involvement.

1998 - Dr. Sadler appointed and confirmed Surgeon General- 1st one in 5

1998 - March House VA Congressional HCV hearings with ALF, VA-Roselle,
NIH-Seeff, Koop, and Surgeon General Sadler - about a week into the job as
SGOUS. Dr. Koop not asked how many children he infected as a Surgeon in
Philly, or their health status today.  Also not asked why he never spoke up
when he was
Surgeon General and instead focused on a much lesser issue- AIDS.

1998 - Dr. Seeff (from S. Africa) appointed by Congress to oversee HCV
Internationally.  Spends his career studying the 1942 Yellow Fever and HBV
'accident'- now will advise all on matters of HCV.

1998 - Schering granted unprecedented monopoly by FDA over only current HCV

therapy that still has only a 30% overall rate of slowing the virus'
progression in the liver:  Bundling Ribavirin and Intron-A.  Surprise!  AIDS
Community now has the drug they wanted but FDA would not let them have years
earlier.  Coincidence or a real treatment for HCV?  AIDS Community will
conveniently supply Riba through their Drug Network, beginning with
Fisher's in Penn.

1998 - Proposed Veterans with Hepatitis Laws first introduced into the 105th

1998 - Naoumov, N. detected TTV-DDN in 18 (25 %) of the 72 patients with
chronic liver disease. The majority of TTV-positive cases had no biochemical
or histological evidence of significant liver damage. TTV-DNA sequencing of
nine isolates showed the same genotypic groups as in Japan: three patients
were infected with genotype 1, which showed 4 % nucleotide divergence, and
six patients were infected with genotype 2 with 15-27% divergence. Naoumov
suggests that TTV, similar to HGV, may be an example of a human virus with
no clear disease association according to the results -- the high prevalence
of active TTV infection in the general population, both in the UK and in
Japan, and the lack of significant liver damage.

1998 - FDA says only Riba (AIDS Drug) with Interferon can be used.  AIDS
activists (ACT UP) rename themselves HAAC- (Hep advocacy and Awareness
Coalition) but do all they can to still the Hep message and the result is
that HCV leaders are lead to believe the combo is the way to go- with less
than 30% success rates the HCV Community is charged up to $20,000 a year for
treatments that do not work and genetically harm.  AIDS Community is now
funded by HCV Community.

1998 - Superinfection of hepatitis viruses --- (Vento et al.) --- Although
most patients with chronic hepatitis B who acquired HAV infection had an
uncomplicated course, patients with chronic hepatitis C had a substantial
risk of Fulninant hepatitis and death associated with HAV superinfection.
Our data suggest that patients with chronic hepatitis C should be vaccinated
against hepatitis A. (N Engl J Med 1998;338:286-90.)

1999 - Rockefeller Health Grants - not a penny for HCV.

1999 - Proposed Veterans with Hepatitis Laws reintroduced into the 106th

1999 - Animal Serum, advised not to use in testing.

1999 - HGV,  HGV-GB, Silent HBV, TTV, etc...all begin to emerge in the
research and around the Globe.  Media only sees AIDS.  35 Million Worldwide
with AIDS, 3.5 Billion now, at least, with a hep virus- and growing more
rapidly as it branches.

1999 - Research emerges to show HCV not so much as a Liver Disease but a
Lymphatic tissue and Bone Marrow/Blood disorder that has wreaked havoc on
all organs and organ systems of the body for decades- liver is the first to
show effects of tissue injury, and liver is the only thing we look at and
that we fund with our research when looking for a cure.  HCV is a slow
motion hemorrhagic.

1999 - less than 250,000 people with AIDS (700,000 with HIV) in the US
receive $7.11 Billion in fed NIH research funding involving every major
Academic Institution.  Harvard, Rockefeller, Stanford, etc... all have AIDS
Institutes for Research.

1999-  11 Million Americans with HBV/HCV/HGV, receive $30.9 Million for fed
research.  NIH explains that continued massive AIDS funding will eventually
help HCV.

1999 - Reported, 1 in 10 vets in the US have HCV. (ALF Congressional test.
6/9/99).  Veteran population = 26 Million.  Therefore, 2.6 Million vets have
HCV today - many are homeless.

1999 - The fix is in!  CDC releases to media a 6 year old study conducted
from 1988-94 saying 2.7 Million in the US have HCV, not including any
institutions like vets or prisons... media runs with 2.7 number and only
that number.  3.9 has now been chiseled into 2.7.  Simply math by their own
numbers say at least 5 Million today with HCV alone.

1999 - NEJM publishes that children with HCV can be managed early on
(interpreted as cured by the public) only if drug companies can be brought
in to profit.  Koops, the AIDS poster boy, becomes our poster boy!  For a
price of course.

1999 - FDA is blind deaf and dumb.  No where in site.  Front door left wide

1999 - HHS last reported seen with Surgeon General and Red Cross- leaving
town at dusk!  Driven By Rep. Chris Shays and Donna Shalala.

1999 - NIH has been bought and paid for by America's AIDS Institutes...which
needs NIH's support for continued massive funding.  After are
only 10 to 15 years in the making, another 5 or 10 years of massive AIDS
Research ought to do it.......  AIDS as a threat?  Never was!  Not a medical
issue either...political opportunity to make millions of dollars all in the
name of minority civil rights.....  welcome to the year 2000!  Where you now
place your life in the same hands that placed you there.

1999 - Institute of Human Virology's head, Robert Gallo, declares in mission
statement that AIDS is their top priority.

1999 Fall- ALF deliberately slashes HCV numbers in half in NY and begins a
process to blame behaviors and Drug Abuse for Liver cancer rates. ALF NY
Medical Director (Dr. Di Biscaglle- St. Louis School of medicine) blames
liver cancer rates on drug abuse and behavior from last 30 years- not on
contaminated blood and blood products that their funders initiated over 60+
years ago - and now sit in positions to educate the population and
physicians.  Both they have have not done.

1999 - WHO, UN, CBS, AP, CDC, all major medias, report that AIDS is a
growing threat at 33 Million worldwide with HIV (10 Million will have AIDS).
More than 3 Billion have hep......still no message from the media except
AIDS and needles and AIDS and liver problems are an issue.

1999 - Organ Transplant laws, Nationally, will soon be changed to help Liver
Centers, not sick people.  Contributors come first- not common sense.

1999 - Reported that 100% of Commercial Pig Stock is infected with Hepatitis
E (HEV) a DNA virus.....but, as usual, no matter.  We'll still use pig
organs- just do not educate Americans about it.

1999 - No where can the research be found to point to an AIDS threat- not
now, not a decade ago.  Africa?  5-10% infected with AIDS in Africa.
200-300% infected with hepatitis.  Focus will be AIDS.

1999 - Between 5.2 Million and 8 Million Veterans have HCV- how many already

1999 End of Millennium - Patients left to educate themselves, families, and
communities, while those who are to help and are heavily funded- will not.
Hep patients are left to pay their physicians in order to educate them about
an illness they were not taught about in Medical School.  Half the time hep
patients pay to educate their physicians and are told it is in their head.

Research has been public - yet the media and gov agencies have deliberately
ignored up to 155 Million American with a previous or past virus, so that
less than 250,000 with AIDS can obtain Civil Rights- or so it's claimed.
Every major Institution is being paid by the US Taxpayer for AIDS research.
People with hepatitis are now funding AIDS and the AIDS Community by means
like, Texas Prisons will now buy their Riba from Fischer's Pharm in Penn
(Aka The AIDS Community).  People in Texas are paying people with HIV in New
York and San Fran.  Texans with HCV are now funding AIDS, thanks to their

2000 - The truth?  Some assistance?  A Cure?  Don't bet your life on

Up to 20% - 31% of 26 Million US Vets have HCV.  5.2 - 8 Million that have
served have
been trashed, name called, and now the research emerges showing HCV 1b was
in the blood products they were given.  Their families shamed, all to hide
the past and advance civil rights for less than 250,000 with AIDS.

Only the Drug Companies and Koop have the answers, we are told by the ALF
and others, and the Transplant Centers have a greater right to make a
financial killing- than we do to live.

80 posted on 02/24/2006 5:49:54 AM PST by Calpernia (
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1949 - Japan's Ishii shares work with US and German George Merck

Decades later, in an interview, Sanders said, "Anthrax is a tough bug. It's sturdy. It's cheap to produce, and [the Japanese had] used it in China." In a 1985 interview with the Miami Herald, Sanders revealed that he was "duped" by the Japanese during his nine-week investigation of Unit 731 and that had he known about torturous experiments on innocent human beings conducted by bacteriologist Dr. Shiro Ishii, "I would have been very happy to be part of the firing squad."

Unable to interview Ishii because the scientist was in hiding in Japan's mountains, Sanders spent two weeks in Japan questioning Dr. Ryoichi Naito, a high-ranking Unit 731 bacteriologist who oversaw many of Ishii's horrific anthrax experiments. At the time, Sanders was unaware that in 1939, Naito had visited New York's Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in an attempt to obtain samples of lethal viruses. Refused, Naito unsuccessfully attempted to bribe employees of the Institute only to be again turned away.

When Sanders arrived back at Camp Detrick he discovered that he had contracted a severe case of tuberculosis, and he was bedridden for months. He told his replacement on the investigation, Lt. Col. Arvo T. Thompson, executive assistant to Dr. Ira Baldwin and George Merck, that he "strongly suspected" that the Japanese had conducted extensive human experiments but had been unable to obtain any definitive evidence.

81 posted on 02/24/2006 6:20:15 AM PST by Calpernia (
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To: DollyCali
I wonder why Tojo was classified as a war criminial for Pearl Harbor -- ok, granted it was a horrific act, but it was a. brilliant military tactics (hit the giant when he's sleeping
b. not directed against civilians who couldn't fight back and
c. the most stupidest action Japan could have done -- walking the giant and p***ing him off REAL BAD.
82 posted on 04/12/2006 1:04:40 AM PDT by Cronos (Remember 9/11. Restore Hagia Sophia! Sola Scriptura leads to solo scriptura.)
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To: DollyCali
I wonder why Tojo was classified as a war criminial for Pearl Harbor -- ok, granted it was a horrific act, but it was a. brilliant military tactics (hit the giant when he's sleeping
b. not directed against civilians who couldn't fight back and
c. the most stupidest action Japan could have done -- waking the giant and p***ing him off REAL BAD.
83 posted on 04/12/2006 1:04:47 AM PDT by Cronos (Remember 9/11. Restore Hagia Sophia! Sola Scriptura leads to solo scriptura.)
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To: Cronos

good point. Pearl Harbor was brilliant & stupid at the same stroke for the Japanese. The beginning of our look at national pride & Identity in a very different way from the past.

84 posted on 04/12/2006 3:45:57 AM PDT by DollyCali (Don't tell GOD how big your storm is -- Tell the storm how B-I-G your God is!)
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To: Calpernia
Ex-Soldier Fights To Make Japan Remember Its Past

85 posted on 06/06/2006 7:11:03 PM PDT by Calpernia (
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Read this timeline:

Then read this:

>>>This brings us to Senator McCarthy's death. He was in his 40s when he died on May 2, 1957. He died at Bethesda Naval Hospital, the same hospital from which that other great Patriot, Secretary of the Navy, Forrestal, fell or was thrown to his death. Senator McCarthy's death certificate reads "Hepatitis Unknown." There were so many conflicting reports concerning his death that it is very confusing. Medford Evans, the man who wrote "The Assassination of Joseph R. McCarthy" was convinced that the Senator had been murdered, and I'm inclined to agree with him. But I hope his life will encourage others to learn the truth, and I pray that the truth will lead America back to a Christian government.<<<<

86 posted on 06/07/2006 8:20:22 PM PDT by Calpernia (
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To: nw_arizona_granny

Thanks for the mail. I am pasting it here:
Declassified CIA records reveal American hand in birth of Japan's right wing
Sun, 25 Feb 2007 10:26:00
A 1959 file photo of Col. Masanobu Tsuji. (AP Photo)
Col. Masanobu Tsuji was a fanatical Japanese militarist and brutal warrior, hunted after World War II for massacres of Chinese civilians and complicity in the Bataan Death March.

And then he became a U.S. spy.

Newly declassified CIA records, released by the U.S. National Archives and examined by The Associated Press, document more fully than ever how Tsuji and other suspected Japanese war criminals were recruited by U.S. intelligence in the early days of the Cold War.

The documents also show how ineffective the effort was, in the CIA's view.

The records, declassified in 2005 and 2006 under an act of Congress in tandem with Nazi war crime-related files, fill in many of the blanks in the previously spotty documentation of the occupation authority's intelligence arm and its involvement with Japanese ultra-nationalists and war criminals, historians say.

In addition to Tsuji, who escaped Allied prosecution and was elected to parliament in the 1950s, conspicuous figures in U.S.-funded operations included mob boss and war profiteer Yoshio Kodama, and Takushiro Hattori, former private secretary to Hideki Tojo, the wartime prime minister hanged as a war criminal in 1948.

The CIA also cast a harsh eye on its counterparts -- and institutional rivals -- at G-2, the occupation's intelligence arm, providing evidence for the first time that the Japanese operatives often bilked gullible American patrons, passing on useless intelligence and using their U.S. ties to boost smuggling operations and further their efforts to resurrect a militarist Japan.

The assessments in the files are far from uniform. They show evidence that other U.S. agencies, such as the Air Force, were also looking into using some of the same people as spies, and that the CIA itself had contacts with former Japanese war criminals. Some CIA reports gave passing grades to the G-2 contacts' intelligence potential.

But on balance, the reports were negative, and historians say there is scant documentary evidence from occupation authorities to contradict the CIA assessment.

The files, hundreds of pages of which were obtained last month by the AP, depict operations that were deeply flawed by agents' lack of expertise, rivalries and shifting alliances between competing groups, and Japanese operatives' overriding interest in right-wing activities and money rather than U.S. security aims.

"Frequently they resorted to padding or outright fabrication of information for the purposes of prestige or profit," a 1951 CIA assessment said of the agents. "The postwar era in Japan ... produced a phenomenal increase in the number of these worthless information brokers, intelligence informants and agents."

The contacts in Japan mirror similar efforts in postwar Germany by the Americans to glean intelligence on the Soviet Union from ex-Nazis. But historians say a major contrast is the ineffectiveness of the Japanese operations.

The main aims were to spy on Communists inside Japan, place agents in Soviet and North Korean territory, and use Japanese mercenaries to bolster Taiwanese defenses against the triumphant Communist forces in mainland China.

Some of the missions detailed by the CIA papers, however, bordered on the comical.

The Americans, for instance, provided money for a boat to infiltrate Japanese agents into the Soviet island of Sakhalin -- but the money, boat and agents apparently disappeared, one report said. In Taiwan, the Japanese traded recruits for shiploads of bananas to sell on the black market back home.

The operatives also were suspected of having murky links with the Communists they were assigned to undermine, the documents say. The CIA also said some agents sold the same information to different U.S. contacts, increasing their earnings, and funneled information on the American military back into the Japanese nationalist underground.

The files and historians strongly suggest that American lack of knowledge about Japan or interest in war crimes committed in Asia, and a reliance on operatives' own assessment of their intelligence skills, made U.S. officials, in the words of one CIA report, "easy to fool for a time."

"This was a bunch of Japanese nationalists taking the G-2 for a ride," said Carol Gluck, a specialist in Japanese history at Columbia University and adviser to the archives working group administering the papers. "One thing that was interesting was how absolutely nonsensical it was, of no use to anybody but the people involved. Almost funny in a way."

The informants, many of whom were held as war criminals after Tokyo's surrender and subsequently released, operated under the patronage of Maj. Gen. Charles Willoughby, a German-born, monocle-wearing admirer of Mussolini, a staunch anti-Communist and, as the chief of G-2 in the occupation government, second in power only to his boss, Gen. Douglas MacArthur.

Some of Willoughby's proteges were seen as prime war trial material by Allied prosecutors.

But even as the occupation authorities were recrafting Japan into a democracy, their focus was shifting to containing the Soviets. Willoughby saw the military men as key to making Japan an anti-Communist bulwark in Asia -- and ensuring that Tokyo would rapidly rearm, this time as a U.S. ally.

Historians long ago concluded that the Allies turned a blind eye to many Japanese war crimes, particularly those committed against other Asians, as fighting communism became the West's priority.

Chief among the Japanese operatives was Seizo Arisue, Japan's intelligence chief at the end of the war. Arisue had been a key figure in the pro-war camp and in forging Japan's alliance with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in the 1930s.

According to the files, Arisue was soon ensconced in G-2, working with former Lt. Gen. Yorashiro Kawabe, who was a military intelligence officer in China in 1938 -- to organize groups of veterans and others for underground operations.

These groups consisted of former war buddies and often retained the same chains of command and militarist ideology of the war machine that ground much of Asia into submission in the 1930s and '40s.

"It shows how we acquiesced to the Japanese ... in order to continue to build up Japan as our ally," said Linda Goetz Holmes, author of "Unjust Enrichment: How Japan's Companies Built Postwar Fortunes Using American POWs."

"The whole thing was Cold War fear and an awful lot of postwar compensation issues ... all of that was subservient to our total fear of Russia," said Holmes, also a historical adviser to the National Archives.

Indeed, that new focus brought some of Japan's most notorious wartime killers under U.S. sponsorship.

Tsuji, for instance, was wanted for involvement in the Bataan Death March of early 1942, in which thousands of Americans and Filipinos perished, and for allegedly co-signing an order to massacre anti-Japanese Chinese merchants in Malaya.

Yet none of that seemed to matter much to American intelligence. The U.S. Air Force attempted unsuccessfully to recruit him after he was taken off the war crimes list in 1949 and came out of hiding, and CIA and U.S. Army files show him working for G-2. In the 1950s he was elected to Japan's parliament. He vanished in Laos in 1961 and was never seen again.

The Army considered him a potentially valuable source, but the CIA was not impressed with Tsuji's skills as an agent. The files show he was far more concerned with furthering various right-wing causes and basking in publicity generated by controversial political statements.

"In either politics or intelligence work, he is hopelessly lost both by reason of personality and lack of experience," said a CIA assessment from 1954. Another 1954 file says: "Tsuji is the type of man who, given the chance, would start World War III without any misgivings."

Kodama was another unsavory player. A virulent anti-communist and superbly connected smuggler and political fixer, Kodama commanded a vast network of black marketeers and former Japanese secret police agents in East Asia.

The CIA, however, concluded he was much more concerned about making money than furthering U.S. interests. A gangland boss, he later played a major role in the Lockheed Scandal, one of the country's biggest post-World War II bribery cases. He died in 1984.

"Kodama Yoshio's value as an intelligence operative is virtually nil," says a particularly harsh 1953 CIA report. "He is a professional liar, gangster, charlatan and outright thief... Kodama is completely incapable of intelligence operations, and has no interest in anything but the profits."

Nowadays, the most powerful legacy of the U.S. occupation is the democratic freedoms and pacifism built into Japan's 1947 constitution. But the U.S. association with Japanese war criminals illustrates how Washington embraced nationalist and conservative forces after World War II, helping them reassert their grip on the government once the occupation ended in 1952.

"Its hard to imagine back in those days how intent the U.S. was on rapid remilitarization of Japan," said John Dower, historian and author of "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II."

"When we talk about the emergence of neo-nationalism or a strong right wing in Japan today, this has very deep roots and it involves a very strong element of American support," he said.

Yet the ex-war criminals failed to rebuild a militarist Japan. "Prewar right-wing activists who escaped war crime charges in fact did not have much influence in the postwar period," said Eiji Takemae, historian and author of The Allied Occupation of Japan.

To the Americans, he said, "they were in fact not very useful." (AP)

February 23, 2007

87 posted on 03/05/2007 7:50:38 AM PST by Calpernia (
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To: Calpernia
Ruling party plans sex slave study

88 posted on 03/08/2007 6:38:08 PM PST by Calpernia (
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To: Calpernia
‘No massacre in Nanking,’ Japanese lawmakers say

89 posted on 06/19/2007 3:02:22 PM PDT by Calpernia (
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To: DAVEY CROCKETT; milford421; FARS; Founding Father; CarolinaGOP

Calpernia has pulled many reports on the hidden facts that we do not often see, into one thread that she keeps adding to.

Check it out.

90 posted on 08/22/2007 2:18:14 AM PDT by nw_arizona_granny ( God loaned us many of the Brave people, those who keep us free and safe and for balance liberals..)
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To: Calpernia

bump for later

91 posted on 09/03/2007 8:46:51 PM PDT by Centurion2000 (“Jesus Saves. Moses Delivers. Cthulu Reposesses...”)
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To: Calpernia

Picture #11 was taken between 1910-1911 of dead and frozen victims of the Manchurian Plague. Here is the same picture from a Russian photo album:

The IJA did indeed do some very terrible things in China. Unfortunately picture #11 cannot be attributed to them.


92 posted on 06/03/2009 7:17:56 AM PDT by ralphrepo (1910-1911 Manchurian Plague Victim photo, not torture.)
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To: ralphrepo

You could be right; but, nothing personal, I trust my source more than yours.

Photo source:

93 posted on 06/03/2009 10:38:35 AM PDT by Calpernia (DefendOurFreedoms.Org)
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To: Calpernia

Nothing personal taken. This is purely academically motivated.

If you just happen to look at the picture there at the link that I’d provided, you’ll find that it is actually much higher resolution than the one from your source, and you can actually make out better details, along with text in Russian.

You’re free to trust any source that you choose; however, by posting images with attributions that can be questioned, you’re undercutting the position that the IJA did some very terrible things. This is exactly the type of “errors” that Japanese nationalists pounce on and use as examples of “fabrications” by anti-Japan foes. This is what Iris Chang’s otherwise great work fell victim to, that is, room for doubt.

Honesty cannot be refuted. I suggest you examine your source’s photo with mine side by side. You’ll see that they’re the same, only the site I’d found it on had a much clearer image.




94 posted on 06/05/2009 5:14:35 AM PDT by ralphrepo (1910-1911 Manchurian Plague Victim photo, not torture.)
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To: ralphrepo

I understand your point. That is why I cite my source when I make posts. That way, if there are questions, the source can be researched.

Like I said, I’m not disputing you. And your links should stand for people to look at.

95 posted on 06/05/2009 6:13:38 AM PDT by Calpernia (DefendOurFreedoms.Org)
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To: Calpernia




96 posted on 06/05/2009 3:43:37 PM PDT by ralphrepo (1910-1911 Manchurian Plague Victim photo, not torture.)
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To: Calpernia

BTTT ... as a way to placemark this important data for future reference. Thanks, m’Lady.

97 posted on 04/21/2010 9:28:46 AM PDT by MHGinTN (Obots, believing they cannot be deceived, it is impossible to convince them when they are deceived.)
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