Skip to comments.Is Barack Obama Anti-American?
Posted on 11/01/2009 6:34:41 AM PST by no-llmd
Since its inception, America has been defined by liberty -- both the liberty of the individual and the liberty of the nation. As the Declaration of Independence more elegantly states, "Goverments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed." If we, the people make a social compact by which we consent to be governed, it means that government is our servant, not our master. Lincoln understood that ours is a nation boasting a "government of the people, by the people[, and] for the people."
This uniquely American precept, one that sees the power of government flowing from the people rather than controlling the people, ideally results in a situation in which citizens are subject to minimal government constraints. As the Founders envisioned American government, the state exists to optimize individual freedoms, not to control the individual.
(Excerpt) Read more at americanthinker.com ...
Yes, and he’s also Kenyan-American.
And, to an extent, African-American.
Duh. We have a president sitting in the White House that has direct ties to terrorist groups. Leaving out that he’s a Marxist, he accepted campaign contributions from Hamas. He repaid them with a billion dollars after he was elected. He funnelled money to the PLO while on the board of the Woods’s Foundation through his contact Rashid Khalidi. He was personal friends who are former Weatherman Underground terrorists. They do not regret their terrorism, and in fact which they had done more. I would say slightly anti-American.
he might not even be American. all of his and his wifes records have been sealed.
Does a bear...
Uh Uh....Halfrican American
Does a fat baby fart?
"Dig It. First they killed those pigs, then they ate dinner in the same room with them, they even shoved a fork into a victims stomach! Wild!"
-Weather Underground leader and wife of Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, referring to the Manson murders
Article: Allies in War -by David Horowitz
FrontPageMagazine.com | Monday, September 17, 2001
"Kill all the rich people. Break up their cars and apartments. Bring the revolution home, kill your parents, that's where it's really at"
--Bill Ayers (1970), quoted in New York Times, September 11, 2001:
Article: "No Regrets for a Love Of Explosives; In a Memoir of Sorts, a War Protester Talks of Life With the Weathermen"
Undercover agent Larry Grathwohl discusses the Weather Underground's post-revolution governing plans for the United States:
"I asked, 'well what is going to happen to those people we can't reeducate, that are diehard capitalists?' and the reply was that they'd have to be eliminated. And when I pursued this further, they estimated they would have to eliminate 25 million people in these reeducation centers. And when I say 'eliminate,' I mean 'kill.' Twenty-five million people. I want you to imagine sitting in a room with 25 people, most of which have graduate degrees, from Columbia and other well-known educational centers, and hear them figuring out the logistics for the elimination of 25 million people. And they were dead serious."
The Center for Public Intellectuals & The University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC)
April 19th-20th, 2002, Conference
[Participants include: William/Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, Sen Barack Obama]
April 19th-20th, 2002
Chicago Illini Union
828 S. Wolcott
This conference is part of the Center's mission of helping to create a more engaged civil society, working towards social change, fostering coalitions between theorists and activists, and combating anti-intellectualism in contemporary culture. It will be both a celebration of ideas and a rigorous examination of the roles and responsibilities that intellectuals play in society.
I. Why Do Ideas Matter? (a keynote panel)
We introduce the meta theme of the conference by hearing success stories from diverse voices discussing their experiences intervening intellectually.
Timuel Black, Chicago activist; Prof. Emeritus, City Colleges of Chicago
Lonnie Bunch, President, Chicago Historical Society
Bernardine Dohrn, Northwestern University Law School, Children and Family Justice Center
Gerald Graff, UIC, College of Liberal Arts & Sciences
Richard Rorty, Stanford University, Philosophy
III. Lunch and Public Encounters
Alternative breakout tours led by Chicago activists. Tours of Bronzeville and other communities, and visits to organizations that are working on partnering theorists with activists.
IV. Intellectuals in Times of Crisis
Experiences and applications of intellectual work in urgent situations.
William Ayers, UIC, College of Education; author of Fugitive Days
Douglass Cassel, Northwestern University, Center for International Human Rights
Cathy Cohen, University of Chicago, Political Science
Salim Muwakkil, Chicago Tribune; In These Times
Barack Obama, Illinois State Senator
Barbara Ransby, UIC, African-American Studies (moderator)
The Center for Public Intellectuals
University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC):
From Investor's Business Daily (IBD), August 27, 2008:
"Ayers, now a tenured distinguished professor of education at UIC, works to educate teachers in socialist revolutionary ideology, urging that it be passed on to impressionable students.
One of Ayer's descriptions for a course called 'Improving Learning Environments' says prospective K-12 teachers need to 'be aware of the social and moral universe we inhabit and ... be a teacher capable of hope and struggle, outrage and action, teaching for social justice and liberation.
The Annenberg papers are quite extensive 132 boxes containing 947 file folders with 70 linear feet of material. They undoubtedly contain more surprises regarding Obama's relationship with Ayers, one of many relationships Obama has sought to hide.'..."
Article: Annenberg Papers: Putting On Ayers?
REVOLUTION: Voice of the Revolutionary Communist Party, USA [Maoist]
[Revolution] Interview with Bill Ayers, Revolution #63, October 1, 2006:
"On Progressive Education, Critical Thinking and the Cowardice of Some in Dangerous Times"
"This is a guy who lives in my neighborhood, who's a professor of English..."
The O'Reilly Factor confronts Bill Ayers:
October 24, 2008:
(note the red communist star on his shirt)
Aren’t lefty presidents anti-american by default? I’ve yet to see one in my lifetime that’s been good for this country and it’s founding principles. They seem to be more concerned with their own power and image than anything else. Pride goes before destruction.
He’s NOT “African American” in the sense that this phrase is normally used in the US. He is not the descendant of people brought here against their will from Africa 200+ years ago, and has no connection whatsoever with them (except that he carefully chose his wife because she actually is “African-American” and he thought this would give him creds).
The child of a foreign graduate student and a white hippie can hardly claim to be in the same league with genuine “African Americans” (as much as I hate that term, because they’re just Americans).
For all you'll ever need or want to know about Wright's
RACIST, COMMUNIST "Black Liberation Theology",
see my FR Home page:
"Their founding document [the Weather Underground's] called for the establishment of a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other "anti-colonial" movements to achieve "the destruction of US imperialism and the achievement of a classless world: world communism."..."-Berger, Dan (2006). Outlaws of America: The Weather Underground and the Politics of Solidarity. AK Press, 95.
Outlaws of America: The Weather Underground and the Politics of Solidarity (Paperback) by Dan Berger
Rev. Dr. Jeremiah Wright and Dr. William Ayers
are greeted by Rebekah Levin with the Committee
for a Just Peace in Israel and Palestine.
(Chuck Berman/Chicago Tribune / May 17, 2009)
Kenyan? Yes. Indonesian? Yes.
Do you have any evidence that he's an "American?"
IMO, this is why he hasn't (can't?) make a decision about Afghanistan.
All his other efforts are camouflaged so as to hide his true intentions...but the decision to send more troops helps those he hates (Americans) destroy those he supports (our sworn enemies).
And any decision to pull out will be seen for what it is--capitulation to the enemies of America and betrayal of America's warriors. This will expose him for the anti-American he is.
He is sitting on the horns of a impossible dilemma...d@mned is he does, d@mned if he doesn't!
Well said, Grand Eloquence!!!!!!
anti-white, anti-west and anti-American by default
Of course, all Commies are Anti-American.
He is not a Natural Born U.S. Citizen, but he is a Natural Born Commie. And a Traitor because he swore to protect and defend
Trick question - Right?
I’d sum it as: counter-revolutionary.
Absolutely! The answer is in the following link
Combine this with marxist and you HAVE your answer.
Does a bear poop in the woods?
Do wolves howl?
Do roosters crow?
Does it get dark after the sun goes down?
Are narcissists incapable of being cured?
Zero is the most anti-American vermin we’ve EVER had as POTUS!
"We are 5 days away from fundamentally transforming the United States of America"
A second video of same in case the first 'disappears' from YouTube:
Yahoo search results for "Fundamentaly Transforming The United States Of America":
From the website of the Communist Party, USA...
(prior to the election)
"The Communist Party USA views the 2008 elections as a tremendous opportunity to defeat the policies of the right-wing Republicans and to move our country in a new progressive direction.
The record turnout in the Democratic Presidential primary races shows that millions of voters, including millions of new voters, are using this election to bring about real change. We wholeheartedly agree with them."
After the election....
A Landslide Mandate For Change
Congratulations on an extraordinary history making election!
We can think back with pride to decades of hard work toward our strategic goal of a big enough, broad enough and united enough labor and all-peoples movement that could overcome the ultra-right blockage to all progress. That all peoples movement has come to life, it is dynamic and it has the potential to keep growing.
The election of Barack Obama and a strengthened Congress creates new conditions in our country. There is now the possibility to shift gears and move forward. This new day requires us to further develop our tactics in order to continue to deepen and broaden labor and peoples unity.
There are thousands of experiences that we all have had in these momentous days, some large, some small, all of which express the enormity of change in thinking and readiness for involvement that is underway and that steels us for the battles ahead.
The tears of joy we all shared as crowds gathered to watch the election results here and throughout the world dramatize the new moment we are in.
"Barack Obama told supporters that
'change has come to America' as he
claimed victory in a historic presidential election."
July 1, 2009...
Change is Here, Change is Coming
Sam Webb, National Chair, Communist Party, USA:
Let me begin with a simple observation: If the last 30 years were an era of reaction, then the coming decade could turn into an era of reform, even radical reform. Six months into the Obama presidency, I would say without hesitation that the landscape, atmosphere, conversation, and agenda have strikingly changed compared to the previous eight years.
In this legislative session, we can envision winning a Medicare-like public option and then going further in the years ahead.
We can visualize passing tough regulatory reforms on the financial industry, which brought the economy to ruin.
We can imagine the troops coming home from Iraq and Afghanistan while U.S. representatives participate in a regional process that brings peace and stability to the entire region.
In the current political climate, the expansion of union rights becomes a real possibility.
Much the same can be said about winning a second stimulus bill, and we sure need one, given the still-rising rate, and likely long term persistence, of unemployment.
Isnt it possible in the Obama era to create millions of green jobs in manufacturing and other sectors of the economy in tandem with an attack on global warming?
Cant we envision taking new strides in the long journey for racial and gender equality in this new era, marked at its beginning by the election of the first African American to the presidency?
And isnt the overhaul of the criminal justice and prison system a system steeped in racism no longer pie-in-the sky, but something that can be done in the foreseeable future?
All these things are within reach now!
... and he’s appointed a strange collection of communist sympathizers...
Nothing against you livius. I'm just making a point of observation here.
First of all let me just say that I am sick and tired of this "African American" crap. If the "cradle of civilization" originated in "Africa" as all the new age evolutionists claim then it only stands to reason that we are ALL "African Americans." What gives blacks the right to claim that title for themselves?
Sorry. I am not trying to detract from the topic of this thread. It just frosts me to no end when I see that politically correct term.
Have a great day.
There’s a whole bunch of things I chose not to mention. And that’s probably only the tip of the iceberg. I don’t think we’ve every had a more corrupt president. This guy has so many skeletons in his closet it’s ridiculous.
Ever since Obummer came on the scene, he struck me as a bitter angry guy. I attribute that to the fact that he was in Reverend Wright’s church for twenty years listening to his hate filled propaganda and insane rantings and distortions as well as having such “friends” as Rezko and Bill Ayers among many other who espoused a kind of hatred toward government and patriotism and a love of radicalism, communism and the kind of corruptive influences well known in the city of Chicago.
Oh, I agree. People who are born here or even naturalized here are just...Americans. I think this hyphenated stuff is stupid and was designed by the left to divide us.
Barack Obama stands out as the first American president whose every instinct is contrary to America’s essence. At home, every single one of his initiatives is directed at increasing government control in every area, with a corresponding decrease in individual liberty. Here’s an incomplete bullet-point list of his anti-liberty goals on the home front:
He wants to deny individuals access to the marketplace —where they can make their own decisions about their own health care — and instead put the government entirely in charge.
He’s willing to give government control over American businesses (e.g., the bank takeovers and Government Motors).
His administration, while on record as opposing the Fairness Doctrine, is aggressively exploring a backdoor regulatory scheme that would have precisely the same practical effect as the Fairness Doctrine: it would impose government restrictions on content, rather than allowing the market (that means us, the consumers) to control content.
His FCC wants to control the internet, a humming beehive of free speech (much of it critical of Obama).
As his loud battles with Rush Limbaugh and Fox News illustrate, he desires a single-party press, not a free one.
He believes that now that he is in power, the opposition should shut up and “get out of the way,” a notion that runs directly counter to the First Amendment.
Although he’s mostly erased the record that once existed in cyberspace, his dream is to create a civilian national security force, subordinate to the administration, which would be larger than the American military. The military, please note, is controlled by the Constitution and has traditionally existed separate from, but subordinate to, the rest of the American government.
He wants to take away the right to bear arms. He’ll pay lip service to supporting the Second Amendment, but his fundamental goal is to use government to remove arms from individuals.
In a stunning blow to the freedom of born alive infants, he is one of a handful of politicians nationwide who believes it is appropriate to leave such infants to die alone and untended. With few exceptions, even those whose politics are entirely colored by a pro-choice viewpoint couldn’t swallow this approach.
Without money, people have no choices. The more money the government siphons to itself, the fewer choices we as individuals have. Although he dresses it as fairness (it’s “fair” for the “lucky” to pay substantially more), Obama believes that it’s government’s role to “spread the wealth.” That may be “fair,” but it’s not consistent with liberty, hard work, and individual choices.
When it comes to America’s role abroad, Obama’s impulses are also all antithetical to liberty and American independence. Again, here is an incomplete list of examples of Barack Obama’s innate preference for tyranny over liberty:
Through selective punishments and rewards, he has turned against the only democratic nation in the Middle East (that would be Israel) in favor of the bloodied tyrannical theocracies on her borders.
By reversing his pledge to keep a missile defense system in place in Poland and the Czech Republic, he has favored Iran’s Muslim tyranny over these democratic nations only so recently freed from Communism.
Figuratively and literally, he bows to dictators (Saudis, Venezuelans, Russians, Iranians, Cubans, etc.). In other words, contrary to America’s hundred-year history of siding with the people against their tyrants, he sides with the tyrants against their people.
In Honduras, he has sided with the delusional Manuel Zelaya against the people and their Constitution.
In Iran, when the people took to the streets against a corrupt dictatorship, through his silence and muted statements, he effectively sided with the megalomaniac theocracy and against the people.
In his much-heralded speech to the Muslim world, in addition to grounding Israel’s right to exist solely on a Holocaust the Muslim world denies, he repeatedly and noisily trumpeted the right of Muslim men to control Muslim women, a trope he reiterated in subsequent speeches.
In his global speeches, he assures tyrannies the world over that America is abandoning her century-old role as the world’s policeman against megalomaniacs and tyrants. They are freed from any constraint.
By joining the farce that is the U.N. Human Rights Council, he is lending America’s imprimatur to the most violently anti-Semitic, authoritarian, dictatorial, anti-American political body in the world.
Through his waffling in Afghanistan, both in terms of ideology (why are we fighting?) and practical matters (troops! we need troops!), he is emboldening Al Qaeda and the Taliban, while simultaneously painting targets on the backs of our armed forces.
As part of his belief in the increasingly discredited notion of climate change, he stands ready to cede American sovereignty to a U.N. body that can control American wealth distribution and police the American body politic.
Ban pit traitors, now!
Can you say “Breed Specific Legisalation”???
Oh, I forgot - it’s a mutt.
Obama is a muslim admittedly
Scum of the earth
There I said it
You misspelled cur...or mongrel.
No he isn't. He's a "Liberation" Maoist/communist like most everyone else in his administration.
Feb 26, 2008
Barack Obama received at least some instruction in the Islamic faith of his father and went with him to the mosque, but the importance of this experience is vastly overstated by conservative commentators who seek to portray Obama as a Muslim of sorts. Radical anti-Americanism, rather than Islam, was the reigning faith in the Dunham household. ...
Barack Obama is a clever fellow who imbibed hatred of America with his mother's milk, but worked his way up the elite ladder of education and career. He shares the resentment of Muslims against the encroachment of American culture, although not their religion. He has the empathetic skill set of an anthropologist who lives with his subjects, learns their language, and elicits their hopes and fears while remaining at emotional distance. That is, he is the political equivalent of a sociopath. The difference is that he is practicing not on a primitive tribe but on the population of the United States.
There is nothing mysterious about Obama's methods. "A demagogue tries to sound as stupid as his audience so that they will think they are as clever as he is," wrote Karl Krauss. Americans are the world's biggest suckers, and laugh at this weakness in their popular culture. Listening to Obama speak, Sinclair Lewis' cynical tent-revivalist Elmer Gantry comes to mind, or, even better, Tyrone Power's portrayal of a carnival mentalist in the 1947 film noire Nightmare Alley. The latter is available for instant viewing at Netflix, and highly recommended as an antidote to having felt uplifted by an Obama speech. ..."
Article: Obama's women reveal his secret
Is the Pope Catholic?
Obamas Communist Mentor
AIM Column | By Cliff Kincaid | February 18, 2008
"through Frank Marshall Davis, Obama had an admitted relationship with someone who was publicly identified as a member of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA). The record shows that Obama was in Hawaii from 1971-1979, where, at some point in time, he developed a close relationship, almost like a son, with Davis, listening to his 'poetry' and getting advice on his career path. But Obama, in his book, Dreams From My Father, refers to him repeatedly as just 'Frank.'
The reason is apparent: Davis was a known communist who belonged to a party subservient to the Soviet Union. In fact, the 1951 report of the Commission on Subversive Activities to the Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii identified him as a CPUSA member. What's more, anti-communist congressional committees, including the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), accused Davis of involvement in several communist-front organizations."
Frank Chapman, a CPUSA supporter, has written a letter to the party newspaper hailing the Illinois senator's victory in the Iowa caucuses:
"Obamas victory was more than a progressive move; it was a dialectical leap ushering in a qualitatively new era of struggle. Marx once compared revolutionary struggle with the work of the mole, who sometimes burrows so far beneath the ground that he leaves no trace of his movement on the surface. This is the old revolutionary 'mole,' not only showing his traces on the surface but also breaking through."
-People's Weekly World (PWW), official newspaper of the Communist Party, USA
AIM article: Obamas Communist Mentor
Barack Obama, Frank Marshall Davis, Vernon Jarrett - One Degree of Seperation
New Zeal blog ^ | Oct 17, 2008 | Trevor Loudon
"Why did Barack Obama move to Chicago? Why did he choose a city famous for its corruption and distrust of outsiders as a launching pad for his political career? Did Obama's boyhood mentor, life long communist Frank Marshall Davis influence that choice?"
Barack Obama, from Dreams from My Father, Three Rivers Press, New York, Revised Edition, 2004, ISBN 1-4000-8277-3, p. 76-7:
"But by the time I met Frank [Frank Marshall Davis] he must have been pushing eighty, with a big, dewlapped face and an ill-kempt gray Afro that made him look like an old, shaggy-maned lion. He would read us his poetry whenever we stopped by his house, sharing whiskey with Gramps out of an emptied jelly jar."
From Accuracy In Media | AIM.ORG
Obamas Red Mentor Praised Red Army
AIM Report | By Cliff Kincaid | April 30, 2008
Barack Obamas childhood mentor, Frank Marshall Davis, a member of the Moscow-controlled Communist Party USA (CPUSA), wrote a poem dedicated to the Soviet Red Army. Smash on, victory-eating Red Army, he declared. He also wrote poems attacking traditional Christianity and the work of Christian missionaries.
The Red Army poem goes beyond hoping for the communists to beat the Nazis in World War II and hails the Soviet revolution. It says:
Show the marveling multitudes
Americans, British, all your allied brothers
How strong you are
How great you are
How your young tree of new unity
Planted twenty-five years ago
Bears today the golden fruit of victory!
From the Traditional Values Coalition, March 13, 2008:
"At some point in the 1970s when Barack was attending school in Hawaii, he became acquainted with Frank Marshall Davis, a member of the Communist Party, USA. Davis had moved to Hawaii in 1948 from Chicago where he had been involved in Marxist-related activities.
In Hawaii, he became a mentor to Barack Obama, the man who seeks the Presidency of the United States.
Kathryn Waddell Takara, Ph.D., a Professor of Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of Hawaii, has written at least two lengthy analysis of Frank M. Daviss political activities both in Hawaii and while he was living in Chicago. Takara created the first Black Studies department at the U of H in 1971 and is an associate of such notable leftists as Angela Davis and Stokely Carmichael.
Takaras paper, 'Frank Marshall Davis: Black Labor Activist and Outsider Journalist: Social Movements In Hawaii,' describes Davis radical activities in Hawaii as both a writer and labor organizer.
How this committed Communist became a mentor to Barack Obama remains a mystery, but it is likely that his mother was somehow involved in far left activities in Hawaii and met Davis through her left-wing network on the University of Hawaii campus. Perhaps an enterprising reporter could ask Senator Obama how he met Davis and what sort of influence he may have had on him. Likewise, one can only speculate on the influence his rebellious, left-wing mother had on his political beliefs and aspirations.
Presidential Candidate Barack Obamas Mother Profiled By 'Chicago Tribune' In 2007:
Barack Obama's Marxist Mentor [Frank Marshall Davis]
By Trevor Loudon, NewZeal.Blogspot.com, March 29, 2007
Anita Dunn: "The third lesson and tip actually comes from two of my favorite political philosophers, Mao Tse Tung and Mother Teresa. Not often coupled with each other, but the two people that I turn to most to basically deliver a simple point, which is: You're going to make choices. ... But here's the deal: These are your choices; they are no one else's.
"In 1947, when Mao Tse Tung was being challenged within his own party on his own plan to basically take China over, Chiang Kai-Shek and the nationalist Chinese held the cities, they had the army. ... They had everything on their side. And people said 'How can you win? How can you do this against all of the odds against you?'
"And Mao Tse Tung says, 'You fight your war and I'll fight mine.' You don't have to accept the definition of how to do things. ... You fight your war, you let them fight theirs. Everybody has their own path."..."
[The following is NOT from Anita Dunn. It's from the author of the linked CNS News article...]
Policies implemented under Mao Tse Tung, including the civil war, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and persecution in Tibet, among other policies, led to death of an estimated 65 million people, according to The Black Book of Communism (Harvard University Press), which is considered by scholars as one of the best sources on communist atrocities.
Mao also outlawed religion and sent at least 2.5 million people to re-education camps, called laogai, which were similar to the slave-labor camps in the Gulag of the Soviet Union. An estimated 1,000 laogai reportedly are still in operation today
Beck Plays Explosive Video of WH Communications Director (Anita Dunn) Praising Mao (and his revolution):
Van Jones became a revolutionary communist following the 1992 L.A./Rodney King Riots (58 dead)
Posted on Sunday, September 06, 2009 10:19:07 AM by ETL
"Jones was arrested during the L.A. riots and spent a short time in jail. "I met all these young radical people of color," he recalls, 'I mean really radical: communists and anarchists. And it was, like, "This is what I need to be a part of." I spent the next ten years of my life working with a lot of those people I met in jail, trying to be a revolutionary.'..."
From David Horowitz's FrontpageMag.com /DiscoverTheNetworks.org:
"Throughout its history, one of RCP's [Revolutionary Communist Party] principal objectives has been to foment civil unrest in the United States. The most notable example of such efforts occurred on April 29, 1992, when RCP members looted and trashed the downtown and government districts of Los Angeles, triggering the infamous Rodney King riots. During the days immediately preceding the violence, RCP -- which maintained close ties to the L.A. gangs known as the Crips and the Bloods -- had circulated throughout South Central Los Angeles a leaflet featuring a statement by RCP National Spokesman Carl Dix, titled 'It's Right To Rebel' -- a quote popularized by Mao Zedong.
Encouraged by Dix, RCP activists helped lead the riots that would leave 58 people dead, more than 2,300 people injured, some 5,300 buildings burned, and $1 billion in property damaged or destroyed. On the ten-year anniversary of the rioting, RCP member Joseph Veale fondly recalled the violence as 'the most beautiful, the most heroic civil action in the history of the United States.'"
Can there be NO Doubt?
ping for later read
Is a pig’s ass pork?
I would no more call Barack 0bama anti-American than I would call Fred Phelps anti-gay.
zerobamarhoid 2nd looks more like Davis than his alleged father, zerobamarhoid 1st.
Which one doesn't belong?
I’m not sure who the woman is. Zero’s mother, perhaps?
I’ve not seen this photo before.
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