Free Republic
Browse · Search
Bloggers & Personal
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

Abolish The Income Tax: You Won’t Believe Who Is Getting Away With Paying Zero Taxes
TEC ^ | 02/21/2013 | Michael Snyder

Posted on 02/24/2013 6:40:27 AM PST by SeekAndFind

Abolish The Income Tax - You Won't Believe Who Is Getting Away With Paying Zero Taxes While The Middle Class Gets Hammered - Photo by TravisThe federal income tax is a bad joke and it needs to be abolished. All over the nation, hard working American families are being absolutely crushed by oppressive levels of taxation, and our politicians are constantly coming up with new ways to extract money from all of us every single year. Meanwhile, many ultra-wealthy Americans and many of the most profitable corporations in the country pay little to nothing in taxes. In fact, as you will see below, there are dozens of very prominent corporations that make billions of dollars in profits and yet don't pay a dime in taxes. Tax avoidance has become a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States. Those that have the resources to "play the game" use shell companies, offshore tax havens and the thousands of loopholes in our tax code to minimize their tax burdens as much as possible. Meanwhile, the rest of us get absolutely hammered. This is fundamentally unfair. The federal income tax system is irreversibly broken at this point, and it is time to abolish it. If you think that the federal income tax system can be "fixed", then you probably have never studied it. Our tax code is nearly 4 million words long and it is absolutely riddled with thousands of loopholes that favor big corporations and the ultra-wealthy. We should come up with a better, fairer way to fund the government. The United States once prospered greatly without a federal income tax, and it could do so again.

Many people simply do not believe that it is possible for corporations inside the United States to make billions of dollars in profits each year and not pay a dime in income taxes.

Well, according to a report put out by Public Campaign, that is exactly what is happening. Posted below are numbers that come directly from their report. 30 large corporations are listed, and 29 of them had a tax burden for 2008 through 2010 that was less than zero even though they all made enormous profits. And all 30 of them spent more on lobbying than they did on taxes.

The numbers that you are about to see are for 2008, 2009 and 2010 combined. For "taxes paid", please note that for 29 of the corporations a negative number is given. That means that the net tax liability for 2008 through 2010 was actually less than zero.

After seeing these numbers, is there anyone out there that is still willing to claim that our tax system is "fair"?...

General Electric
U.S. Profits: $10,460,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$4,737,000,000

PG&E Corp.
U.S. Profits: $4,855,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$1,027,000,000

Verizon Communications
U.S. Profits: $32,518,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$951,000,000

Wells Fargo
U.S. Profits: $49,370,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$681,000,000

American Electric Power
U.S. Profits: $5,899,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$545,000,000

Pepco Holdings
U.S. Profits: $882,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$508,000,000

Computer Sciences
U.S. Profits: $1,666,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$305,000,000

CenterPoint Energy
U.S. Profits: $1,931,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$284,000,000

NiSource
U.S. Profits: $1,385,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$227,000,000

Duke Energy
U.S. Profits: $5,475,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$216,000,000

Boeing
U.S. Profits: $9,735,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$178,000,000

NextEra Energy
U.S. Profits: $6,403,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$139,000,000

Consolidated Edison
U.S. Profits: $4,263,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$127,000,000

Paccar
U.S. Profits: $365,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$112,000,000

Integrys Energy Group
U.S. Profits: $818,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$92,000,000

Wisconsin Energy
U.S. Profits: $1,725,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$85,000,000

DuPont
U.S. Profits: $2,124,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$72,000,000

Baxter International
U.S. Profits: $926,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$66,000,000

Tenet Healthcare
U.S. Profits: $415,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$48,000,000

Ryder System
U.S. Profits: $627,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$46,000,000

El Paso
U.S. Profits: $4,105,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$41,000,000

Honeywell International
U.S. Profits: $4,903,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$34,000,000

CMS Energy
U.S. Profits: $1,292,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$29,000,000

Con-­way
U.S. Profits: $286,000,000
Taxes Paid: ‐$26,000,000

Navistar International
U.S. Profits: $896,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$18,000,000

DTE Energy
U.S. Profits: $2,551,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$17,000,000

Interpublic Group
U.S. Profits: $571,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$15,000,000

Mattel
U.S. Profits: $1,020,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$9,000,000

Corning
U.S. Profits: $1,977,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$4,000,000

FedEx
U.S. Profits: $4,247,000,000
Taxes Paid: $37,000,000 (a rate of less than 1%)

Total
U.S. Profits: $163,691,000,000
­Taxes Paid: ‐$10,602,000,000

Just look at that combined total again.

Those 30 companies had combined profits of more than 163 billion dollars during those three years, and yet the combined net tax liability of those companies was negative 10.6 billion dollars.

I wish I could make my taxes look like that.

Another company that is making headlines because of their taxes these days is Facebook.

It turns out that Facebook made more than a billion dollars in 2012 but did not pay a single dime in federal or state income taxes. The following is from a report that was just released by Citizens for Tax Justice...

Earlier this month, the Facebook Inc. released its first “10-K” annual financial report since going public last year. Hidden in the report’s footnotes is an amazing admission: despite $1.1 billion in U.S. profits in 2012, Facebook did not pay even a dime in federal and state income taxes.

Instead, Facebook says it will receive net tax refunds totaling $429 million.

According to Businessweek, Facebook has an additional 2 billion dollars in tax credits that it will be able to use in future years...

Facebook says that it anticipates reducing its tax liability in the future by an additional $2.17 billion by using further net operating loss carry-forwards that it has banked.

And of course when it comes to abusing the tax system, the big Wall Street banks are some of the worst offenders. The following is an excerpt from a report put out by the office of U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders...

-----

Here are just a few examples of how the corporations and Wall Street banks these CEOs work for have significantly harmed our economy and the federal budget:

1. Bank of America CEO Brian Moynihan

Number of Offshore Tax Havens in 2010? 371.

In 2010, Bank of America operated 371 subsidiaries incorporated in offshore tax havens. 204 of these subsidiaries are incorporated in the Cayman Islands, which has a corporate tax rate of 0%.

Amount of federal income taxes Bank of America would have owed if offshore tax havens were eliminated? $2.5 billion.

Bank of America has stashed $18.5 billion in offshore tax havens to avoid paying U.S. income taxes. Bank of America would owe an estimated $2.5 billion in federal income taxes if its use of offshore tax avoidance was eliminated.

Amount of federal income taxes paid in 2010? Zero. $1.9 billion tax refund.

Bank of America received a $1.9 billion tax refund from the IRS in 2010, even though it made $4.4 billion in profits.

Taxpayer Bailout from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department? Over $1.3 trillion.

During the financial crisis, Bank of America received a total of more than $1.3 trillion in virtually zero interest loans from the Federal Reserve and a $45 billion bailout from the Treasury Department.

2. JP Morgan Chase CEO James Dimon

Number of Offshore Tax Havens in 2010? 83.

In 2010, JP Morgan Chase operated 83 subsidiaries incorporated in offshore tax havens.

Amount of federal income taxes JP Morgan Chase would have owed if offshore tax havens were eliminated? $4.9 billion

JP Morgan Chase has stashed $21.8 billion in offshore tax haven countries to avoid payng income taxes. If this practice was outlawed, it would have paid $4.9 billion in federal income taxes.

Taxpayer Bailout from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department? $416 billion

During the financial crisis, JP Morgan Chase received a total of more than $391 billion in virtually zero interest loans from the Federal Reserve and a $25 billion bailout from the Treasury Department, while Jamie DImon served as a director of the New York Federal Reserve.

3. Goldman Sachs CEO Lloyd Blankfein

Amount of federal income taxes paid in 2008? Zero. $278 million tax refund.

In 2008, Goldman Sachs received a $278 million refund from the IRS, even though it earned a profit of $2.3 billion that year.

Number of offshore tax havens in 2010? 39.

In 2010, Goldman Sachs operated 39 subsidiaries in offshore tax haven countries.

Amount of federal income taxes Goldman Sachs would have owed if offshore tax havens were eliminated? $3.32 billion.

Goldman Sachs has stashed $20.63 billion in offshore tax haven countries to avoid paying income taxes. If this practice was outlawed, it would have paid $3.32 billion in federal income taxes.

Taxpayer Bailout from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department? $824 billion.

During the financial crisis, Goldman Sachs received a total of $814 billion in virtually zero interest loans from the Federal Reserve and a $10 billion bailout from the Treasury Department.

-----

Are you starting to get the picture?

The big banks and the big corporations make billions, but they pay nothing or next to nothing.

The rest of us bust our rear ends to try to get ahead, and we get gouged by dozens of different taxes.

Over time, the percentage of the overall tax burden shouldered by corporations has gotten smaller and smaller.

Back in 1950, corporate taxes accounted for about 30 percent of all federal revenue. In 2012, corporate taxes accounted for less than 7 percent of all federal revenue.

These days, large corporations have become absolute masters at avoiding taxes. In fact, there are many international tax havens that are doing a booming business in setting up sham headquarters for U.S. corporations. For example, the city of Zug, Switzerland only has a population of 26,000 people but it is the headquarters for 30,000 companies.

But corporations are not the only ones doing this kind of thing.

The ultra-wealthy have also mastered the art of legally not paying taxes.

As I mentioned in a previous article, it has been reported that the global elite have up to 32 TRILLION dollars stashed in offshore banks around the globe.

With that amount of money, you could pay off the entire U.S. national debt and still have enough money left over to buy every product and service produced in the United States during an entire year.

It is time to admit that our tax system is broken.

Congress has had decades to fix it, and yet the abuses just keep getting worse.

What we are doing is not working.

We need to abolish the income tax.

If you are still not convinced that the federal income tax is an abomination and that we need to abolish it, here are some more shocking facts about our tax system from one of my previous articles about taxes...

1 - The U.S. tax code is now 3.8 million words long. If you took all of William Shakespeare's works and collected them together, the entire collection would only be about 900,000 words long.

2 - According to the National Taxpayers Union, U.S. taxpayers spend more than 7.6 billion hours complying with federal tax requirements. Imagine what our society would look like if all that time was spent on more economically profitable activities.

3 - 75 years ago, the instructions for Form 1040 were two pages long. Today, they are 189 pages long.

4 - There have been 4,428 changes to the tax code over the last decade. It is incredibly costly to change tax software, tax manuals and tax instruction booklets for all of those changes.

5 - According to the National Taxpayers Union, the IRS currently has 1,999 different publications, forms, and instruction sheets that you can download from the IRS website.

6 - Our tax system has become so complicated that it is almost impossible to file your taxes correctly. For example, back in 1998 Money Magazine had 46 different tax professionals complete a tax return for a hypothetical household. All 46 of them came up with a different result.

7 - In 2009, PC World had five of the most popular tax preparation software websites prepare a tax return for a hypothetical household. All five of them came up with a different result.

8 - The IRS spends $2.45 for every $100 that it collects in taxes.

9 - According to The Tax Foundation, the average American has to work until April 17th just to pay federal, state, and local taxes. Back in 1900, "Tax Freedom Day" came on January 22nd.

10 - When the U.S. government first implemented a personal income tax back in 1913, the vast majority of the population paid a rate of just 1 percent, and the highest marginal tax rate was just 7 percent.

11 - Residents of New Jersey pay $1.64 in taxes for every $1.00 of federal spending that they get back.

12 - The United States is the only nation on the planet that tries to tax citizens on what they earn in foreign countries.

13 - According to Forbes, the 400 highest earning Americans pay an average federal income tax rate of just 18 percent.

14 - Warren Buffett had an effective tax rate of just 17.4 percent for 2010.

15 - The top 20 percent of all income earners in the United States pay approximately 86 percent of all federal income taxes.

16 - Sadly, as Bill Whittle has shown, you could take every single penny that every American earns above $250,000 and it would only fund about 38 percent of the federal budget.

Please share this article with as many people as you can. We have now entered a time of the year when tens of millions of Americans will be filling out their tax returns, and the pain of going through that process will make people even more receptive than normal to the truth about how broken our system is.

So what do you think?

Do you think that it is fair for the ultra-wealthy and hugely profitable corporations to get away with paying zero taxes while you get hammered?

Do you believe that it is time to abolish the income tax?



TOPICS: Business/Economy; Government; Society
KEYWORDS: corporateincometax; corporations; incometax

1 posted on 02/24/2013 6:40:30 AM PST by SeekAndFind
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

I thought it was Big Oil raping us??


2 posted on 02/24/2013 6:52:40 AM PST by Vinnie (A)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Vinnie

RE: I thought it was Big Oil raping us??

We learn a lot everyday don’t we?

And I thought only other people were low information voters ... :)


3 posted on 02/24/2013 6:56:45 AM PST by SeekAndFind
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

This info makes me want to own stock in those favored corporations.


4 posted on 02/24/2013 6:56:56 AM PST by Pearls Before Swine
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

BookMark


5 posted on 02/24/2013 7:00:18 AM PST by thesearethetimes... ("Courage, is fear that has said its prayers." Dorothy Bernard)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

Actually, there are a lot of the big ones that do pay corporate taxes. You see some like BoA and energy companies and others that get tax credits, but they do pay taxes on those profits they can’t shelter somewhere. It’s perfectly legal to avoid taxes. The ones I’m concerned about are the ones that are kissing Obama’s ass and getting big big credits for kissing ass. We’ve seen these in recent reports.

What bothers me much more are the near 50% of filers that not only pay no federal income tax, but get money they NEVER paid in back. EITC - Earned (ha!) Income Tax Credit....leeches. It is nothing but income redistribution.

This is why you see Jackson Hewitt booths, Liberty Tax, H&R block and all of the others, including Turbo Tax with its free 1040EZ filing out there processing returns. They are getting a hugh profit on filing all those EITC returns for the leeches that are too stupid to fill out their own forms and too greedy and impatient to wait for the money but instead opt for a high fee Refund Anticipation Loan. They are disgusting.

Nope, this is just capitalism bashing, save for the unethical ass-kisser companies that cowtow to Obama for Tax Credits.


6 posted on 02/24/2013 7:02:35 AM PST by Gaffer
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

even if all corporations paid zero taxes then so what? that would mean we would all pay less taxes. Corporations don’t pay taxes. we pay their taxes via products we purchase

Government should not favor one class of taxpayer over another or one company over another. flat tax


7 posted on 02/24/2013 7:02:46 AM PST by plain talk
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Vinnie
It's not about revenue and never was. It's about control and information mining. You have to account for where you got every penny of your income and where you have spent every penny. You have to report to the government where you live, where you work, how many hours you work, how you get from your residence to your work, the size of your family, any medical procedures you have had, the value of your house and a myriad of other personal information.

The government in turn uses this information to enact policies that are intended to alter your improper behavior.

Revenue is unimportant to them controlling everything you do is their goal

8 posted on 02/24/2013 7:02:46 AM PST by Cowman (How can the IRS seize property without a warrant if the 4th amendment still stands?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

...take that list a bit further and see who the contribute to politically...what party gets the most percentage wise....oh know we shouldn’t do that, least we see who bitc*** the most about the rich......
..let’s see how much the democratic party got from ill advised loans to solar companies doomed to failure, where hundreds of millions disappeared within a month of the taxpayers “gift”
...let’s reopen the Corzine case where 1.2 billion disappeared and he walked free...
...let’s watch where the money from the “sale” of 16 F-16 fighters and 200 Abrams tanks goes


9 posted on 02/24/2013 7:08:13 AM PST by Doogle (USAF.68-73..8th TFW Ubon Thailand..never store a threat you should have eliminated))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Cowman

Hadn’t really thought of it from that angle but you are right.


10 posted on 02/24/2013 7:10:12 AM PST by Vinnie (A)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 8 | View Replies]

To: Pearls Before Swine
This info makes me want to own stock in those favored corporations.

..only when your a senator or congresscritter do you trade with INSIDE INFO that is illegal for everyone else

11 posted on 02/24/2013 7:11:34 AM PST by Doogle (USAF.68-73..8th TFW Ubon Thailand..never store a threat you should have eliminated))
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind
Mattel

Oh no, not EBT Barbie!


12 posted on 02/24/2013 7:12:48 AM PST by Ezekiel (The Obama-nation began with the Inauguration of Desolation.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: Ezekiel

Taxes for a business or corporation is like any other cost of doing business, it must be considered when determining what is asked of the consumer to pay for its goods or services. The taxes are passed on to the consumer.


13 posted on 02/24/2013 7:24:08 AM PST by reaganator
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind
“Do you think that it is fair for the ultra-wealthy and hugely profitable corporations to get away with paying zero taxes while you get hammered?”

1. Life ain't fair.

2. I'm not interested in playing the DemonRAT con game of class warfare. If the ultra-wealthy gather wealth through doing something dishonest, illegal or immoral, then spell out what that is and I'll feign outrage. To me, their greatest sins are those that support the illegal and immoral Democrat politicians.

3. Hugely profitable isn't a dirty word. It's how capitalism works, grows and rewards investment. Those evil companies listed employ a lot of people that are greatly enriched by that fact. They also are responsible to reward their share holders.

4. I'm not even outraged that evil corporations keep their money offshore to avoid paying taxes. I would too if I could.

It's a common misconception that the government is entitled to or is the owner of “everything”.

If you want “outrage” from me, let's discuss the evil entity that sucks off the cream of all “enterprise” to mainly redistribute that wealth to buy votes.

Government spending is currently 38% of GDP, 6% of which they are borrowing.

14 posted on 02/24/2013 7:26:57 AM PST by bitterohiogunclinger (Proudly casting a heavy carbon footprint as I clean my guns ---)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

Okay, #6 blew my mind!

And my assistant is having her motherclaim her two kids so she can get a huge refund back. She is on EBT. I just don’t understand, I really don’t. I’m a teacher & I equate what our gov’t does to us as a teacher penalizing a student who works hard, gets all their work in on time, is prepared for tests, is a productive member of their school, etc, etc.


15 posted on 02/24/2013 7:30:53 AM PST by leaning conservative (snow coming, school cancelled, yayyyyyyyyy!!!!!!!!!!!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind
dirty little secret ...

corporations pass on All Taxes to consumers of their product.
Want to pay more for goods and services?

Demand higher taxes on corporations.

16 posted on 02/24/2013 7:38:15 AM PST by no-to-illegals (Oh, What's the Point)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

Here’s the answer:

http://www.fairtax.org/site/PageServer?pagename=FAQs


17 posted on 02/24/2013 8:12:47 AM PST by Hostage (Be Breitbart!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: no-to-illegals
dirty little secret ...

Those billions of dollars of "tax refunds" that went to the corporations that paid no taxes listed in the article? They came out of your pocket.

18 posted on 02/24/2013 8:16:45 AM PST by vrwc1
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 16 | View Replies]

To: bitterohiogunclinger

What you said. It shows a failure to understand conservative principles that someone would be outraged that a company fails to pay taxes on income that would be taxed again if it was passed on to a shareholder. I would prefer to eliminate all or almost all corporate taxes and let them reinvest earnings without giving a cut to government, or give dividends to the shareholders, who would pay taxes on that income, preferably at a flat rate.


19 posted on 02/24/2013 8:42:56 AM PST by Defiant (If there are infinite parallel universes, why Lord, am I living in the one with Obama as President?)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: SeekAndFind

The US is almost totally broken. The article is compelling but who needs to be convinced? Certainly not the people paying the taxes.

All government, local and up, are demanding more and becoming ever more enriched on the back of the taxpayer. I am looking at the glistening new city hall and fire station right now... surrounded by several buildings and private properties much less grand and much less well kept. The servants are living better than the masters.

In the early sixties the sales tax was 3%. We knew just what we could buy before we hit the tilt point for the next penny of tax. A penny mattered when we picked up pop bottles for a popcicle. Now, the tax has tripled. That is a REAL 300% increase in the tax collected. The price of goods and services has gone up with inflation. 3% would provide the same inflation adjusted tax base we had in the 60s. It is costing THREE times as much to run local government than it was back in the 60s. ARE we getting THREE times the service? NO. Where is it all going? We had nice fire stations in the 60s, we had libaries that worked, we had people working for the city and county that made decent livings, we had the services we needed. Where is it all going?

Our entire system is broken. The masters are being consumed by the servants. The employees are now the employer and are allowing the employees to work for less and less and less and less.


20 posted on 02/24/2013 8:46:00 AM PST by Sequoyah101
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: vrwc1
This world is filled with dirty little secrets. Our political parties are filled with dirty little secrets. All life, on this planet, is filled with dirty little secrets, for all have sinned and deserve not God's Mercy.

When one looks at our Nation and the documents written by our Founders and the History of our Nation, one can be justified in saying America has not given everyone justice. We failed. With everything from man there is an undercurrent which all fall into and the river is called denial. When one looks at what can be done to not drink of the water in the river of denial; one, two, or perhaps an entire Nation may remove itself from that river if the effort is worthy of God's attention.

I would like to type more but know my time will be limited today to communicate with you. Whatever I type will be a dirty little secret till said dirty little secret appears here and only here at this one site of Free Republic. I do not ask to be agreed with. Our First Amendment says we do not have to agree with one another, for that Amendment was the first of ten penned and adopted at the beginning. Dissent is what made America great. Our First Amendment was followed by the Second, and so on till We the People did not have perfection, but in placing this Nation up to be scrutinized by this world and because America's History therein lays proof We the People of America make every attempt to correct our mistakes. Thus, when do the People of America begin our efforts within our government to correct the mistakes perpetrated by our government against We the People? Each America was taught We the People are our government. To be successful to bring America back to our Founding Documents there has to be a beginning. May it begin soon!

21 posted on 02/24/2013 10:20:12 AM PST by no-to-illegals (Scrutinize our government and secure the Blessing of Freedom and Justice)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 18 | View Replies]

To: Vinnie

If you notice, all but one of the companies listed above were actually getting a tax REFUND! After paying NO TAXES!


22 posted on 02/24/2013 10:39:10 AM PST by Shery (in APO Land)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
Bloggers & Personal
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson