12. Octal (base 8) 31 is equal to Decimal (base 10) 25.
(3*8) + 1 = 24+1 = 25
13. I don’t get Chomsky either, but Heisenberg is famous for the uncertainty theory.
14. Pavlov experimented with dogs, getting them to associate a bell ringing with being fed. In this joke, he hears a bell (phone) ringing and associates it with feeding the dog. He inadvertently “programmed” himself to respond to the bell.
I think it’s because Chomsky is a linguist and he said the joke was not told correctly.
Chomsky claims that the reason communism hasn’t been successful is because no one has done it right yet.
As Tom Lehrer said, base 8 is just like base 10 — if you’re missing two fingers.
13. I didnt at first either but I think it just means any person of the left who claims socialism or communism wasn’t “ done right.”