Skip to comments.The Women of Middle Earth (Great Article!)
Posted on 12/19/2003 2:23:21 PM PST by Pyro7480
The Women of Middle Earth
In the midst of piles of Lord of the Rings merchandise on every shelf, Tolkiens wisdom is applied to just about everything Tolkien and industrialization, Tolkien and communism, Tolkien and religion, etc. Whats surprising, especially in todays hypersensitive post-Gloria Steinem world, is the dearth of commentary on Tolkien and women.
The Bittersweet Complexities of True Womanhood
Even as I researched this article, the only writings on Tolkien and feminism I found were on websites for freebee high school essays.
Why is there seemingly so little written about Tolkien and women? Tolkien critics have accused the creator of Middle Earth of being anti-woman, even archaic, when viewed through todays politically correct lens of gender roles. Is there a perception that women are similarly disinterested in Tolkien? Whatever the reason, its an untapped topic that when explored can offer great amusement and insight into the mysterious creature called the woman.
Tolkiens portrayal of women in Lord of The Rings is bold and courageous. The bittersweet complexities of true womanhood are daringly depicted in each of the female characters. If these women are such fascinating and rich characters, why werent they given more page time? Brad Birzer, author of Sanctifying Myth, Understanding Middle Earth (ISI Books), points out that Lord of the Rings was written from a hobbits perspective. Saying that the lack of women in Lord of the Rings makes it anti-woman is like saying that Rob Reiner is a chauvinist for the lack of women in the film Stand by Me. To toss in a female character simply to appease the misguided demands of moviegoers would severely take away from the film's legitimacy.
The women in Tolkiens trilogy possess such an authentic depth that even the little we do see of them has a profound impact on the whole adventure. Through his female characters, Tolkien offers insight into what it means to be a woman. He strikes a delicate balance between the extreme attitudes of feminism. His female characters, although drastically different from each other in personality, manifest at their core, true womanly femininity.
Theres the gentle and hopeful Arwen in whose presence everything becomes peaceful. Theres the tumultuous, restless Eowyn, whose free spirit leads her to triumph over her greatest foe. We have the regal matriarch Galadriel whose strength of mind has created a timeless haven for her people. Finally, theres Belladonna Baggins, a hobbit who is mentioned in just four lines out of thousands of pages. Yet, it is from her bloodline that Bilbo Baggins inherits his atypical adventurous streak. This whisper of her presence ignites what has become a legend.
Matriarch, Princess, and Warrior
To me, Belladonna is the unseen grandmother whose prayers guide and protect her family as they go on to accomplish great tasks. She is the picture of a woman who has led a full life. The few lines written about her tell us that Belladonna did not have many adventures after she married, for her husband provided a great home for her. Belladonnas independence in her earlier adventurous life before marriage provides a catalyst for Bilbo, her male heir. Yet, she is content, even utterly satisfied, in the role of a wife and mother.
Tolkiens most popular female character is Arwen, the elven princess in love with the warrior Aragorn. In Tolkiens writings, the immortal character of Arwen presents the softer virtues of femininity: shes beautiful, gentle, and longsuffering. Everything about her is pure. Waiting for her beloved to return from his quest, she demonstrates faith and devotion, believing beyond all doubt that they will be reunited. In Arwen we see a tragic, romantic heroine, for Aragorns return means she must leave her people and face the knowledge that her mortal lover will someday die. Through her character, Tolkien shows us the challenge and the value of virtue and sacrifice.
I cannot understand why film critics praise Peter Jackson for his more masculine, modern adaptation of the elven Lady. Recall, if you will, the scene in Fellowship of the Ring in which a Ringwraith stabs Frodo. In the book, as Frodo escapes to Rivendell, the elven lord Glorfindal sends Frodo alone riding Asfaloth, Glorfindals white horse. The horse races across the ford with Frodo on his back just in time for a flood to engulf his pursuers. Later we learn that Elrond, the Elven King and Arwens father, summoned the flood.
Yet, in the film, Peter Jackson causes Arwen to perform the heroic tasks of Elrond and Glorfindal, making her appear more a stereotypical warrior princess like those popular with todays audience. It is as though he is introducing her character as a warrior so viewers wont notice that she becomes a passive heroine later in the story. Its as if Jackson is justifying her later passive portrayal that is true to Tolkiens Arwen.
Some critics claim that Tolkiens serene version of femininity is offensive to the modern female viewer. As a modern female viewer, I find the assumption itself offensive. Just because women can be warriors doesnt mean they have to be. Everything about Tolkiens Arwen is tranquil, serene, calming. These qualities are part of the charm of the womanhood she expresses. There are many types of women in the world. Arwen represents one of them. She represents a pillar of calm that is a source of strength for her man. Her great contribution to the war is the strength she provides to the future King.
Peter Jacksons adaptation is contradictory to this image. In Jacksons introduction of Arwen, there is an out of place sauciness that goes against the meekness of her character. Its unnecessary, too much embellishment. Its like putting cheesecake on a lobster tail. Both are great foods, but they do not belong together. Nor is one better than the other.
This is not to say that Tolkiens ideal woman is necessarily pure and angelic. Consider the significant role he gives to the more down to earth Eowyn, Lady of Rohan. Conflicted and free spirited, one can easily imagine Eowyn with a wicked case of PMS, which is part of why we love her. Still, she remains feminine bearing a sense of pride and dignity.
Eowyn is Arwens opposite. Arwen represents the calm and serene. Shes content to stay at home. Eowyn is internally conflicted. A free spirit, she feels caged in her role as nursemaid to an ailing king. Restless, and at the same time she bears a deep compassion for her people and a desire to protect them. She displays an absolute refusal to watch her country fall down around her while she is doing nothing. In her desperation, she disguises herself as a man so she can ride with the King and his soldiers in the War of the Ring. Rather than live a stifled life behind the citys walls, she seeks an honorable death fighting for her people: Give me liberty or give me death.
Was Tolkien a Liberator or an Oppressor?
Budding feminists in the essays cited earlier assert that in Tolkiens chauvinistic Middle Earth, Eowyn had to become a man in order to reach her destiny. To be a hero, a woman must become masculine. What they overlook is the significant role Tolkien gave her and the radical statement he makes. Tolkien elevates womanhood; it is specifically her gender that allows her to triumph. No man can defeat the Witch King. But Eowyn is no man. © Copyright 2003 Catholic Exchange
In the battle for Gondor, the Witch-King, chief of Saurons minions, attacks a disguised Eowyn and her King. As she bravely draws her sword in defense of her wounded companion, the Witch-King scoffs, Thou Fool. No living man may hinder me!
Eowyn laughs and retorts, No living man am I. You look upon a woman You stand between me and my lord and my kin I will smite you if you touch him. After centuries of conquering male warriors, the Witch-King is ultimately vanquished by a woman.
When we first met Eowyn, she was conflicted about the fire inside of her. For her whole life she was expected to behave like Arwen, though she desired to take an active role in stopping the downward changes occurring in her country. When this wasnt permitted, the wild spirit in her was stifled and gave way to bitterness and despair. It is only when she reconciles her femininity with her warrior spirit that the torment is gone, and her true womanhood is discovered.
Perhaps Tolkien is showing us that all types of femininity are valid. Obliterating one in favor of the other is destructive to all. Each type of woman is crucial to the wellbeing of a healthy community.
Was Tolkien sympathizing with the plight of women in his day, when the only options besides housewife were waitress, secretary, or movie star? Maybe Tolkien was saying that while woman should be respected, some of societys chivalrous ideas were doing more harm than good, isolating woman instead of protecting them.
Christine O'Donnell serves as Director of Communications for the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. She has been described as sassy, stubborn and sweet, and by those who disagree with her as "the girl you hate to love." This young woman who National Review Magazine says "blends the flare of the Bible with Cosmopolitan," shatters the stereotype about her generation. Her frequent television appearances include ABC's Politically Incorrect, MTV, CNN, C-SPAN, Fox News Channel, MSNBC and CNBC.
© Copyright 2003 Catholic Exchange
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You know. I really like this article. But this one paragraph that I have copied bothers me. I identify more with Arwen than Eowyn - but people often tell me I remind them of Eowyn. In that vein, I think it's a true mark of womanhood that we can be both. We can be the passive and serene woman and yet, when the time is needful become the warrior princess. This is one time when I disagree with a criticism of PJ's adaptation. I don't see that he messed up Arwen at all. I think she is just more fully developed.
I still miss Glorfindel though. He is my favorite male elf!
I know I'm probably going out on a limb here being a male and all ;) but I can see a Biblical description of what women can and sometimes should be in this series. And of course what men should be. I think I may not have fully noticed it however until watching the movie and seeing it in action. Today's society will call it chauvinistic but there it is
Why is this not a shock?
She forgot Goldberry- but hey-
I agree with her comments about Arwen, I would add that I have come to see Arwen, not a 'passive', but as an Intercessor. Having a depth of love and faith, able to encourage Aragorn to fulfill his role, but rather that passive, she continues to actively support him with intercession.
With Eowyn we meet her and watch her before she finds and loves Faramir. We don't know but can guess that her restlessness and physicality aren't quieted by that love. Tolkien doesn't say, but I've always assumed that she finds a completeness and becomes a bit more tranquil and serene in her marriage to Faramir.
Just a thought?
I don't call it chauvinistic at all! And it's great to hear a man voice his opinion on this. I appreciate it that Tolkien shows a deep understanding of women not as shallow weaker people. But, as the other ones that God created, with our own strengths, weaknesses and contributions to be made. I don't feel he was patronizing at all to women. In each of his female characters there was strength and worth, and yet they remained very much women. I want to be thought of in that manner myself.
Well, she was as close as the hobbits got to aristocracy. One of the themes of the book that I don't think come across easily to most Americans is that Sam was a servant and the other three hobbits were upper class. So the eventual disappearance of the social distance between them was his way of pointing out the essential irrelevance of such distinctions. Since few Americans pay much attention to such distinctions in the first place, I don't think we get this.
I agree with you. I too identify more with Arwen, but I like the way you put it. We are not one-dimensional, but multi-dimensional, and highly adaptive to the need of the moment. I like the way PJ brought Arwen into the rescue of Frodo. I didn't even see her so much as the warrior princess there as the healer/protector whose equestrian skill I greatly admired and which served the role well without dimishing her femininity in the least. It gave a beautiful supernatural quality to her femininity.
I would absolutely agree with that. Feminists exploit femaleness at the expense of femininity.
I missed this the first time around. And I love Tolkien.
BTTT for a Christine O’Donnel read.
From the article’s description of O’Donnell:
“© Copyright 2003 Catholic Exchange
Christine O’Donnell serves as Director of Communications for the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. She has been described as sassy, stubborn and sweet, and by those who disagree with her as “the girl you hate to love.” This young woman who National Review Magazine says “blends the flare of the Bible with Cosmopolitan,” shatters the stereotype about her generation. Her frequent television appearances include ABC’s Politically Incorrect, MTV, CNN, C-SPAN, Fox News Channel, MSNBC and CNBC.”
Thanks for posting this. Great article.
Hmm... What about Elbereth?
You don’t cry out Manwe’s or Orome’s name when fighting giant spiders (also female).
Or Rosie and Elanor? Someone upwards already mentioned Goldberry.