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ROME'S TREMENDOUS TUNNEL
SpiegelOnLine ^ | 03/11/2009 | By Matthias Schulz

Posted on 04/19/2009 4:27:23 AM PDT by Fred Nerks

The Ancient World's Longest Underground Aqueduct

Roman engineers chipped an aqueduct through more than 100 kilometers of stone to connect water to cities in the ancient province of Syria. The monumental effort took more than a century, says the German researcher who discovered it.

When the Romans weren't busy conquering their enemies, they loved to waste massive quantities of water, which gurgled and bubbled throughout their cities. The engineers of the empire invented standardized lead pipes, aqueducts as high as fortresses, and water mains with 15 bars (217 pounds per square inch) of pressure.

PHOTO GALLERY: ROME'S LONGEST PIPE

In the capital alone there were thousands of fountains, drinking troughs and thermal baths. Rich senators refreshed themselves in private pools and decorated their gardens with cooling grottos. The result was a record daily consumption of over 500 liters of water per capita (Germans today use around 125 liters).

However, when the Roman legions marched into the barren region of Palestine, shortly before the birth of Christ, they had to forgo the usual splashing about, at least temporarily. It was simply too dry.

But that didn't stop the empire's clever engineers. They soon figured out a way to put things right. In the former Roman province of Syria (located in modern day Jordan), researchers are currently studying a sensational canal system. It extends mostly underground over a distance of 106 kilometers (66 miles).

The tunnel was discovered by Mathias Döring, a hydromechanics professor in Darmstadt, Germany. Treading on moss-covered steps, he squeezes his way into dark caverns plastered with waterproof mortar. Greek letters are emblazoned on the walls, and bats dart through the air. "Sometimes we have to stop working -- there isn't enough oxygen," says the project director.

(Excerpt) Read more at spiegel.de ...


TOPICS: History; Miscellaneous
KEYWORDS: ancientrome; aquaduct; aqueduct; aqueducts; engineering; gadara; germany; godsgravesglyphs; jordan; letshavejerusalem; mathiasdoring; middleeast; qanat; roman; romanempire; syria; water

How the aqueduct worked.

1 posted on 04/19/2009 4:27:23 AM PDT by Fred Nerks
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To: SunkenCiv; LucyT

Mathias Döring. Using theodolites, GPS readers and ample safety equipment, the team charts the depths of the tunnel.

2 posted on 04/19/2009 4:35:39 AM PDT by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks

amazing


3 posted on 04/19/2009 4:43:22 AM PDT by beebuster2000
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To: Fred Nerks

I wonder how long before Muslims claim it is an Islamic holy site.


4 posted on 04/19/2009 4:44:54 AM PDT by airborne (If I'm a right wing extremist, does that make FreeRepublic a terrorist training camp?)
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To: airborne

The monumental effort took more than a century, I guess that’s how long it will take America to erect a wall at the Mexican border?


5 posted on 04/19/2009 5:19:57 AM PDT by Vaduz
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To: Vaduz

Back when Jimmy Carter first started talking about a Palestinian homeland, someone suggested digging a moat along the Mexican border and using the dirt from that to construct a Palestinian homeland.


6 posted on 04/19/2009 5:35:50 AM PDT by Verginius Rufus
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To: airborne

They won’t claim it.

They will destroy it, as they do now in Iran and Saudi Arabia (Wahabis and Iranian Shia fundamentalists) with any artifact, monument or shrine that predates Islam and/or conflicts with lifting up their own sect of Islam.


7 posted on 04/19/2009 5:45:08 AM PDT by Wuli
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To: beebuster2000
"100 kilometers of stone"

That's a fair distance to tunnel.

8 posted on 04/19/2009 5:57:44 AM PDT by Paladin2 (Big Ears + Big Spending --> BigEarMarx, the man behind TOTUS)
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To: Vaduz
The monumental effort took more than a century,

That's what I call a people with faith in their future.

9 posted on 04/19/2009 6:01:23 AM PDT by hinckley buzzard
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To: Vaduz
The monumental effort took more than a century, I guess that’s how long it will take America to erect a wall at the Mexican border?

Border? We don't need no steenkin' border!

MexAmeriCanada baby!

(sarcasm)

10 posted on 04/19/2009 6:16:16 AM PDT by airborne (If I'm a right wing extremist, does that make FreeRepublic a terrorist training camp?)
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To: Wuli

Well they sure love to tunnel into Israel! ;^)


11 posted on 04/19/2009 6:17:28 AM PDT by airborne (If I'm a right wing extremist, does that make FreeRepublic a terrorist training camp?)
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To: Wuli

There are hundreds of thousands of miles of similar (but less precisely built) tunnels throughout Iran. So far there’ve been no sightings of Moslems destroying those tunnels simply because they pre-date Mohammad. In fact, they jealously guard them since that’s how they get water.


12 posted on 04/19/2009 6:18:13 AM PDT by muawiyah
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To: muawiyah
There are hundreds of thousands of miles of similar (but less precisely built) tunnels throughout Iran.

I believe that you are writing about Qanats Which are also an amazing feat of engineering in the Indo-Aryan desert areas. According to the Wikipedia article, the oldest of these in Iran may date from around the time of Cyrus the Great (700 BCE).

However, in defense of this article, I don't think these qanats were built by invading forces with century+ mindsets. This aqueduct project is amazing.

13 posted on 04/19/2009 7:05:09 AM PDT by SES1066 (Cycling to conserve, Conservative to save, Saving to Retire, will Retire to Cycle.)
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To: SES1066
The Persian tunnels built in what is now Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Israel, et al were definitely constructed by people who liked water and were quite willing to have the locals provide all the labor for the tunnel and canal jobs.

So, yes, the Persians were as devoted to having water as were the Romans.

Speaking of century long ambitions, they've been building the New York City subway for MORE THAN A CENTURY and will never be done!

14 posted on 04/19/2009 7:16:26 AM PDT by muawiyah
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To: airborne

“What have the @#!??!&*@! Romans ever given us?”
“The aqueduct?”

— Monty Python’s “The Life of Brian”


15 posted on 04/19/2009 7:16:41 AM PDT by TimeLord (A whale fetus is a whale; a human fetus is a blob.)
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To: Verginius Rufus
"Back when Jimmy Carter first started talking about a Palestinian homeland, someone suggested digging a moat along the Mexican border and using the dirt from that to construct a Palestinian homeland."

Good idea.

16 posted on 04/19/2009 7:19:47 AM PDT by Radix (We seek Liberty......They give us Debt.)
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To: Vaduz

I find it amazing that you would be carping about a wall on a thread about tunnels. The thread describes in detail how ancient engineers were able to go for hundreds of kilometers under ground.

The thrust of the piece undermines your demand for a wall. The wall won’t stop anything. A dedicated tunneling effort will render it worthless


17 posted on 04/19/2009 7:30:03 AM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. +12 . John Galt hell !...... where is Francisco dÂ’Anconia)
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To: Paladin2

i wonder what tools they used? i dont think they had steel, did they?


18 posted on 04/19/2009 7:59:27 AM PDT by beebuster2000
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To: Fred Nerks
The engineers of the empire invented standardized lead pipes, aqueducts as high as fortresses, and water mains with 15 bars (217 pounds per square inch) of pressure. In the capital alone there were thousands of fountains, drinking troughs and thermal baths...

But aside from all that, what have the Romans ever done for us?

19 posted on 04/19/2009 8:48:30 AM PDT by SamAdams76 (I am 21 days from outliving Andre the Giant)
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To: Fred Nerks

Why is it dry now?


20 posted on 04/19/2009 9:00:47 AM PDT by Paladin2 (Big Ears + Big Spending --> BigEarMarx, the man behind TOTUS)
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To: beebuster2000
"i wonder what tools they used?"

Good Question.

Palistinians? ;-)

Damascus steel? - nope too early

"Metalsmiths in India and Sri Lanka perhaps as early as 300BCE developed a new technique known as wootz steel that produced a high-carbon steel of unusually high purity.

I suppose they could have used bronze and iron chisels, especially on softer rock. There are also references to building a fire to heat the surface being excavated and then splashing water on the surface to fracture the rock.

21 posted on 04/19/2009 9:20:05 AM PDT by Paladin2 (Big Ears + Big Spending --> BigEarMarx, the man behind TOTUS)
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To: Fred Nerks
Thanks, Fred Nerks. Interesting. Just imagine all that work without our modern tools.

In the former Roman province of Syria (located in modern day Jordan), researchers are currently studying a sensational canal system. It extends mostly underground over a distance of 106 kilometers (66 miles).

22 posted on 04/19/2009 2:09:29 PM PDT by LucyT
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To: Paladin2
Why is it dry now?

good question, the article doesn't appear to answer that.

23 posted on 04/19/2009 2:23:27 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum!)
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To: SES1066
Qanats in Iran:
24 posted on 04/19/2009 2:27:13 PM PDT by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum!)
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To: Fred Nerks

:’) Thanks Fred Nerks. The Romans had it goin’ on.

Rome’s Tremendous Tunnel [100 kilometers long, century to dig it]
Speigel | Wednesday, March 11, 2009 | Matthias Schulz
Posted on 03/13/2009 8:35:55 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2206315/posts

related topics:

Claudius’ Naumachia on Fucine Lake (Those About To Die, chap III)
Those About To Die (via Kurt Saxon) | 1950s (I believe) | Daniel P. Mannix
Posted on 11/24/2005 7:45:06 AM PST by SunkenCiv
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1527955/posts

The Tunnel of Samos (Over 1000 Meters Sixth Century BC)
Cal Tech Engineering and Science | N/A | Tom M. Apostol
Posted on 04/03/2009 4:45:40 PM PDT by raybbr
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/2221910/posts


25 posted on 04/19/2009 7:15:49 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________ Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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Thanks Fred Nerks.

Just adding to the catalog, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

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26 posted on 04/19/2009 7:16:14 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________ Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Paladin2

The maintenance guys haven’t been around in a while. ;’)


27 posted on 04/19/2009 7:18:08 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/____________________ Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: bert

The wall won’t stop anything,gee you think China built a wall for nothing?


28 posted on 04/20/2009 3:50:58 AM PDT by Vaduz
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To: Fred Nerks; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

Note: this topic is from 4/19/2009, and it is a re-ping, because it's just so darned interesting. Thanks again Fred Nerks.

29 posted on 08/21/2013 7:13:22 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: Vaduz
The wall won’t stop anything,gee you think China built a wall for nothing?

Actually, yes, it was largely for nothing. Architecturally, it was a huge achievement. Militarily, however, it was a total failure.

30 posted on 08/21/2013 7:39:24 PM PDT by Ramius (Personally, I give us one chance in three. More tea anyone?)
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To: Vaduz
I guess that’s how long it will take America to erect a wall at the Mexican border?

Our government will build its wall in a matter of months, just as soon as they need it to keep us in.

It's what communist dictatorships do.

31 posted on 08/21/2013 10:28:23 PM PDT by null and void (Frequent terrorist attacks OR endless government snooping and oppression? We can have both!)
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To: SunkenCiv

Very interesting, indeed. A lot of engineering genius in the Roman Empire.


32 posted on 08/22/2013 5:26:41 AM PDT by Bigg Red (Let me hear what God the LORD will speak. -Ps85)
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To: SunkenCiv
they loved to waste massive quantities of water

What a ridiculous comment!

33 posted on 08/22/2013 7:32:57 AM PDT by BenLurkin (This is not a statement of fact. It is either opinion or satire; or both.)
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To: Fred Nerks

ok now how do you dig tunnels like that without lights?????

this is freaky


34 posted on 08/22/2013 7:55:17 AM PDT by Mr. K (Lies, Damned Lies, Statistics, and then Democrat Talking Points.)
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To: Verginius Rufus

That sounds like a democrat idea


35 posted on 08/22/2013 7:56:01 AM PDT by Mr. K (Lies, Damned Lies, Statistics, and then Democrat Talking Points.)
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To: Fred Nerks
Rich senators refreshed themselves in private pools and decorated their gardens with cooling grottos.

Sounds familiar....history IS repeating itself.

36 posted on 08/22/2013 8:07:59 AM PDT by Jane Long (While Marxists continue the fundamental transformation of the USA, progressive RINOs stay silent.)
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To: null and void

Agree we are only a few steps away from a dictatorships.


37 posted on 08/22/2013 8:15:47 AM PDT by Vaduz
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To: TimeLord

Well, that goes without saying


38 posted on 08/22/2013 7:38:50 PM PDT by MattinNJ (It's over Johnny. The America you knew is gone. Denial serves no purpose.)
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