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A Storm in Egypt during the Reign of Ahmose [The Tempest Stele]
Thera Foundation ^ | September 1989 (last modified March 26, 2006) | E.N. Davis

Posted on 11/01/2009 8:04:33 AM PST by SunkenCiv

An inscribed stele erected at Thebes by Ahmose, the first Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, documents a destructive storm accompanied by flooding during his reign.

Fragments of the stele were found in the 3rd Pylon of the temple of Karnak at Thebes between 1947 and 1951 by the French Mission. A restoration of the stele and translation of the text was published by Claude Vandersleyen (1967). In the following year (1968), Vandersleyen added two more fragments, one from the top of the inscription and a small piece from line 10 of the restored text, which had been recovered by Egyptian archaeologists in the final cleaning of the foundations.

Each of the two sides of the stele bore the same inscription, allowing Vandersleyen to produce a restored text by collating them. The upper portion, after giving the King's titles and a recitation of religious ceremonies, describes the storm. It is unfortunately the most damaged part of the stele, with the result that there are many lacunae in the meteorological description. The description of the storm is followed by a virtually complete text that specifies the measures taken by the King to relieve the distress of the people and to repair the damages at Thebes.

An English version of Vandersleyen's translation, beginning with the description of the storm, is offered here for the convenient [sic] of Aegean specialists.

(Excerpt) Read more at therafoundation.org ...


TOPICS: Astronomy; Science
KEYWORDS: ahmose; akrotiri; astronomy; calliste; catastrophism; egypt; epigraphyandlanguage; exodus; godsgravesglyphs; israel; karnak; letshavejerusalem; minoans; newkingdom; santorini; science; telkabri; tempeststela; tempeststele; thebes; thera
the tempest stele
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1 posted on 11/01/2009 8:04:33 AM PST by SunkenCiv
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To: 75thOVI; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aragorn; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; BBell; ...
I was preparing an entirely different topic posting; during a drive search for the files (from August) I felt I needed something else I knew I had, but ran across something else (on radiocarbon dating problems on Thera), and loaded the index page. This was another paper linked there. Read with caution however -- everything on the page relates to the controversy of Thera dating, and not in what I'd call a good way. :')
 
Catastrophism
 
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2 posted on 11/01/2009 8:07:11 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; ...

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Plenty more where this came from. :') To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
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3 posted on 11/01/2009 8:10:03 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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index page, alpha sort:
4 posted on 11/01/2009 8:25:58 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv
An interesting overview is the movie The Exodus Decoded.
5 posted on 11/01/2009 8:31:54 AM PST by D Rider
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To: SunkenCiv

6 posted on 11/01/2009 8:42:33 AM PST by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet)
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To: JoeProBono

“This isn’t a shower...” — Bill Cosby


7 posted on 11/01/2009 9:25:28 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv

First thing that occurred to me was Thera and the possibility of a storm and sunami hitting the Egyptian coast.

Don’t have time to read all the back and forth now.


8 posted on 11/01/2009 9:49:56 AM PST by wildbill (You're just jealous because the Voices talk only to me.)
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To: wildbill

No chance of that. :’)


9 posted on 11/01/2009 10:04:48 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: D Rider
:')
10 posted on 11/01/2009 10:27:43 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv
I think Rohl Had Dudimose set as the Pharaoh of the Exodus which is 2 Pharaohs before Ahmoses.

In any event, the classical chronological construction continues to have severe problems.

11 posted on 11/01/2009 10:54:47 AM PST by D Rider
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To: D Rider

Thanks. Rohl’s work came out of the (failed) Glasgow Chronology, which also spawned the “Centuries of Darkness” book from Peter James et al. Back in early 2000, some comments I made on another forum:

[snip] David Rohl, part of the Glasgow School (which formed as a result of a convention about Velikovsky about 20 years ago) has two books out, and a third is coming soon. His Pharaohs and Kings also places the Exodus in the 13th Dynasty, and in fact even picks the same pharaoh as Dr V did (back in 1952!). Peter James et al, author of Centuries of Darkness, is also from the Glasgow School.

...Briefly, since Rohl comes to the same conclusion for the Exodus as Dr V, he has to reduce the length of the Hyksos period along the lines of the conventional view, but also has to squash dynasties subsequent to the 19th in order to make his system work. The era of the 18th and 19th dynasties (the real glory years of Egypt in a certain sense) have synchronisms with other places (such as Greece and Mesopotamia) that make it difficult for the timid to change them much.

In this regard Courville’s work with the Mesopotamian kingdoms really seems to shine... Rohl and James don’t seem to work with the problems there at all. They seem to think they can bail out the chronology by relying on the Mesopotamian chronology, forgetting apparently that it was developed dependent on the Egyptian chronology. [unsnip]

One minor correction, Velikovsky’s chronological framework was first published in outline form in 1945. :’)


12 posted on 11/01/2009 11:17:34 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv
Do you then hold tho the classical chronology that correlates the Exodus with Ramses II?
13 posted on 11/01/2009 11:34:41 AM PST by D Rider
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To: SunkenCiv

http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/myths.htm

Lamentations for the City of Ur

excerpt:

Enlil called the storm. The people mourn.
Winds of abundance he took from the land. The people mourn.
Bood winds he took away from Sumer. the people mourn.
Deputed evil winds. The people mourn.
Entrusted them to Kingaluda, tender of storms.

He called the storm that annihilates the land. The people mourn.
He called disastrous winds. The people mourn.
Enlil — choosing Gibil as his helper —
called the (great) hurricane of heaven. The people mourn.
The (blinding) hurricane howling across the skies — the people mourn —
the tempest unsubduable like breaks through levees,
beats down upon, devours the city’s ships,
(all these) he gathered at the base of heaven. The people mourn.

(Great) fires he lit that heralded the storm. The people mourn.
And lit on either flank of furious winds the searing heat of the desert.
Like flaming heat of noon this fire scorched.

The storm ordered by Enlil in hate, the storm which wears away the country,
covered Ur like a cloth, veiled it like a linen sheet.

http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/myths/texts/lamentations/lamentur.html

http://www.gatewaystobabylon.com/myths/lamentations.htm

Lament for the Cities of Turin and Sumer

92...The dark time was roasted by hailstones and flames. The bright time was wiped out by a shadow. (2 mss. add 2 lines: On that bloody day, mouths were crushed, heads were crashed. The storm was a harrow coming from above, the city was struck by a hoe.) On that day, heaven rumbled, the earth trembled, the storm worked without respite. Heaven was darkened, it was covered by a shadow; the mountains roared. Utu lay down at the horizon, dust passed over the mountains. Nanna lay at the zenith, the people were afraid. The city ...... stepped outside. The foreigners in the city even chased away its dead. Large trees were uprooted, the forest growth was ripped out. The orchards were stripped of their fruit, they were cleaned of their offshoots. The crop drowned while it was still on the stalk, the yield of the grain diminished...


14 posted on 11/01/2009 12:55:18 PM PST by Fred Nerks (fair dinkum)
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To: D Rider

Nope. The Exodus happened at the end of the Middle Kingdom; the conventional pseudochronology placing Ramses II far enough back to have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus (in the OT, two cities are named, on Pi-Ramesses “place of Ramesses”, the other Pi-Thom “place of Thom”) may have begun as a prop to the Biblical account, but wound up being used to bash the Bible. The synchronisms are fit exquisitely by Velikovsky in his historical reconstruction — oddly enough, other than the supposed super-eruption of Thera.

Ed Schorr (writing as Israel Isaacson or something like that, to avoid problems with his budding academic career) pointed out that any such eruption would have to date five centuries or so later than what remains the conventional date, circa 1500 BC, in order not to conflict with the reconstruction (basically, he framed it as a choice between Worlds In Collision and Ages In Chaos; the fact is, the Thera eruption is discussed very briefly in WiC, and is immaterial to the thesis of that book; Velikovsky simply made a rare error).

There is no documentary evidence of such a mighty eruption in surviving ancient records (not a peep); Herodotus actually discusses the island, and doesn’t mention anything about it; the only ancient source that mentions an eruption dates one to about 200 BC., and since Latin loan words have been discerned in some of the supposedly much older Linear B texts, and the Romans arrived around 207 BC, Linear B was still in use for a long time after the supposed Dark Age of Greece (another mythical construct that is a consequence of the conventional pseudochronology).


15 posted on 11/01/2009 12:58:03 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Fred Nerks

Thanks Fred Nerks!


16 posted on 11/01/2009 1:00:59 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: SunkenCiv

Bush’s Fault! Women and Children most affected! Just wait ‘til the Barackamites send in FEMA!


17 posted on 11/01/2009 8:27:50 PM PST by night reader (NRA Life Member since 1962)
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To: SunkenCiv

Actually, David Rohl has four books out: Pharaohs and Kings, Legend, From Eden to Exile (called The Lost Testament when it was in hardcover), and The Lords of Avaris. I ordered them in February 2008.


18 posted on 11/02/2009 2:46:12 AM PST by Berosus (Come blast off with me! http://ppl.blastoffnetwork.com/charlesskimball04)
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To: Berosus

“Pharaohs and Kings” also had a different title, “Test of Time” — the title of a projected work by Velikovsky which never came about. :’)


19 posted on 11/02/2009 3:35:55 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: night reader
:')
20 posted on 11/02/2009 3:42:04 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: Fred Nerks; D Rider; SunkenCiv; All

I have been following the issue of vulcanism and its effect on history and the human condition for some years. One eruption that has been given little attention is the 1500 BC + or - 50 years major eruption of Mt. Etna. I pulled up the rest of the article and saw that the Amose period has been suggested as 1550-1528 BC or 1539-1517 BC (Kitchen, 1987). This certainly falls within the appropriate period. I have also seen photos of an Etna ash plume blowing to north Africa to the west of the Nile in a recent eruption. I think it makes more sense to take a serious look at this possibility rather than making such an effort to disprove the relatively accepted date of Thera as 1626 BC.

I also do not think that the Exodus dates to the period of the great Ramases. He would have skunked those Jewish upstarts. My current theory is that it was in the period of Amenhotep II. I am playing with a historical novel idea in which I have Moses rescued as an infant by Queen Hatshepsut, and having a falling out with young Amenhotep II after the death of Tutmosis III. I see the pillar of smoke by day and of fire by night as being a volcano active to the east of Egypt and the waterways along the Red Sea rift. I posit that the land inflated from the build up of a magma pocket, causing the waters to part allowing the escape, and then as the magma was ejected the land sank again allowing the waters to rush back in. Then Moses wandered in the desert for the next 40 years while the 38 years remaining of Amenhoteps reign played out, and headed for the promised land once the word reached him that his sworn enemy was dead.

As to other storms, the First Intermediate Period as described by Ipuwer was probably much worse, and occurred around 2000 BC or earlier. There are some interesting impact craters in Argentina dating to that period. Then, of course, there is the 2 mile diameter crater recently discovered in the drained marshes of Iraq, which I first saw reported here. That also could have messed up the neighborhood a whole lot. Is there any more recent information on the date of this crater??

Catastrophism and history are so much fun!! So long as we are not living at the time, of course.


21 posted on 11/04/2009 9:37:32 PM PST by gleeaikin
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To: SunkenCiv; All

Having just read this link, I was reminded of another thought I have had. I was struck by similarities in the art of Thera and Crete, and that of Iknatons new city. My theory was that as Minoan society declined that their artists found a sympathetic audience with Amenhotep IV cultural and artistic revolution toward naturalism, and were extensively employed at his new city.


22 posted on 11/04/2009 9:51:49 PM PST by gleeaikin
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To: gleeaikin

If the implications that each volcano has its own ash fingerprint is true. Then, wouldn’t it be possible to take ash from the Avaris site and backtrack it to which volcano it came from? Or is it harder than that?


23 posted on 11/05/2009 9:38:14 AM PST by D Rider
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