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Xinjiang discovery provides intriguing DNA link ^ | 28 April 2010 | Mu Xuequan

Posted on 05/01/2010 4:55:38 AM PDT by Palter

The DNA of some 4,000 year-old bodies unearthed five years ago in Xinjiang, in northwest China, provides scientific evidence of early intermingling between people of European and Asian origin.

Zhou Hui, a professor of life science and her team discovered that some of the earliest inhabitants of the Tarim Basin in the Taklamakan Desert were of European and Siberian descent.

The basin, where hundreds of well-preserved mummies have been found since the 1980s, has attracted great attention from scientists worldwide.

Professor Victor Mair of Pennsylvania University claimed in 2006, "From around 1800 B.C. the earliest mummies in the Tarim Basin were exclusively Caucasoid, or Europoid," after he studied DNA samples derived from five bodies unearthed in the basin.

However, Professor Jin Li of Shanghai-based Fudan University, announced in 2007 that the mummies' DNA in the basin's Loulan area, including the 3,800-year-old Loulan Beauty, indicated East Asian, even South Asian origin.

Many archaeologists have accepted that people living in the basin as early as 3,800 years ago, or the Bronze Age, were of European descent, with Asians, mainly from east Asia, only arriving during the Iron Age, Zhou said. "But when the population from Europe and Asia began 'intermarrying' in the area still remains a mystery," she added.

Zhou and her team got DNA samples from the bones and teeth of 20 mummies, around 4,000-year-old. They were all excavated at the Xiaohe cemetery in the basin in 2004 and 2005.

The analyzed DNA profiles included the mitochondrial DNA, which is exclusively passed down through the mother, and the Y chromosome, passed down from father to son.

We found that DNA from five of the seven males derived from their mother, belonged to a lineage that came from Siberia, most likely from south or eastern Siberia, while their Y chromosome indicated European ancestry, Li Chunxiang, another researcher with the team, told Xinhua.

The seven males' Y chromosome had similarities to ancient Europeans who wandered the Eurasian Steppe, stretching roughly 3,000 miles from west to east, mainly in Central Asia.

People of the lineage can be found now in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Siberia, but rarely in East Asia, Li said.

The mitochondrial DNA of five males and the nine other mummies (four females and five mummies whose gender is unknown) indicated they were related to an ancient lineage that can now be found mostly in modern Siberia, East Asia and Central Asia, Li said.

Their maternal lineage could be traced to Asian populations most likely lived in south Siberia, she said.

Two other females' DNA indicated their maternal ancestors had come from Western Europe.

"Our finding show the European and Siberian tribes began socializing with each other, even intermarrying, almost 4,000 years ago," Zhou said.

But scholars said the Europeans and Siberians might have met and intermarried outside the basin before their immigration into the basin.

"The civilization of the Tarim Basin, according to archaeological findings, arose very late. The 4,000-year-old mummies we found in Xiaohe are believed to be among the earliest inhabitants in the basin. But the Xiaohe people's DNA lineages are over 10,000 years old," Li said.

DNA with both European and Asian markings was also found in south Siberia. People of European origin had spread eastward into that region during the Bronze Age, she said.

The Xiaohe cemetery, 175 km west of the ancient city of Loulan, is located on the ancient Silk Road, once a booming trade route traversing the Asian continent.

The burial ground, with 167 graves, was first explored by Folke Bergman, a Swedish archaeologist in 1934. But it "vanished" until the Xinjiang Archaeological Institute rediscovered it in 2000, Zhou said.

The excavation of the cemetery began in 2002, but only experts with the institute and the Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University were authorized to unearth the lowest layer where the oldest mummies were buried.

"We found 41 graves in this layer, and 37 of them had human remains. The corpses were lying in bottom-up-boat-like coffins. They all had distinctive European appearances and were well-preserved thanks to the dry air and good drainage." She said.

Some mummies unearthed in the Tarim Basin are displayed in a number of museums in Xinjiang, said Idelis Abdurisulu, former director with the Institute of Cultural and Historical Relics and Archaeology of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

"The regional museum has six or seven mummies, while others are scattered around Xinjiang in some smaller museums," he said.

In late March, the Bowers Museum in Santa Ana in California began exhibiting two of the Tarim Basin mummies, including Xiaohe Beauty, a 3,800-year-old female, and Qiemo Baby, an infant aged eight to 10 months who died about 2,800 years ago.

TOPICS: History; Science
KEYWORDS: afanasevo; ancientautopsies; caucasianmummies; china; dna; genetics; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; siberia; taklamakan; tarimbasin; tocharian; tocharians; xinjiang

1 posted on 05/01/2010 4:55:38 AM PDT by Palter
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To: SunkenCiv

Tarim ping.

2 posted on 05/01/2010 4:55:58 AM PDT by Palter (Kilroy was here.)
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To: Palter
Their maternal lineage could be traced... The 4,000-year-old mummies...

I guess they had to rely on the maternal lineage because only mummies were found... no daddies.

3 posted on 05/01/2010 5:25:05 AM PDT by samtheman
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To: Palter; blam; martin_fierro
Thanks Palter! And for most of these, thanks blam. :')
4 posted on 05/01/2010 6:59:54 AM PDT by SunkenCiv ("Fools learn from experience. I prefer to learn from the experience of others." -- Otto von Bismarck)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 240B; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

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Thanks Palter.

Ordinarily I'd just add this to the catalog, but there's always a lot of interest in this topic, which has been as heavily traveled as the Silk Road.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach

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5 posted on 05/01/2010 7:01:15 AM PDT by SunkenCiv ("Fools learn from experience. I prefer to learn from the experience of others." -- Otto von Bismarck)
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To: SunkenCiv

The oldest paper ever discovered was found amoungst these had Tocharoan A written on it. Tocharian is an extinct Indo-European language most closely related to an ancient Celtic line.

6 posted on 05/01/2010 7:08:25 AM PDT by blam
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To: Palter


How the heck is that pronounced? Who comes up with these letters? Why don’t they just spell them roughly phonetically? Is this an attempt to make them look exotic? I don’t get it.

7 posted on 05/01/2010 7:28:33 AM PDT by SuzyQue (Remember to think.)
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To: AdmSmith; agrace; AnalogReigns; Cacique; caryatid; Celtjew Libertarian; CobaltBlue; ...
>> PING <<
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Maternal Haplogroup H
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8 posted on 05/01/2010 8:55:58 AM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: blam

Tocharian Online dictionary:

This cracked me up:

“amok art, skill”

So to run amok in ancient Celtic was really a highly skilled artform...explains much about my heritage.

9 posted on 05/01/2010 6:45:39 PM PDT by Domestic Church (AMDG)
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To: SuzyQue

It’s the mainland chinese/english phonetic system, called pinyin.

That would be roughly “show” (as in shower), “huh” as in when someone says “huh?”.

10 posted on 05/01/2010 6:51:44 PM PDT by Cringing Negativism Network (Palin / Rubio 2012)
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To: SuzyQue
“Xiaohe” How the heck is that pronounced? Who comes up with these letters? Why don’t they just spell them roughly phonetically? Is this an attempt to make them look exotic? I don’t get it.

"She-ow" pronounced as a single syllable, following by "her", but with a silent "r".

11 posted on 05/02/2010 9:07:00 PM PDT by Zhang Fei (Let us pray that peace be now restored to the world and that God will preserve it always)
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To: Zhang Fei; Cringing Negativism Network

Thank you both, and you proved my point. You were able to spell it (roughly) phonetically and usefully. “Xiaohe” is a meaningless combination of letters that give little clue as to how it should be pronounced.

12 posted on 05/03/2010 6:10:00 AM PDT by SuzyQue (Remember to think.)
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