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In Amazon, traces of an advanced civilization
The Washington Post ^ | 05 Sep 2010 | Juan Forero

Posted on 09/06/2010 8:42:43 AM PDT by Palter

To the untrained eye, all evidence here in the heart of the Amazon signals virgin forest, untouched by man for time immemorial - from the ubiquitous fruit palms to the cry of howler monkeys, from the air thick with mosquitoes to the unruly tangle of jungle vines.

Archaeologists, many of them Americans, say the opposite is true: This patch of forest, and many others across the Amazon, was instead home to an advanced, even spectacular civilization that managed the forest and enriched infertile soil to feed thousands.

The findings are discrediting a once-bedrock theory of archaeology that long held that the Amazon, unlike much of the Americas, was a historical black hole, its environment too hostile and its earth too poor to have ever sustained big, sedentary societies. Only small and primitive hunter-gatherer tribes, the assumption went, could ever have eked out a living in an unforgiving environment.

But scientists now think that instead of stone-age tribes, like the groups that occasionally emerge from the forest today, the Indians who inhabited the Amazon centuries ago numbered as many as 20 million, far more people than live here today.

"There is a gigantic footprint in the forest," said Augusto Oyuela-Caycedo, 49, a Colombian-born professor at the University of Florida who is working this swath in northeast Peru.

Stooping over a man-made Indian mound on a recent day, he picked up shards of ceramics and dark, nutrient-rich earth made fertile hundreds of years ago by human hands. "All you can see is an artifact of the past," he said. "It's a product of human actions," he said.

The evidence is not just here outside tiny San Martin de Samiria, an indigenous hamlet hours by speed boat from the jungle city of Iquitos. It is found across Amazonia.

(Excerpt) Read more at washingtonpost.com ...


TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: amazon; brazil; civilization; godsgravesglyphs


1 posted on 09/06/2010 8:42:48 AM PDT by Palter
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To: SunkenCiv

Ms. Roosevelt, Amazon, etc.

Might need to use bug me not.


2 posted on 09/06/2010 8:43:23 AM PDT by Palter (If voting made any difference they wouldn't let us do it. ~ Mark Twain)
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To: Palter

“...a historical black hole.”

Hmmm...speaking of President Obama, does he know about this?


3 posted on 09/06/2010 8:45:35 AM PDT by jessduntno (Flush the Grand Old Potty. Change it top to bottom. Conservatives only.)
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To: Palter
Stooping over a man-made Indian mound on a recent day, he picked up shards of ceramics and dark, nutrient-rich earth made fertile hundreds of years ago by human hands.

Uh, how can he tell it was made fertile hundreds of years ago? Do the years since then have nothing to do with its fertility?

4 posted on 09/06/2010 8:46:33 AM PDT by raybbr (Someone who invades another country is NOT an immigrant - illegal or otherwise.)
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To: Palter
An Origin Of New World Agriculture In Coastal Ecuador (12,000 BP)
5 posted on 09/06/2010 8:50:44 AM PDT by blam
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To: Palter

More beauty destroyed by evil whitie.... Yakub did all this....


6 posted on 09/06/2010 8:52:59 AM PDT by King Moonracer (Bad lighting and cheap fabric, that's how you sell clothing.....)
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To: raybbr
Most of the soil in the Amazon is not very fertile. there is only thin topsoil which recycles rapidly with dying and decomposing organic matter.
7 posted on 09/06/2010 8:53:24 AM PDT by hinckley buzzard
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To: raybbr

He could be referring to the massive use of fires to change the landscape and irrigation and canal systems established by some of the Indians for agricultural improvement.


8 posted on 09/06/2010 8:54:06 AM PDT by Palter (If voting made any difference they wouldn't let us do it. ~ Mark Twain)
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To: Palter
Kuelap - The Machu Picchu Of Northern Peru (Chachapoyas - White, blonde haired people)

More

9 posted on 09/06/2010 8:56:46 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam
Always fascinating.


10 posted on 09/06/2010 8:58:51 AM PDT by Palter (If voting made any difference they wouldn't let us do it. ~ Mark Twain)
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To: Palter

Better hide those before the Taliban deface them.


11 posted on 09/06/2010 9:08:59 AM PDT by TheThinker (Communists: taking over the world one kooky doomsday scenario at a time.)
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To: Palter

Top environmental experts theorize that these small but advanced civilizations were suddenly rendered extinct after Spanish conquistadors introduced large SUV’s, which rapidly led to devastating climate change. “You’d have to believe the earth is flat, to believe otherwise,” remarked environmental Nobel award winner, Al Gore.


12 posted on 09/06/2010 9:11:20 AM PDT by Avid Coug
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To: Palter

If only Lope de Aguirre had gotten there a little sooner...he could have found a flourishing civilization. Of course he probably would have massacred everyone.


13 posted on 09/06/2010 9:13:53 AM PDT by Verginius Rufus
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To: Avid Coug
Climate change. Because it never happened before. Lol.
14 posted on 09/06/2010 9:14:36 AM PDT by Palter (If voting made any difference they wouldn't let us do it. ~ Mark Twain)
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To: King Moonracer
Yakub did all this....
Nah. Bush's fault.
15 posted on 09/06/2010 9:15:33 AM PDT by Bratch
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To: raybbr

Interestingly, the many recent attempts to recreate terra preta have not been successful. Most soils are made fertile with the addition of human waste (cf China). However, terra preta contains many other ingredients which, unlike other man made or naturally occurring soils, does not lose its fertility with years of use, nor does its depth deplete.

If someone finds a way to duplicate terra preta, they will pretty much become instant billionaires, as any soil anywhere could be made to grow anything indefinitely.


16 posted on 09/06/2010 9:17:35 AM PDT by PIF (They came for me and mine .. now it is your turn..)
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To: PIF

And add a perpetual motion machine and we will all live forever!


17 posted on 09/06/2010 9:22:05 AM PDT by HospiceNurse
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To: Palter



18 posted on 09/06/2010 9:41:17 AM PDT by Jeff Chandler (Judas Iscariot - the first social justice advocate. John 12:3-6)
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To: Palter

Reading the diary of Francisco de Orellana, the first European explorer to travel down the Amazon from Peru to the Atlantic, he wrote of numerous large villages and highly organized societies. All of them tried to kill him and his men. He was attacked by a tribe of very tall, powerful female archers which is how the river got its name.

IIRC, he started with about 500 men plus horses, war dogs, and many porters. IIRC, he made it to Trinidad with about 20 survivors.


19 posted on 09/06/2010 9:46:53 AM PDT by darth
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To: darth
Somethings never change.

British man walks entire Amazon river in 2 years

'

After they were welcomed in one Indian community in September 2008, the leaders offered to radio ahead to the next village for permission for Stafford and Rivera to walk through their territory.

"The response came back crystal clear. If a gringo walks into their community they will kill him," Stafford wrote on his blog at that time.

He decided to plan a route around the village, but he was still captured by Indians from another village and taken to their leaders.

After being dressed down and having their possessions thoroughly picked over — only a machete was confiscated — Stafford and Rivera's repeated explanations of the point of their expedition won over the Indians.'

20 posted on 09/06/2010 10:02:30 AM PDT by Palter (If voting made any difference they wouldn't let us do it. ~ Mark Twain)
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To: Palter

Jove! Percy Fawcett was right!


21 posted on 09/06/2010 10:07:20 AM PDT by Flag_This (Real presidents don't bow.)
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To: PIF
BioChar

Step by step instructions for the DIY with lots of cool pics.

US Aid dough going into the soil or your tax dollars at work in yet another furrin country

Lots of cool sites and DIY for upgrading the old garden. We are going to try this next year for the old patatoe patch.

22 posted on 09/06/2010 10:26:26 AM PDT by ASOC (This space reserved for)
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To: PIF

Charcoal is the key ingredient of terra preta soil. But simply adding charcoal doesn’t quite do it.

One interesting thing about Terra Preta soil is that it apparently grows. Some think that’s due to worms eating good soil, and pooping out their castings in the clay.

The people who make the chemical NPK fertilizers would be not happy to see their business disappear.

Many people today do enrich their soil with charcoal. Any biomass, including grass clippings and newspapers, can be turned into charcoal, quickly, easily and safely. 2 metal cans, one fitting into the other, is all it really takes.

The creation of charcoal from biomass and using it to enrich soil also is apparently good for the environment, as it sequesters carbon.

Some people would rather implement a complicated tax scheme to “solve” the carbon “problem”.

Burning newspapers, turning them into charcoal, and burying the charcoal in your backyard is too easy and doesn’t help the government destroy the economy and enrich Goldman Sachs.

If someone is looking for a way to make money, a $20 “charcoal maker”, a $40 device that injects charcoal deep into clay soil, things like that could sell.


23 posted on 09/06/2010 10:56:58 AM PDT by truthfreedom
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To: hinckley buzzard

The areas they are discussing have deep topsoil, up to 6 feet deep. Entrepreneurs are figuring out how to recreate quickly what took the Amazonians generations. It is the stuff of hippies’ dreams(except the part about hard work) but it is real.


24 posted on 09/06/2010 12:58:28 PM PDT by arthurus (Read Hazlitt's "Economics In One Lesson.")
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To: Palter; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 21twelve; 240B; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; ...

· GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach ·
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Thanks Palter.

This has been posted before, but the map in yours is pretty. :') To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
 

· History topic · history keyword · archaeology keyword · paleontology keyword ·
· Science topic · science keyword · Books/Literature topic · pages keyword ·


25 posted on 09/06/2010 3:39:00 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Democratic Underground... matters are worse, as their latest fund drive has come up short...)
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To: Palter

To my knowledge the one thing you’d have to have in major quantity to do anything with the Amazon basin would be DDT.


26 posted on 09/06/2010 3:51:21 PM PDT by wendy1946
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To: Palter

Now that's really fascinating

27 posted on 09/06/2010 3:53:35 PM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. N.C. +12 ..... Greetings Jacques. The revolution is coming)
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To: Palter

Now that's really fascinating

28 posted on 09/06/2010 3:53:44 PM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. N.C. +12 ..... Greetings Jacques. The revolution is coming)
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To: Palter
If a gringo walks into their community they will kill him,

Sounds like East LA.

29 posted on 09/06/2010 4:23:12 PM PDT by Eaker (Pablo is very wily)
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To: wendy1946
DDT

That otta drive the enviro-nazis buggy.

30 posted on 09/06/2010 4:39:38 PM PDT by bigheadfred (We built a tower of stone. With our flesh and bone. Just to see him fly .)
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To: bert

What a *coincidence*, eh? ;’)


31 posted on 09/06/2010 5:46:34 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Democratic Underground... matters are worse, as their latest fund drive has come up short...)
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To: SunkenCiv

I had hoped to learn from the better informed here if the two photos were more than just coincidence.

They seem remarkably similar, especially to those Easter Island figures where the hats have been replaced.


32 posted on 09/06/2010 6:52:00 PM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. N.C. +12 ..... Greetings Jacques. The revolution is coming)
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To: bert

The top picture, is that from South America?


33 posted on 09/06/2010 7:41:57 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Democratic Underground... matters are worse, as their latest fund drive has come up short...)
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To: Palter; SunkenCiv

Did climate have anything to do with this? It looks like the remains coincide with the height of the Little Ice Age.


34 posted on 09/07/2010 9:57:05 AM PDT by colorado tanker
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To: colorado tanker

I think the dates are medieval.


35 posted on 09/07/2010 8:32:36 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Democratic Underground... matters are worse, as their latest fund drive has come up short...)
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To: SunkenCiv

Wasn’t the Little Ice Age on by 1400?


36 posted on 09/08/2010 9:51:19 AM PDT by colorado tanker
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To: colorado tanker

He’s got some, uh, problems, check out the rest of this page. I included just the amusing sentence below. :’)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shlomo_Sand

“His main areas of teaching are nationalism, film as history and French intellectual history.”


37 posted on 09/08/2010 3:33:12 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Democratic Underground... matters are worse, as their latest fund drive has come up short...)
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To: colorado tanker

Right. Sorry, that other reply went in the wrong winda.


38 posted on 09/08/2010 3:33:37 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Democratic Underground... matters are worse, as their latest fund drive has come up short...)
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