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The Battle that Saved the Christian West (October 7, 1571: Battle of Lepanto)
This Rock magazine ^ | 07/03/2007 | Christopher Check

Posted on 10/07/2010 3:58:49 PM PDT by iowamark

Americans know that in 1492 Christopher Columbus "sailed the ocean blue," but how many know that in the same year the heroic Catholic monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella conquered the Moors in Grenada? Americans would also probably recognize 1588 as the year of the defeat of the Spanish Armada by Francis Drake and the rest of Queen Elizabeth’s pirates. It was a tragedy for the Catholic kingdom of Spain and a triumph for the Protestant British Empire, and the defeat determined the kind of history that would one day be taught in American schools: Protestant British history.

As a result, 1571, the year of the battle of Lepanto, the most important naval contest in human history, is not well known to Americans. October 7, the Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary, celebrates the victory at Lepanto, the battle that saved the Christian West from defeat at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.

That this military triumph is also a Marian feast underscores our image of the Blessed Virgin prefigured in the Canticle of Canticles: "Who is she that cometh forth as the morning rising, fair as the moon, bright as the sun, terrible as an army set in array?" In October of 1564, the Viziers of the Divan of the Ottoman Empire assembled to urge their sultan to prepare for war with Malta. "Many more difficult victories have fallen to your scimitar than the capture of a handful of men on a tiny little island that is not well fortified," they told him. Their words were flattering but true. During the five-decade reign of Soleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire grew to its fullest glory, encompassing the Caucuses, the Balkans, Anatolia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Soleiman had conquered Aden, Algiers, Baghdad, Belgrade, Budapest, Rhodes, and Temesvar. His war galleys terrorized not only the Mediterranean Sea, but the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf as well. His one defeat was at the gates of Vienna in 1529.

The Defense of Malta

Malta was an infertile, dusty rock with so few natural springs that the Maltese had to collect rainwater in large clay urns. The island could sustain only the smallest population. Yet this little island guarded the Mediterranean passage from the Islamic East to the Christian West.

From its excellent natural harbors, the galleys of the Knights of Saint John could sail forth and disrupt any Turkish assault on Italy. They could also board and seize Turkish merchantmen carrying goods from France or Venice to be hawked in the markets of Constantinople. The ladies of Soleiman’s harem, who accumulated great wealth speculating in glass and other Venetian luxuries, nagged the sultan to take Malta.

Soleiman had bigger goals than pleasing these matrons, and he knew that, in Turkish possession, the harbors of Malta would afford him a base from which to continue his raids on the coast of Italy. With the greater control of the sea that it would afford him, he would be able to bring Venice to heel. An invasion of Sicily would be possible. Soleiman’s greatest dream, however, the dream of all Turks, the dream his soldiers toasted before setting off on every campaign, was the conquest of Rome. There the Turks could transform Michelangelo's St. Peter’s, then under construction, into a mosque, just as they had Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia more than a century before.

Although the sultan had led his army on twelve major campaigns, this time his age would keep him home. The Turks sailed for Malta in the spring of 1565, and on May 18, their fleet was spotted offshore. That night, Jean de la Valette, the seventy-one-year-old Grand Master of the Knights of Saint John, led his warriors into their chapel where they confessed and then assisted at the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.

"A formidable army composed of audacious barbarians is descending on this island," he told them. "These persons, my brothers, are the enemies of Jesus Christ. Today it is a question of the defense of our Faith. Are the Gospels to be superseded by the Koran? God on this occasion demands of us our lives, already vowed to His service. Happy will be those who first consummate this sacrifice."

Many of Valette’s 700 knights and their men-at-arms did just that. While Europe stood idly by, expecting the fortress to fall, the knights held their island against an Ottoman army of 40,000, including 6500 of the sultan’s elite Janissaries. Three-quarters of the Turkish army were killed over the four-month siege, before the Ottoman survivors turned and straggled back to Constantinople.

Slaughter in Szigetvar

Soleiman was outraged. "I see that it is only in my own hand that my sword is invincible!" exploded the sultan, and by May of the following year he was leading an army of 300,000 men across the plains of Hungary, bound for Vienna.

When the Hungarian Count of Szigetvar, a fortress city on the eastern frontier of the Holy Roman Empire, led a successful raid on the Ottoman supply trains, Soleiman wheeled his massive army and swore to wipe the city off the map. Turkish engineers prepared flotillas and bridges to span the Drava and Danube rivers to lay siege to Szigetvar. To greet the sultan and to inspire his men, who were outnumbered fifty to one, Count Miklos Zrinyi raised a large crucifix over his battlements and fired his cannons in defiance. But Zrinyi knew that in a Hungary infested with Protestantism, hope of relief was even fainter than any the Knights of Malta had entertained the previous year.

For nearly a month, wave after wave of Turkish infantry were thrown back from the walls. Soleiman offered Zrinyi rule of all Croatia if he would yield his city, but he answered, "No one shall point his finger on my children in contempt."

When the breaches made by the Turkish artillery were too large to defend, the Catholic count assembled his last 600 men. "With this sword" he shouted as he held the bejeweled weapon aloft, "I earned my first honor and glory. I want to appear with it once more before the eternal throne to hear my judgment." Charging out of the remains of their stronghold, the courageous band was swallowed by a sea of Turks. To the last man the Hungarian knights died defending the Christian West. The Turks, furious at the losses their army had suffered, consoled themselves according to their grisly custom: they slaughtered every Christian civilian who had survived the siege.

Soleiman the Magnificent did not live to witness the massacre. He had died of dysentery four days earlier. Had he survived, however, this victory would have given him no comfort. The capture of Szigetvar was Pyrrhic. The Ottoman army had exhausted itself and was in no condition to carry on the campaign. Though they all died, Count Zrinyi and his heroic band were the true victors.

Back in Constantinople, Soleiman’s son ascended the throne by the usual Ottoman method: a complex harem intrigue designed to eradicate his worthier brothers. Unlike every previous sultan, Selim II, nicknamed "the Sot," had little interest in warfare. His enthusiasms were for wine, his extraordinarily deviant sexual appetite, wine, poetry, and wine. Nevertheless, he sensed that without a decisive victory, the mighty empire his father had left him would be eclipsed.

The Attack on Cyprus

Selim II invaded Cyprus, the source of his favorite vintage. Half the population were Greek Orthodox serfs laboring under the exacting rule of their Venetian Catholic masters, and they offered little resistance. The Venetian senate was half-hearted about fighting for the island; upon receiving word of the invasion, senate members voted by the very small margin of 220 to 199 to defend it.

The Turks rolled through Cyprus, and after a forty-six day siege, the capital city of Nicosia fell on September 9, 1570. The 500 Venetians in the garrison surrendered on terms, but once the city gates were opened, the Turks rushed in and slaughtered them. Then they set on the civilian population, massacring twenty thousand people, "some in such bizarre ways that those merely put to the sword were lucky." Every house was plundered. To protect their daughters from rape, mothers stabbed them and then themselves, or threw themselves from the rooftops. Still, "[t]wo thousand of the prettier boys and girls were gathered and shipped off as sexual provender for the slave markets in Constantinople."

Then God intervened and sent one of history’s greatest popes, St. Pius V, who declared, "I am taking up arms against the Turks, but the only thing that can help me is the prayers of priests of pure life." Michael Ghislieri, an aged Dominican priest when he ascended the Chair of Peter, faced two foes: Protestantism and Islam. He was up to the task. He had served as Grand Inquisitor, and the austerity of his private mortifications was a contrast to the lifestyles of his Renaissance predecessors. During his six-year reign, he promulgated the Council of Trent, published the works of Thomas Aquinas, issued the Roman Catechism and a new missal and breviary, created twenty-one cardinals, excommunicated Queen Elizabeth, and, aided by St. Charles Borromeo, led the reform of a soft and degenerate clergy and episcopacy.

The Holy League

In a papacy of great achievements, the greatest came on March 7, 1571, on the feast of his fellow Dominican, St. Thomas Aquinas. At the Dominican Church of Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in Rome, Pope Pius formed the Holy League. Genoa, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Spain put aside their jealousies and pledged to assemble a fleet capable of confronting the sultan’s war galleys before the east coast of Italy became the next front in the war between the Christianity and Islam.

The day was not a total triumph, though. Venice refused to join. Though at war with the Turks over Cyprus, the Venetians never failed to consider their economy. They might well lose Cyprus, but a fast peace afterward would lead to the resumption of normal trade relations with the Turks. Moreover, the loss of the Venetian fleet in an all-out battle with the sultan’s galleys would be a disaster for a state so dependent on seaborne commerce. Walking back across the Tiber, the old monk wept for the future of Christendom. He knew that without the galleys of Venice, there was no hope of a fleet strong enough to face the Turks.

The rest of Europe ignored Pius’s call for a new crusade. In fact, the Queen of England, Elizabeth I, through her spymaster, Sir Francis Walsingham, actively enlisted the aid of the Turks in her wars against Spain. France had openly traded with the Turks for years and as recently as 1569 had drawn up an extensive commercial treaty with them. For years the French had allowed Turkish ships to harbor in Toulon, and the oars that rowed Turkish galleys came from Marseilles. The cannons that brought down the walls of Szigetvar were of French design. With Venice at war with Constantinople, markets once filled by Venetian goods were open to France. Redeeming France from utter disgrace were the Knights of Saint John of Malta, who sent their galleys to join the Holy League, eager to do battle with Islam.

As the Pope prayed for Venice to answer a higher call, a new breed of fiery priests led by stirring preachers like St. Francisco Borgia, superior general of the Jesuits, inflamed the hearts of Christian Europeans throughout the Mediterranean with their sermons against Islam. Enough Venetians must have been listening, because on May 25 Venice at last joined the Holy League. By fits and starts, with hesitation and quarreling on the part of a few of the principal players, the fleet of the Holy League was forming.

The man chosen by Pius V to serve as Captain General of the Holy League did not falter: Don John of Austria, the illegitimate son of the late Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, and half-brother of Philip II, King of Spain. The young commander had distinguished himself in combat against Barbary corsairs and in the Morisco rebellion in Spain, a campaign in which he demonstrated his capacity for swift violence when the threat called for it and restraint when charity demanded it.

He was a great horseman, a great swordsman, and a great dancer. With charm, wit, and good looks in abundance, he was popular among the ladies of court. Since childhood he had cultivated a deep devotion to the Blessed Virgin. He spoke Latin, French, Italian, and Spanish, and kept a pet marmoset and a lion cub that slept at the foot of his bed. He was twenty-four years old.

Taking the young warrior by the shoulders, Pius V looked Don John of Austria in the eye and declared, "The Turks, swollen by their victories, will wish to take on our fleet, and God—I have the pious presentiment—will give us victory. Charles V gave you life. I will give you honor and greatness. Go and seek them out!"

The Death of Bragadino

In late summer of 1571, as Don John was making his way to the harbor at Messina to take command of his fleet, the situation on Cyprus was growing more desperate. The Venetian colonists had claimed the lives of some 50,000 Turks with their intrepid defense of Famagusta, but when their gunpowder and supplies were exhausted, when they had eaten their last horse, their shrewd governor, Marcantonio Bragadino, sent a message to the Turkish commander, Lala Mustafa, asking for terms. The Turks agreed to give the remaining Venetian soldiers passage to Crete on fourteen Turkish galleys in exchange for the surrender of the city. The Greek Cypriots would be allowed to retain their property and their religion.

On August 4, 1571, Bragadino, with a small entourage including several young pages, met with Mustafa and his advisors in the Turkish general’s tent. Mustafa lecherously demanded Bragadino’s page, Antonio Quirini, as a hostage for the fourteen galleys. When Bragadino calmly refused, he and his men were pushed out of the tent by Mustafa’s guards. Bragadino was bound and forced to watch as his attendants were hacked to pieces. The pages were led off in chains. The Turks thrice thrust the Venetian governor’s neck on the executioner's block and thrice lifted it off. Instead of his head, they cut off his nose and ears. To prevent his bleeding to death, they cauterized the wounds with hot irons.

The Venetian soldiers of the garrison, unaware that Mustafa had broken the terms of the surrender, began their march down to the galleys, expecting passage to Crete. Once aboard, the Venetians were set upon by Turkish soldiers, who stripped them of their clothes and chained them to the oars. From their benches they witnessed some of the horrifying ordeal to which the Turks now subjected Bragadino.

First the Turks fitted the governor with a harness and bridle and led him around the Turkish camp on his hands and knees. Ass panniers filled with dung were slung across his back. Each time he passed Lala Mustafa’s tent he was forced to kiss the ground. Then he was strung up in chains, hoisted over a galley spar, and left to hang for a time. Finally, the courageous governor was dragged into the city square and lashed to the pillory, where the Turks flayed him alive. Witnesses said they heard him whispering a Latin prayer. He died "when the executioners knife reached the height of his navel." The diabolical orgy did not end there. Mustafa had the governor’s skin stuffed, hoisted it up the mast of his galley, and joined the Ottoman fleet headed west.

Don John Takes Command

As Bragadino was losing his life to the Turkish monsters, Don John was inspecting his ships. Of the 206 galleys and 76 smaller boats that constituted the Holy League fleet, more than half came from Venice. The next largest contingent came from Spain, and included galleys from Sicily, Naples, Portugal, and Genoa, the latter owned by the Genovese condottiere admiral, Gianandrea Doria. Not only was Doria renting his services and the use of his ships to Philip at costs thirty percent higher than Philip paid to run his own galleys, he was lending the money to the Spanish king at fourteen percent! The balance of the galleys came from the Holy See.

Don John took charge of his fleet and promptly forbade women from coming aboard the galleys. He declared that b.asphemy among the crews would be punishable by death. The whole fleet followed his example and made a three-day fast.

By September 28, the Holy League had made its way across the Adriatic Sea and was anchored between the west coast of Greece and the Island of Corfu. By this time, news of the death of Bragadino had reached the Holy League, and the Venetians were determined to settle the score. Don John reminded his fleet that the battle they would soon engage in was as much spiritual as physical.

Pius V had granted a plenary indulgence to the soldiers and crews of the Holy League. Priests of the great orders, Franciscans, Capuchins, Dominicans, Theatines, and Jesuits, were stationed on the decks of the Holy League’s galleys, offering Mass and hearing confessions. Many of the men who rowed the Christian galleys were criminals. Don John ordered them all unchained, and he issued them each a weapon, promising them their freedom if they fought bravely. He then gave every man in his fleet a weapon more powerful than anything the Turks could muster: a Rosary.

On the eve of battle, the men of the Holy League prepared their souls by falling to their knees on the decks of their galleys and praying the Rosary. Back in Rome, and up and down the Italian Peninsula, at the behest of Pius V, the churches were filled with the faithful telling their beads. In Heaven, the Blessed Mother, her Immaculate Heart aflame, was listening.

In the quiet of night, Don John met with his admirals on the deck of his flagship Real to review once more the order of battle. He had divided his fleet into four squadrons. Commanding the squadron on his left flank was a Venetian warrior named Agostin Barbarigo. The center squadron was commanded by Don John, assisted on either side by his vice admirals, the Roman Marcantonio Colonna, and the Venetian Sebastian Veniero. Directly behind the center squadron, Don John stationed the reserve squadron, commanded by the Spaniard Don Alvaro de Bazan, the Marquis of Santa Cruz. The right squadron was under the command of the Genovese Gianandrea Doria. Arrayed for battle, the mighty armada of the Holy League looked like nothing if not a Latin Cross.

Doria, despite his mercenary motives, had been the source of sound tactical counsel.

"Cut off the spars in the prows of the fleet’s galleys," he told Don John. Galleys had been equipped with bow spars or rams since the days of Salamis. "This will permit the centerline bow cannons to depress further and fire their rounds at the waterline of the enemy hulls." Don John’s famous order to remove these spars was a signal moment in naval warfare, heralding the age of gunpowder.

Doria also advised taking the League’s six galleases and stationing them in the van, two before each of the three forward squadrons. A galleas was a large, multi-decked, Venetian merchant galley that had been outfitted with cannons not only on its bow, but also along its port and starboard sides. Where an ordinary galley was most vulnerable, a galleas packed heavy firepower. Don John increased their lethality by packing the decks with Spanish shooters (arquebusiers), bearing their handheld, smoothbore, heavy guns. Though slow moving, these six galleases would provide a powerful shock at the start of the battle.

Doria was an admiral, but he was also a shipowner. He looked at Don John, raised his eyebrows, opened his palm, and offered, "There is still time, your grace, to avoid pitched battle."

The young Captain General stood surrounded by men older and with greater seafaring and military experience than he. Silence filled the small stateroom as these men waited to hear his response. He caught their eyes, each one of them, as he looked around.

"Gentlemen," he said. "The time for counsel has passed. Now is the time for war."

The Divine Breath

It was. At dawn on October 7, 1571, the Holy League rowed down the west coast of Greece and turned east into the Gulf of Patras. When the morning mist cleared, the Christians, rowing directly against the wind, saw the squadrons of the larger Ottoman fleet arrayed like a crescent from shore to shore, bearing down on them under full sail.

As the fleets grew closer, the Christians could hear the gongs and cymbals, drums and cries of the Turks. The men of the Holy League quietly pulled at their oars, the soldiers stood on the decks in silent prayer. Priests holding large crucifixes marched up and down the decks exhorting the men to be brave and hearing final confessions.

Then the Blessed Virgin intervened.

The wind shifted 180 degrees. The sails of the Holy League were filled with the Divine breath, driving them into battle. Now heading directly into the wind, the Turks were forced to strike their sails. The tens of thousands of Christian galley slaves who rowed the Turkish vessels felt the sharp sting of the lash summoning them up from under their benches and demanding they take hold of their oars and pull against the wind.

Don John knelt on the prow of Real and said a final prayer. Then he stood and gave the order for the Holy League’s battle standard, a gift from Pius V, to be unfurled. Christians up and down the battle line cheered as they saw the giant blue banner bearing an image of our crucified Lord.

The fleets engaged at midday. The first fighting began along the Holy League’s left flank, where many of the smaller, swifter Turkish galleys were able to maneuver around Agostin Barbarigo’s inshore flank. The Venetian admiral responded with a near impossibility: He pivoted his entire squadron, fifty-four ships, counterclockwise and began to pin the Turkish right flank, commanded by Mehemet Sirrocco, against the north shore of the Gulf of Patras. Gaps formed in Barbarigo’s line and Ottoman galleys broke into the intervals. As galley pulled up along galley, the slaughter brought on by cannon, musket ball, and arrow was horrific, but the Venetians in time prevailed. Barbarigo took an arrow to the eye, but before he died he learned of the death of Sirrocco and the crushing defeat of the Turkish right line.

In the center of the battle, breaking a convention of naval warfare, the opposing flagships engaged—Don John’s Real with Muezzinzade Ali Pasha’s Sultana. Twice Spanish infantry boarded and drove the Sultana’s Janissaries back to the mast, and twice they were driven back to the Real by Ottoman reinforcements. Don John led the third charge across Sultana’s bloodied deck. He was wounded in the leg, but Ali Pasha took a musketball to the forehead. One of Real’s freed convicts lopped off the Turkish admiral’s head and held it aloft on a pike. The Muslims’ sacred banner, with the name of Allah stitched in gold calligraphy 28,900 times, which Islamic tradition held was carried in battle by the Prophet, was captured by the Christians. Terror struck the Turks, but the fight was far from won.

On the Holy League’s right flank, Doria was forced to increase the intervals between his galleys to keep his line from being flanked on the south by the larger Ottoman squadron under the command of the Algerian Uluch Ali. When the space between Doria’s squadron and Don John’s grew large enough, Uluch Ali sent his corsairs through the gap to envelop the galleys of Don John’s squadron from behind. Don Alvaro de Bazan, commanding the Holy League’s reserve squadron of thirty-five galleys, had carefully kept his ships out of the fray until the moment came when he was most needed. Now he entered the fight, rescuing the center of the Holy League from the Turkish vessels that had surrounded them before turning his squadron south to aid the outmanned Doria.

The fighting lasted for five hours. The sides were evenly matched and well led, but the Divine favored the Christians, and once the battle turned in their favor it became a rout. All but thirteen of the nearly 300 Turkish vessels were captured or sunk and over 30,000 Turks were slain. Not until the First World War would the world again witness such carnage in a single day’s fighting. In the aftermath of the battle, the Christians gave no quarter, making sure to kill the helmsmen, galley captains, archers, and Janissaries. The sultan could rebuild ships, but without these men, it would be years before he would be able to use them.

The news of the victory made its way back to Rome, but the Pope was already rejoicing. On the day of the battle, Pius had been consulting with his cardinals at the Dominican Basilica of Santa Sabina on the Aventine Hill. He paused in the midst of their deliberations to look out the window. Up in the sky, the Blessed Mother favored him with a vision of the victory. Turning to his cardinals he said, "Let us set aside business and fall on our knees in thanksgiving to God, for he has given our fleet a great victory."


TOPICS: History; Military/Veterans; Religion
KEYWORDS: catholic; godsgravesglyphs; lepanto; milhist
Probably few Americans know of the Battle of Lepanto.
1 posted on 10/07/2010 3:58:52 PM PDT by iowamark
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To: iowamark

I do and it is one of the greatest battles of Christendom versus Islam.


2 posted on 10/07/2010 4:00:14 PM PDT by DarthVader (That which supports Barack Hussein Obama must be sterilized and there are NO exceptions!)
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Battle of Lepanto: Armada of the Cross

Wikipedia: Battle of Lepanto

October 7, 1571: Lepanto

3 posted on 10/07/2010 4:04:54 PM PDT by iowamark
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To: iowamark

I feel that historians place too much importance on these single battles (Lepanto and Salamis, for example). I have never been convinced that losses at these single battles would have meant the complete defeat of the West nor that these battles caused the complete defeat of the East. (Same with the Battle of Yorktown.)


4 posted on 10/07/2010 4:05:06 PM PDT by MichaelNewton
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To: iowamark

That’s a butt kicking.


5 posted on 10/07/2010 4:06:05 PM PDT by Red Steel
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To: iowamark

I just read Hugh Thomas’ Rivers of Gold, about the Spanish empire, and he gives a wonderful leadup to Columbus by describing the campaigns to retake Spain from the Muzlims. His description of the events leading up to the capture of Granada was about as good as it gets. I recommend this book highly.


6 posted on 10/07/2010 4:09:21 PM PDT by La Lydia
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To: iowamark

http://www.chroniclesmagazine.org/2010/10/07/october-7-1571/
“”Today we give special thanks to Our Lady whose intercession led the armada of the Holy League to victory over the Ottoman fleet on October 7, 1571, at the mouth of what the Venetians called the Bay of Lepanto but what we today call the Gulf of Patras.

My good friends at Catholic Answers in San Diego published my account of the battle in their fine magazine, This Rock, which you can read here. You can also order my three-lecture CD set on the battle and on G.K. Chesterton’s magnificent ballad celebrating the event here.

Folks who know me, my family included, probably find me a little hard to tolerate around October 7 since the event is one of my chief enthusiasms. On the walls of my office hang drawings of the 1:1 scale replica of Don John of Austria’s galley, Real, that is the glory of the Barcelona Maritime Museum.

In Barcelona’s cathedral hangs the crucifix from Don John’s galley, the corpus of which twisted during the battle to dodge a Turkish cannonball. In defiance of a sign forbidding photography, I snapped a picture of the crucifix when the Checks were there this time last year, prompting my wife Jacqueline to ask me if I thought I was special. “The sign does not apply to those of us who appreciate what we are looking at,” I told her, though, of course, she was right.

In any case, the moment in the battle that occupies my imagination this year took place just before Don John of Austria’s flagship, in a break with naval convention, directly engaged the Ottoman flagship Sultana. As the galleys closed and were about to collide, Don John, known throughout Christendom as a great dancer, broke into a galliard on the prow of his vessel. Imagine the 24-year-old captain general, consumed with anticipation of the impending clash, leaping and landing by the bow cannons and the cheer the sight of his manifest thrill must have sent throughout his soldiers. Seconds later, Spanish infantry, the world’s finest, would board Sultana, Don John himself leading the third charge and receiving, and brushing off, a wound to the leg that moments before was dancing.

Could the commander of a fleet of nearly 300 ships on the cusp of a battle at which the existence of Christendom was at stake really break into dance? In fact, we should expect nothing less from a Christian soldier staring at the face of evil. As Chesterton puts it in Book I of the Ballad of the White Horse:

“”The men of the East may spell the stars,
And times and triumphs mark,
But the men signed of the cross of Christ
Go gaily in the dark.

The men of the East may search the scrolls
For sure fates and fame,
But the men that drink the blood of God
Go singing to their shame.””

From Alfred the Great reduced to a marshy island the size of a football field, to Christopher Columbus reading aloud the Last Gospel every night at the bow of Santa Maria, to Thomas More cracking jokes on his approach to the shambles, to Don John dancing with sword drawn about to give battle, to the Carmelites of Compiègne singing at the scaffold, Christians have ever gone “gaily into the dark.” Why? Because they are possessed of the joy that comes from freedom. And the men of the East are not. They are, instead, slaves to fate.

Voltaire tried to argue that Lepanto was not decisive, and Michael Novak has tried to argue that the battle was a triumph of Venetian capitalism. Both men, working from the same revolutionary script, could not be more wrong. What was Lepanto? It was, of course, a contest between Christianity and Islam, but it was also part of an older legacy of battles between freedom and fate. Had these battles gone the other way, Europe would not be Europe, or better, Christendom would not be Christendom. Although the western understanding of freedom was sanctified and perfected in the Incarnation, it was written on the hearts of our Greek and Roman forbears, so it should come as no surprise to us that some of these culturally decisive battles were fought before Christ.

Chesterton, in his masterpiece, The Everlasting Man, brilliantly explains the “War of the Gods and Demons”, that is, the Punic Wars, in this very light. The free choice of the Roman citizen to serve the army of the Republic stood in sharp contrast to the motives of the mercenary forces of Carthage comprising men who fought for plunder. Not surprisingly, they served a state that worshipped not only Baal but also Mammon. “Dark with all the riddles of Asia,” writes Chesterton,

“”and trailing all the tribes and dependencies of imperialism, came Carthage riding on the sea….an outpost or settlement of the energy and expansion of the great commercial cities of Tyre and Sidon…with a prodigious talent for trade….They were members of a mature and polished civilization abounding in refinements and luxuries; they were probably far more civilized than the Romans.””

And yet, Chesterton continues, “These highly civilized people really met together to invoke the blessing of heaven on their empire by throwing hundreds of their infants into a large furnace.”

What is that dark riddle of Asia revealed in the Carthaginian’s horrifying religious rite? Fate. If Rome embodied the free choice of the citizen to fight and die for something greater than he, Carthage embodied servility to the material world and to the whims of a false god. The great battles of Christendom–Tours, Grenada, Lepanto, Vienna–are battles “between the Bible and the Koran,” as Jean de la Valette put it to his knights on the eve of the siege of Malta six years before Lepanto, but they are also battles between the free will of a man made in the image and likeness of God and the arbitrary will of a capricious demon, call him Baal or Mammon or Allah. “Mahound” (Mohammad) in Chesterton’s 1915 epic, Lepanto, understands the nature of the fight. He describes Don John of Austria as heir to the Christian soldiers who stormed the gates of Jerusalem, “four hundred years ago”:

“”It is he that saith not ‘Kismet’; it is he that knows not Fate;
It is Richard, it is Raymond, it is Godfrey at the gate!””

And Muhammad knows why the Christian soldier dances in the face of battle, and he hates him for it:

“”It is he whose loss is laughter when he counts the wager worth,
Put down your feet upon him, that our peace be on the earth.””

Free Athenians repelling the servile Persians at Marathon and Salamis, and free Spartans joking that they will have their fight in the shade because the Persian’s “shafts benight the air”, as Housman put it, are also part of this merry band of western warriors who stood down the dark riddles of the East. From Dienekes to Don John of Austria, we thank them all today. Christendom looks less and less like Christendom each day, but that should not deter us from following these men gaily into the dark.””


7 posted on 10/07/2010 4:09:58 PM PDT by iowamark
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To: Red Steel

This was a rout of Old Testament proportions.


8 posted on 10/07/2010 4:10:49 PM PDT by DarthVader (That which supports Barack Hussein Obama must be sterilized and there are NO exceptions!)
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To: MichaelNewton

It is hard to say. We Americans regard Yorktown, the Battle of New Orleans, Appomattox, as decisive in retrospect because both the victor and the defeated agreed to some degree.

Lepanto was seen at the time as a great victory by Catholics and other Christians. It was not the end of expansionist Islam but it was certainly the end of their great string of victories.


9 posted on 10/07/2010 4:18:49 PM PDT by iowamark
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To: Finny

mark


10 posted on 10/07/2010 4:20:10 PM PDT by Finny ("Raise hell. Vote smart." -- Ted Nugent)
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To: iowamark

Thank you. What a great read. Bookmarked for the kids.


11 posted on 10/07/2010 4:25:11 PM PDT by PhiloBedo
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To: iowamark

Sadly for a very long time the Ottoman’s kidnapped/impressed Christian Children into being Janissaries.

Sad when one thinks that Turkey and the Middle East was once the home of Christendom from the Sea to Iran.


12 posted on 10/07/2010 4:26:19 PM PDT by padre35 (You shall not ignore the laws of God, the Market, the Jungle, and Reciprocity Rm10.10)
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To: iowamark

If the American colonies had not won at Yorktown, they would have continued fighting and eventually the British would have given up because they were too busy fighting elsewhere.

The Battle of New Orleans was meaningless as the war had already ended with the Treaty of Ghent.

The North was winning the Civil War. Appomattox was the last battle, but if the South had won the North would have likely won soon after.


13 posted on 10/07/2010 4:26:40 PM PDT by MichaelNewton
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To: MichaelNewton

If the Brits had captured New Orleans, they would have tossed the unratified Treaty of Ghent.


14 posted on 10/07/2010 4:33:58 PM PDT by iowamark
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To: iowamark

Bookmark.


15 posted on 10/07/2010 4:43:01 PM PDT by Sergio (If a tree fell on a mime in the forest, would he make a sound?)
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To: iowamark
I read Chesterton's great poem, Lepanto, in high school and college. I read it again every October 7. There's nothing like it. It's best when you read it out loud.

http://www.poetryfoundation.org/archive/poem.html?id=177439

16 posted on 10/07/2010 4:45:36 PM PDT by Mobties (Let the markets work! Reduce the government footprint!)
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To: iowamark

September 11 is red letter date in war against Islamic barbarism

Sept 11, 1565 - relief force under Don Garcia de Toledo
drove the Ottoman invaders from Malta following the epic siege

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Malta_(1565)

Sept 11, 1683 - relief army under king of Poland Jan Sobieski arrived in woods outside Vienna. Next day would rout the Ottoman force laying siege to the city.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vienna

Sept 11, 1697 - Battle of Zenta. Army under Eugene of Savoy
defeats larger Turkish army killong 30,000 for loss of less than 2000

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Zenta

Sept 11, 2001

Passengers on United 93 attacked hijackers forcing them to crash aircraft killing all onboard


17 posted on 10/07/2010 4:53:06 PM PDT by njslim
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To: iowamark
When I was a visiting professor in Istanbul I visited the Naval Museum. On display was a banner that had flown on the Turkish fleet at Lepanto, been captured by the Christian forces, and returned to the Turks by Pope John XXIII. If good Pope John thought this gesture was going to mollify the Muslims, he was dead wrong.
18 posted on 10/07/2010 5:13:02 PM PDT by JoeFromSidney ( New book, RESISTANCE TO TYRANNY. More @ www.book-resistancetotyranny.com)
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To: iowamark

That was a great rendition of the story of the Battle of Lepanto. I’ve been reading Empires Of The Sea, by Roger Crowley, about this very subject, lately. Whether one calls it the ultimate or penultimate battle between Christianity and islam, it certainly is one of the most important, like the date Charles Martel had with destiny, or Jan Sobiesky. My eldest daughter and I were talking about this last night, after CCD. She’s old enough to understand what was at stake, and young enough to think it was really cool. Best I can say is, Thank God. And Our Lady.


19 posted on 10/07/2010 5:18:47 PM PDT by sayuncledave (A cruce salus)
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To: La Lydia
I have read Isabella of Spain: The Last Crusader (1451-1504) a while ago which is also excellent. This era is very underappreciated in the United States, and it is crucial that Americans study it to really understand our own time now.

Isabella won for Christianity a 500 year reprieve against Islam by funding the discovery of the New World, and new trade routes around Islam to Asia. Now that period is over, and the conflict, put on hold since Lepanto, has resumed with the World Trade Center attack.

20 posted on 10/07/2010 5:31:38 PM PDT by Vince Ferrer
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To: iowamark

“If the Brits had captured New Orleans, they would have tossed the unratified Treaty of Ghent.”

Interesting theory. If they had, the US would have eventually recaptured it.


21 posted on 10/07/2010 5:36:07 PM PDT by MichaelNewton
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To: MichaelNewton
What about the battle of Manzikert ? That was one battle that the west lost. The Byzantines lost their main army and their Emperor was captured. The Emperor agreed to ridiculous terms to guarantee his freedom and those terms led to civil war within the Byzantine Empire. Thus the Byzantines were easy pickings for the Turks who expanded westward and eventually took Constantinople.
22 posted on 10/07/2010 5:49:20 PM PDT by justa-hairyape
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To: iowamark
Suleiman? Transliterated from Turkish: سليمان -- Suleiman the Magnificient? Same person?
23 posted on 10/07/2010 5:50:07 PM PDT by Texas Fossil (Government, even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one.)
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To: iowamark

Janissaries = tribute children of Christian families given to the Muslim rulers in the country they live in. They were trained from youth as Muslims and soldiers. The intent was to assure than no Muslim military leader would threaten the ruler.


24 posted on 10/07/2010 6:00:17 PM PDT by Texas Fossil (Government, even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one.)
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To: njslim

“Sept 11, 1683 - relief army under king of Poland Jan Sobieski arrived in woods outside Vienna. Next day would rout the Ottoman force laying siege to the city.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Vienna";

I definitely would not sell this battle short either - it was CRITICAL and it was CLOSE.


25 posted on 10/07/2010 6:01:20 PM PDT by BobL (The whole point of being human is knowing when the party's over.)
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To: DarthVader
This was a rout of Old Testament proportions.

Remember, November is Coming!

26 posted on 10/07/2010 6:03:35 PM PDT by Texas Fossil (Government, even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one.)
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To: Texas Fossil

I would love to see our elections turn out to be like the Battle of Lepanto for the Rats. I hope God sees fit to make this happen.


27 posted on 10/07/2010 6:08:42 PM PDT by DarthVader (That which supports Barack Hussein Obama must be sterilized and there are NO exceptions!)
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To: Texas Fossil

Yes, he died five years before Lepanto.


28 posted on 10/07/2010 6:30:36 PM PDT by iowamark
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To: DarthVader

From your mouth to God’s ear. May it be so.


29 posted on 10/07/2010 6:41:47 PM PDT by Texas Fossil (Government, even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one.)
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To: njslim

I hear Serbs badmouthed here ocassionally on FR, but not by me.

They are certainly the “keepers of the gate” between East & West. They know better than any Western leaning people what a Muslim really is. If that makes them a little “crazy” we should consider why.

We need not focus on old battles, we have a hot one on our hands now. We have a Commie Muzzie Traitor who sleeps at 1600 Penn. Ave. who intends to destroy the U.S. Our job is to deny him that success.

Remember, November is Coming.


30 posted on 10/07/2010 6:48:36 PM PDT by Texas Fossil (Government, even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one.)
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To: iowamark

Riveting


31 posted on 10/07/2010 7:30:57 PM PDT by naturalized
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; ...

· GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach ·
· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe ·

 
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 Excerpt, or Link only?
 


Thanks iowamark. Something like this has been posted many a time on FR, but I'm hittin' it. lepanto site:freerepublic.com
Google
To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
 

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32 posted on 10/07/2010 7:39:16 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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To: Vince Ferrer

Look to the Saudi infiltration of American politics and government. Abscam was a drop in the bucket. Blocking the development of American energy - Cui bono?


33 posted on 10/07/2010 8:14:53 PM PDT by 1010RD (First Do No Harm)
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To: MichaelNewton
I feel that historians place too much importance on these single battles (Lepanto and Salamis, for example). I have never been convinced that losses at these single battles would have meant the complete defeat of the West nor that these battles caused the complete defeat of the East. (Same with the Battle of Yorktown.)

I think that you are using a modern lense when thinking about ancient wars. Frequently the issue was decided in a single afternoon and it would be generations before it could be reversed. It wasn't really until Napoleon's time that generals started to think in terms of campaigns (ie. maneuvering toward battle and combining battles into ultimate victory).

34 posted on 10/07/2010 8:26:11 PM PDT by Tallguy ("The sh- t's chess, it ain't checkers!" -- Alonzo (Denzel Washington) in "Training Day")
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To: iowamark

Not mentioned in the article is the participation of Spain’s foremost literary light, Miguel de Cervantes. As a soldier in the Marine Infantry, he fought on board ship, suffered 3 gunshot wounds and lost the use of his left arm.

And to quote Wikipedia, “Cervantes always looked back on his conduct in the battle with pride: he believed that he had taken part in an event that would shape the course of European history.”


35 posted on 10/07/2010 8:49:20 PM PDT by DeFault User
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To: DarthVader; SunkenCiv; All

Hey I thought it was Charles Martel and the Battle of Roncevalle (sp?) at the Spain/France mountain border that saved Europe and Christianity.


36 posted on 10/07/2010 9:29:54 PM PDT by gleeaikin (question authority)
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To: gleeaikin

The Battle of Roncevalle was fought by Charlemagne’s commander of his rear guard, Roland. It was a defeat. The Battle of Tours, won by Charles Martel, was Islam’s furthest incursion in the west. Vienna was the furthest incursion of Islam in southeast Europe. Lepanto was the furthest incursion of the Islamic Turks in the Mediterranean. Since those battles Islam has lost ground in the west until the later 20th century.


37 posted on 10/07/2010 9:52:55 PM PDT by Lucius Cornelius Sulla ('“Our own government has become our enemy' - Sheriff Paul Babeu)
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To: iowamark

Thank you for this post. I learned of the Battle of Lepanto only a few years ago — right here. Perhaps it was from a post of yours. This is a thrilling piece of history and a testament to the faith of the Christians who fought this battle and prayed the Rosary. I pray that modern Christians in Europe and the Americas have the fortitude to carry on.


38 posted on 10/08/2010 5:28:56 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic (Southeast Wisconsin, Zone 4 to 5)
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To: gleeaikin

The Hammer did what he did, and it stopped an Muzzie invasion of western Europe. Over the next half-millennium, more, the Iberians whittled the Moslem minority rulers down and ultimately booted them out and back into Africa. The Spanish and Portuguese also worked on trying to expand their rule into NW Africa. Spanish Sahara has a phony “indigenous” (Moslem) settler population that was put together and supported by the Algerians; the UN and UK support the settlers. Michael Palin (of Monty Python fame) did one of his partly fun/partly boring travel documentaries in Africa, and visited the settlers, also eulogized ‘em and soft-soaped the Libyan and Algerian dictatorships.


39 posted on 10/08/2010 8:18:52 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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To: iowamark

We shouldn’t forget the battle of Tours in southern France in 732 when Charles Martell led an army of ‘Franks” against a huge Muslim invading force from Spain.

Nor is the defeat of the Muslim invading force in the 1500s via the Balkans into Austria a matter to be sneezed at.

Any one of these battles could have been decisive in the Islamazation of Europe by militant Islam.


40 posted on 10/09/2010 12:05:11 PM PDT by wildbill (You're just jealous because the Voices talk only to me.)
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To: BobL

There is no article at that link.


41 posted on 10/30/2013 1:39:14 AM PDT by Smokin' Joe (How often God must weep at humans' folly. Stand fast. God knows what He is doing.)
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To: Smokin' Joe

It’s been a few years, probably pulled.


42 posted on 11/03/2013 7:01:54 AM PST by BobL (To us it's a game, to them it's personal - therefore they win.)
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To: Vince Ferrer
Isabella of Spain: the Last Crusader by William Thomas Walsh. a book every Catholic should read.

THE SEIGE OF MALTA - History's bloodiest siege

Daily Mail U.K. ^ | July 7, 2007 | JAMES JACKSON

A hot and fetid June night on the small Mediterranean island of Malta, and a Christian sentry patrolling at the foot of a fort on the Grand Harbour had spotted something drifting in the water.

The alarm was raised. More of these strange objects drifted into view, and men waded into the shallows to drag them to the shore. What they found horrified even these battle-weary veterans: wooden crosses pushed out by the enemy to float in the harbour, and crucified on each was the headless body of a Christian knight.

This was psychological warfare at its most brutal, a message sent by the Turkish Muslim commander whose invading army had just vanquished the small outpost of Fort St Elmo - a thousand yards distant across the water.

Now the target was the one remaining fort on the harbour front where the beleaguered, outnumbered and overwhelmed Christians were still holding out: the Fort St Angelo. The Turkish commander wished its defenders to know that they would be next, that a horrible death was the only outcome of continued resistance.

But the commander had not counted on the mettle of his enemy - the Knights of St John. Nor on the determination of their leader Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette, who vowed that the fort would not be taken while one last Christian lived in Malta.

The rest of the history

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-466818/Historys-bloodiest-siege-used-human-heads-cannonballs.html

You cannot separate “terror” from Islam.

“The issue of “terror” is a further aspect of this same understanding. Many outside Islam seek to separate “terror” and “Islam” as if they were, in their usage, independent or even opposed ideas. This latter view is almost impossible seriously to maintain in the light of Islamic history and the text of the Qur’an itself.”

43 posted on 10/06/2014 11:29:23 AM PDT by Dqban22
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