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Image of the Day: Galaxies Beyond Comprehension (and Seven-Trillion Dwarfs!)
Daily Galaxy ^ | 2/17/11

Posted on 02/18/2011 10:01:33 AM PST by LibWhacker

Image of the Day: Galaxies Beyond Comprehension (and Seven-Trillion Dwarfs!)

  Goodss_3pacs_2_H

ESA’s Herschel space telescope has discovered that previously unseen distant galaxies are responsible for a cosmic fog of infrared radiation. The galaxies are some of the faintest and furthest objects seen by Herschel, and open a new window on the birth of stars in the early Universe.

Astronomers estimate that their are billions and billions of galaxies in the observable universe (as well as some seven trillion dwarf galaxies) . Here's the breakout of the visible universe within 14 billion light years:


Superclusters in the visible universe = 10 million
Galaxy groups in the visible universe = 25 billion
Large galaxies in the visible universe = 350 billion
Dwarf galaxies in the visible universe = 7 trillion
Stars in the visible universe = 30 billion trillion  (3x10²²)

Astronomers realized this past year that they may have underestimated the number of galaxies in some parts of the universe by as much as 90 percent, according to a study reported by Matthew Hayes of the University of Geneva's observatory, who led the investigation using the world's most advanced optical instrument -- Europe's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile, which has four 8.2-meter (26.65-feet) behemoths. They turned two of the giants towards a well-studied area of deep space called the GOODS-South field.

In the case of very distant, old galaxies, the telltale light may not reach Earth as it is blocked by interstellar clouds of dust and gas -- and, as a result, these galaxies are missed by the map-makers.

"Astronomers always knew they were missing some fraction of the galaxies... but for the first time we now have a measurement. The number of missed galaxies is substantial," said Matthew Hayes of the University of Geneva's observatory, who led the investigation.

The team carried out two sets of observations in the same region, hunting for light emitted by galaxies born 10 billion years ago.The first looked for so-called Lyman-alpha light, the classic telltale used to compile cosmic maps, named after its U.S. discoverer, Theodore Lyman. Lyman-alpha is energy released by excited hydrogen atoms. The second observation used a special camera called HAWK-1 to look for a signature emitted at a different wavelength, also by glowing hydrogen, which is known as the hydrogen-alpha (or H-alpha) line.

The second sweep yielded a whole bagful of light sources that had not been spotted using the Lyman-alpha technique.

They include some of the faintest galaxies ever found, forged at a time when the universe was just a child.

The astronomers conclude that Lyman-alpha surveys may only spot just a tiny number of the total light emitted from far galaxies. Astonishingly, as many as 90 percent of such distant galaxies may go unseen in these exercises.

"If there are 10 galaxies seen, there could be a hundred there," said Hayes.

The discovery could add powerfully to knowledge about the timeline by which stars and then galaxies formed.


TOPICS: Astronomy; Science
KEYWORDS: beyond; comprehension; dwarfs; galaxies; xplanets

1 posted on 02/18/2011 10:01:40 AM PST by LibWhacker
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To: LibWhacker

If you look closely enough you can see Helen Thomas.

It’s one of the red ones.


2 posted on 02/18/2011 10:05:32 AM PST by JusPasenThru (Why won't those knuckle-dragging tea-bagging right-wing bastards just negotiate with me?)
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To: AngieGal

7 trillion Dwarf galaxies ping


3 posted on 02/18/2011 10:07:20 AM PST by PetroniusMaximus
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To: LibWhacker

7 trillion dwarfs? Poor Snow White!


4 posted on 02/18/2011 10:08:15 AM PST by JRios1968 (Laz would hit it!)
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To: LibWhacker

While probably quite informative, this picture is no where near as lovely as the one the Hubble took.


5 posted on 02/18/2011 10:08:55 AM PST by Paradox (Matthews has the emotional equilibrium of a pregnant, gambling chihuahua on meth.)
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To: LibWhacker

Kudos for finding an article that uses the expression ‘30 billion trillion’ that isn’t about the national debt.


6 posted on 02/18/2011 10:09:25 AM PST by agere_contra (Historically every time the Left has 'expanded its moral imagination' the results have been horrific)
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To: LibWhacker
Astonishingly, as many as 90 percent of such distant galaxies may go unseen in these exercises.

So this is where all the unseen 'missing matter' is.

7 posted on 02/18/2011 10:09:52 AM PST by Spirochete (Sic transit gloria mundi)
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To: LibWhacker

wow - amazing


8 posted on 02/18/2011 10:11:09 AM PST by Chattering Class of 58
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To: LibWhacker
O LORD my God, You are very great:
You are clothed with honor and majesty,
Who cover Yourself with light as with a garment,
Who stretch out the heavens like a curtain.
He lays the beams of His upper chambers in the waters,
Who makes the clouds His chariot,
Who walks on the wings of the wind,
Who makes His angels spirits,
His ministers a flame of fire.

Psalm 104:1-4

9 posted on 02/18/2011 10:11:23 AM PST by Hoodat (Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us. - (Rom 8:37))
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To: LibWhacker
Astronomers estimate that their are billions and billions of galaxies in the observable universe

Can anyone over the age of 40 read that sentence without thinking of a certain scientist?

10 posted on 02/18/2011 10:12:35 AM PST by Our man in washington
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To: LibWhacker

They are sea shells, washed up on the shores of infinity. What civilizations are out there? What strange empires? Or is it just some little green man sitting in his back yard and asking “Is there anyone out there?”


11 posted on 02/18/2011 10:15:12 AM PST by Batrachian (9/11 confirmed everything I already knew about Islam. Not that it needed much confirming.)
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To: Hoodat

3x10²² is extremely puny compared to the probabilities needed for life or the laws of nature to turn out just right by itself.


12 posted on 02/18/2011 10:17:07 AM PST by MNDude
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To: Our man in washington

You mean the one who had the Universe for a co-star on PBS?


13 posted on 02/18/2011 10:17:20 AM PST by Grut
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To: Spirochete

Rhight! Every gram of real matter found is one less gram of “dark matter” required!


14 posted on 02/18/2011 10:18:29 AM PST by SubMareener (Become a monthly donor! Free FreeRepublic.com from Quarterly FReepathons!)
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To: LibWhacker

It’s hard to wrap my brain around those numbers - reminds me of the fisherman’s prayer: “O, God Thy Sea Is So Great And My Boat Is So Small.”


15 posted on 02/18/2011 10:20:52 AM PST by dainbramaged (If you want a friend, get a pit bull.)
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To: agere_contra
After reading live tweets from reporters describing tank mounted guns live firing into unarmed crowds and first hand accounts of police tossing grenades and gas into emergency rooms to finish off the wounded in various third world $hitholes..

You made me laugh.

Thanks for that, it was needed.

16 posted on 02/18/2011 10:25:45 AM PST by mmercier
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To: LibWhacker
[ In the case of very distant, old galaxies, the telltale light may not reach Earth as it is blocked by interstellar clouds of dust and gas -- and, as a result, these galaxies are missed by the map-makers. ]

And thats just the ones we can't see..
Its possible there are others "we" don't even know about..

17 posted on 02/18/2011 10:28:10 AM PST by hosepipe (This propaganda has been edited to include some fully orbed hyperbole....)
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To: Grut
You mean the one who had the Universe for a co-star on PBS?

I do indeed refer to Carl Sagan. He thus had the largest co-star in the history of television. (Although that's only because Michael Moore always worked alone.)

18 posted on 02/18/2011 10:46:26 AM PST by Our man in washington
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To: Grut
You mean the one who had the Universe for a co-star on PBS?

I do indeed refer to Carl Sagan. He thus had the largest co-star in the history of television. (Although that's only because Michael Moore always worked alone.)

19 posted on 02/18/2011 10:46:42 AM PST by Our man in washington
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To: SunkenCiv
Don't know if this applies to your "planet-x" list...

Please add me to that list, too, thanks.

20 posted on 02/18/2011 10:50:25 AM PST by raybbr (Someone who invades another country is NOT an immigrant - illegal or otherwise.)
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To: LibWhacker

All I want is a planet of my own with no liberal or progressives, look at em’ all out there and I’m stuck on this mess, uggh !!


21 posted on 02/18/2011 10:51:35 AM PST by Scythian
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To: MNDude
3x10²² is extremely puny compared to the probabilities needed for life or the laws of nature to turn out just right by itself.

N = the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible; and

R* = the average rate of star formation per year in our galaxy

fp = the fraction of those stars that have planets

ne = the average number of planets that can potentially support life per star that has planets

fℓ = the fraction of the above that actually go on to develop life at some point

fi = the fraction of the above that actually go on to develop intelligent life

fc = the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space L = the length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space.[3]

It seems to me the number of galaxies just shot up by...billions AND the number of Goldilocks planets keeps going up - I would think the odds have gone from puny to perhaps "small".

22 posted on 02/18/2011 12:01:00 PM PST by corkoman
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To: LibWhacker

Does this explain the “dark matter” idea the astronomers used to account for the matter in the universe they couldn’t see?


23 posted on 02/18/2011 12:06:49 PM PST by redhead ("I think I'm the best fish filleter in the whole third grade." --Piper Palin)
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To: raybbr

Thanks raybbr! Rather a lot, really.
 
X-Planets
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic · subscribe ·
Google news searches: exoplanet · exosolar · extrasolar ·

24 posted on 02/18/2011 12:30:08 PM PST by SunkenCiv (The 2nd Amendment follows right behind the 1st because some people are hard of hearing.)
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To: corkoman

Well, biology is one thing, but laws of physics is another.

Strong Force is about 10 to the power of 100 times stronger than gravity is. So those are pretty small chances that both gravity and strong force have the exact right strength for the universe to exist.

Then you have to consider for the strength of weak force, electromagnetism, the velocity of the expansion of the universe, and numerous other factors to take into account for the existance of the universe as it is in the first place.


25 posted on 02/18/2011 1:04:58 PM PST by MNDude
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To: LibWhacker

How long will it take me to hitch hike across it?


26 posted on 02/18/2011 1:10:30 PM PST by wxgesr (I want to be the first person to surf on another planet.)
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To: LibWhacker
Seven trillion dwarfs?

We're going to need a lot more pipe-weed

27 posted on 02/18/2011 1:23:40 PM PST by BlueDragon
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