Free Republic
Browse · Search
General/Chat
Topics · Post Article

Skip to comments.

How Medieval Knights remade Poland's ecosystems
Conservation Magazine ^ | April 2011 | Source: Brown, A., & Pluskowski, A.

Posted on 06/01/2011 6:47:16 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

In 1280, victorious Teutonic Crusaders began building the world's largest castle on a hill overlooking the River Nogat in what is now northern Poland. Malbork Castle became the hub of a powerful Teutonic state that crushed its pagan enemies and helped remake Medieval Europe. Now, ancient pollen samples show that in addition to converting heathens to Christians, the Crusaders also converted vast swathes of Medieval forests to farmlands.

In the early-13th century, Prussian tribes living in the south-eastern Baltic became a thorn in the side of the Monastic State of Teutonic Knights, which was formed in 1224 in what is now Germany and Poland. To remove the thorn, and protect Christian converts in the region, the Teutonic Order launched a series of crusades. By the 14th century, the conquests had produced a state that ruled over more than 220,000 people, Alex Brown and Aleks Pluskowski of the University of Reading in the United Kingdom report in the Journal of Archeological Science, including new colonists who settled into fortified towns and castles.

To understand how these historic shifts changed Europe's environment, past researchers have relied on hints from old maps and papers, such as those showing how much timber or stone a wealthy Knight used to build his castle. Brown and Pluskowski, however, turned to a different kind of historical record: the pollen grains that become trapped in the layers of mud that line waterbodies. By analyzing shifts in the pollen, researchers can reconstruct everything from past climates to landscape changes.

(Excerpt) Read more at conservationmagazine.org ...


TOPICS: History; Science; Travel
KEYWORDS: ggg; godsgravesglyphs; poland
Joanna Szycik | Dreamstime.com

How Medieval Knights remade Polands ecosystems

1 posted on 06/01/2011 6:47:19 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: Renfield; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

· GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach ·
· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe ·

 
 Antiquity Journal
 & archive
 Archaeologica
 Archaeology
 Archaeology Channel
 BAR
 Bronze Age Forum
 Discover
 Dogpile
 Eurekalert
 Google
 LiveScience
 Mirabilis.ca
 Nat Geographic
 PhysOrg
 Science Daily
 Science News
 Texas AM
 Yahoo
 Excerpt, or Link only?
 


Thanks Renfield.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
 

· History topic · history keyword · archaeology keyword · paleontology keyword ·
· Science topic · science keyword · Books/Literature topic · pages keyword ·


2 posted on 06/01/2011 6:48:54 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

great post. where do you find this stuff?


3 posted on 06/01/2011 6:52:59 PM PDT by beebuster2000
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

Marienburg has only been in Poland for a few decades.
In fact only since the conclusion of the great rape of central and eastern Europe by russia and her allies during the last century.
When speaking in the timeframe of ecosystems, Marienburgs present location seems rather immaterial.


4 posted on 06/01/2011 7:02:29 PM PDT by nkycincinnatikid
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: beebuster2000
where do you find this stuff?

Al Gore would know. He invented it after all.

5 posted on 06/01/2011 7:05:06 PM PDT by bigheadfred (Is it humor, or cynicasm driven by rage?????)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv

Looks like Heidelburg,

If they were monastic, where did they get 220k people?

Oh, and I am going to build a Tutonic shrine in NY on my farm.

That ought to f((k with people for a couple of thousand years.

After all, I am a 3rd degree mason. So are my sons.

LOL.


6 posted on 06/01/2011 7:07:56 PM PDT by patton (I am sure that I have done dumber things in my life, but at the moment, I am unable to recall them.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv; JoeProBono; Daffynition

Here’s one for you.

“A UFO base underground of the Malbork Castle”

http://malbork.20m.com/

I gotta get me one of theze

http://malbork.20m.com/bobola/she_devil.jpg


7 posted on 06/01/2011 7:12:59 PM PDT by bigheadfred (Is it humor, or cynicasm driven by rage?????)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: bigheadfred
You had me at the *Concept of Dipolar Gravity*.


8 posted on 06/01/2011 7:30:17 PM PDT by Daffynition ("Don't just live your life, but witness it also.")
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: bigheadfred

9 posted on 06/01/2011 7:54:36 PM PDT by JoeProBono (A closed mouth gathers no feet)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 7 | View Replies]

To: JoeProBono; Daffynition

My eyes do that when I get fingered, too.


10 posted on 06/01/2011 8:03:17 PM PDT by bigheadfred (Is it humor, or cynicasm driven by rage?????)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 9 | View Replies]

To: bigheadfred

Which reminds me, I’m due for my annual exam...


11 posted on 06/01/2011 8:19:45 PM PDT by null and void (We are now in day 860 of our national holiday from reality. - Obama really isn't one of us)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 10 | View Replies]

To: null and void

I’ll do it for half-price this time.


12 posted on 06/01/2011 8:39:21 PM PDT by bigheadfred (Is it humor, or cynicasm driven by rage?????)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 11 | View Replies]

To: bigheadfred
Which also reminds me, how did you manage to have your hands on both my shoulders last time???
13 posted on 06/01/2011 8:44:34 PM PDT by null and void (We are now in day 860 of our national holiday from reality. - Obama really isn't one of us)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: beebuster2000

I was passed the link in FReepmail.


14 posted on 06/02/2011 2:58:30 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 3 | View Replies]

To: patton

I think the comment about the Teutonic knight was “Semi-Chivalric, semi-Monastic, and semi-Christian.”

Anyway, they got the 220K people by conquering them. Someone has to raise food and livestock for the Order.


15 posted on 06/02/2011 4:26:21 AM PDT by Little Ray (The Gods of the Copybook Heading, with terror and slaughter return!)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 6 | View Replies]

To: Little Ray

LOL - I had not heard that.


16 posted on 06/02/2011 6:00:23 AM PDT by patton (I am sure that I have done dumber things in my life, but at the moment, I am unable to recall them.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 15 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv; bigheadfred; Daffynition; null and void

Priceless! A little creepy, but priceless.


17 posted on 06/02/2011 7:29:51 AM PDT by Silentgypsy (You know if I don’t remember I’m gonna forget.)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 2 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv
As in the picture, the Knights typically built with brick, I suppose due to the lack of stone in flat Poland. The castles were stark and utilitarian. One interesting feature is the use of a latrine tower, which also served as a refuge in time of attack.


18 posted on 06/02/2011 12:24:07 PM PDT by colorado tanker
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv
The Knights' realm at its greatest extent:

In 1242 the Knights invaded Novgorod, one of the precursors of the Russian state, intent on converting the Russians to western Catholicism. The Battle of Lake Peipus, or Battle of the Ice was won decisively by Alexander Nevsky and the Russians, as memorialized in the beautifully filmed propaganda piece by Eisenstein. The boundary between the Baltic States and Russia remains the border between western Christianity and Orthodoxy.

In 1410 the Knights were defeated in the Battle of Grunwald, losing to the rising Polish-Lituanian power. Eventually, they were relegated to a few possessions in the Holy Roman Empire.

19 posted on 06/02/2011 12:39:56 PM PDT by colorado tanker
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 1 | View Replies]

To: nkycincinnatikid
Marienburg has only been in Poland for a few decades. In fact only since the conclusion of the great rape of central and eastern Europe by russia and her allies during the last century.

Not exactly. I believe the area was swiped from Poland by Prussia in the first of the Polish Partitions in 1772. It had been Polish for some centuries prior to that.

20 posted on 06/02/2011 12:46:46 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 4 | View Replies]

To: colorado tanker

Wow, nice!


21 posted on 06/02/2011 6:17:03 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 19 | View Replies]

To: bigheadfred; null and void

LOLOL!

I go away for most of a day, and...


22 posted on 06/02/2011 6:19:39 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (Thanks Cincinna for this link -- http://www.friendsofitamar.org)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 12 | View Replies]

To: Sherman Logan

Shermy,..... Baby,
Can you grasp that Gods green earth has been in play and will always remain in play?
Is it somewhere in the old testament that the muscovites are to own eastern Europe and push the little slavs to the west?
This interesting post about the ecological changes brought about by a group pushing civilization eastward OVER CENTURIES should be viewed in the context of the THOUSANDS of German women and children being found executed in mass graves every year in sight of the fortress of Marienburg.


23 posted on 06/02/2011 6:41:53 PM PDT by nkycincinnatikid
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 20 | View Replies]

To: nkycincinnatikid

I have little idea what you are trying to say.

The area in question was probably originally (whatever that means, in this case sometime around 1000) settled by non-Slavic pagan Prussian tribes, who were conquered and probably assimilated by the Germanic Teutonic Knights.

The Knights were then conquered and their land taken by the Poles.

Several centuries later (1770s) the Prussians (good Germans by then) took control of the land when they combined with Austria and Russia to dismember Poland.

The Poles eventually got it back when the Germans lost WWII and the Red Army pushed both Poland’s east and west borders west a couple hundred miles.

My original comment was with regard to the claim that the area had never been Polish till recently. This is flatly untrue.

I am well aware of the massacres of Germans in the last days of WWII. I don’t think any of this was a good thing, but many if not probably the vast majority of these Germans had been perfectly happy to follow in the footsteps of the Wehrmacht and move into the houses of evicted or killed Poles and Jews. This was explicit German policy. They were eventually going to exterminate the Poles as they were the Jews. Just keep the Poles around for a generation or so as slaves.

Life bites. When a nation initiates aggressive genocidal warfare and makes the ultimate mistake of losing the war, it tends to get genocided right back. Not right, but that’s what happens.

It’s kind of silly to keep score, but it is well known the Germans killed upwards of 12M innocent civilians during the war. Ethnic Germans killed during the expulsions and revenge attacks are estimated at .5M to 2M. And it is not unfair to point out that the Germans started it.


24 posted on 06/02/2011 7:05:15 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 23 | View Replies]

To: null and void; SunkenCiv
Which also reminds me, how did you manage to have your hands on both my shoulders last time???

Old magic trick my grandpa showed me.

25 posted on 06/02/2011 7:06:51 PM PDT by bigheadfred (Is it humor, or cynicasm driven by rage?????)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 13 | View Replies]

To: Sherman Logan

Started what?
When?


26 posted on 06/02/2011 7:23:21 PM PDT by nkycincinnatikid
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 24 | View Replies]

To: nkycincinnatikid

Very simple words.

During WWII the Germans had an explicit policy of genocide against inferior races.

This, not surprisingly, turned around and bit them at the end of the war when the inferior races conquered them.


27 posted on 06/02/2011 7:31:35 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 26 | View Replies]

To: SunkenCiv; null and void


from wikipedia
28 posted on 06/03/2011 1:17:10 PM PDT by AdmSmith (GCTGATATGTCTATGATTACTCAT)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 14 | View Replies]

To: AdmSmith

That is a ton of bricks.


29 posted on 06/03/2011 3:41:22 PM PDT by bigheadfred (Is it humor, or cynicasm driven by rage?????)
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 28 | View Replies]

To: Sherman Logan

Apologies for such a late reply, did not notice.
To folks like you “history” begins in the summer of 1939.
Sometimes the really brainy begin in summer of 1914.
It always seems to work in your minds, and therefor I can’t fault you for it I guess.
But it is supremely dishonest.
How many groups fighting aggressive war or driven to war or innocently responding to agression have had an explicit or implicit policy of genocide against their enemies?
Uncountable multitudes is of course the honest answer.
Amongst them English,Amerinds,Belgians,Toltecs,French,Ibo,Russians,Arabs,Japanese,Burmans,Chinese,Turks,Swedes,Aztec,Inca,Dutch,Serbs,Watusi,Scots,Romans,Peshtuns,Mongols,Spartans,Athenians, Trojans,Persians,.........
Not, as Seifeld would say, there is anything wrong with that.


30 posted on 06/05/2011 2:14:12 PM PDT by nkycincinnatikid
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: bigheadfred

It is truly a stunningly magnificent place, and the Polish have taken it as a national treasure, are respectfully restoring it in a way that frankly the Germans with their wage system simply could never have aspired to do.


31 posted on 06/05/2011 2:19:53 PM PDT by nkycincinnatikid
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 29 | View Replies]

To: Sherman Logan
During WWII the Germans had an explicit policy of genocide against inferior races.

It's not exactly true that Germans viewed Poles as inferior. In fact, one of the reasons that Poles were singled out, was because they felt that Poles had too much Germanic influence in them, and thus were a threat to Hitler's dream of a Lebensraum. Which explains why the Nazis moved quickly to eliminate all Polish intellectuals and professional people.

That's precisely why a "Vichy Poland" was not a possibility. Hitler knew Poles would not roll over like the other Slavic countries would, they would fight the Germans tooth and nail for as long as it took, even if it was outside of her borders.

32 posted on 06/05/2011 2:22:02 PM PDT by dfwgator
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 27 | View Replies]

To: nkycincinnatikid

I fail to see why you think my reply was dishonest.

I never said the German policy of genocide was unique or even particularly unusual, except in its “industrial” and modern infrastructure.

I said that those who start such wars had better win them or the blowback can be remarkably unpleasant for them.

As in, “those who strike the king had better kill him.”

Pardon me if I misunderstood the implications of some of your posts, but you seemed to be obsessing about the Soviet massacres of German civilians, an odd obsession given the post I’m responding to here.

If you consider the the German genocide policy no big deal, I’m confused why you consider the considerably less extensive Soviet policy of the same line against ethnic Germans to be a BD.

There is also the fact that a goodly number (but percentage unknown since the killers didn’t particularly care) of the German civilians killed by the Soviets were willing and even enthusiastic participants in the earlier killing of Russian, Ukrainian and Polish civilians, not to mention Jews.


33 posted on 06/05/2011 5:14:05 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
[ Post Reply | Private Reply | To 30 | View Replies]

Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.

Free Republic
Browse · Search
General/Chat
Topics · Post Article

FreeRepublic, LLC, PO BOX 9771, FRESNO, CA 93794
FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson