Skip to comments.Gene Regulation And The Difference Between Human Beings And Chimpanzees
Posted on 10/27/2011 5:49:24 AM PDT by Pharmboy
When the DNA sequences of Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes were sequenced, the difference between the sequences of coding genes was smaller than expected based on the phenotypic differences between both species. If not the coding genes, then what is responsible for these dissimilarities?
In the words of the authors of a new study that took a look at this question:
Although humans and chimpanzees have accumulated significant differences in a number of phenotypic traits since diverging from a common ancestor about six to eight million years ago, their genomes are more than 98.5% identical at protein-coding loci. Since this modest degree of nucleotide divergence does not seem sufficient to explain the extensive phenotypic differences that exist between the two species, it has been hypothesized that the genetic basis of the differences lies at the level of gene regulation and is associated with the extensive insertion and deletion (INDEL) variation between the two species.
So, it might not be the genes, but the genomic gaps between them. Junk DNA, or stretches of the genome without any known function, does not code for any protein, and turns out to be quite different between human beings and chimpanzees. A lot of the difference between the two evolutionary cousins is due to the insertion or deletion of retrotransposons, genetic elements that amplify themselves and constitute about half the genome in both species.
These gaps between the genes in both genomes can affect the extent to which genes are 'turned on or off'. The research team has found that the gaps in both genomes are significantly correlated with differences in gene expression. This suggests that the difference between chimpanzees and human beings might not be mostly due to changes in genes, but rather in changes of gene regulation.
The researchers conclude:
The results presented herein are consistent with the hypothesis that large INDELs, particularly those associated with retrotransposons, have played a significant role in human-chimpanzee regulatory evolution.
Not so different after all?
(Source: Scientific American, What makes us human?)
Polavarapu, N.; Arora, G.; Mittal, V.K. and McDonald, J.F. (2011). Characterization and potential functional significance of human-chimpanzee large INDEL variation. Mobile DNA. doi:10.1186/1759-8753-2-13. (Click here for a provisional version of the article.)
Oh...and as for the caption under the picture? The answer is VERY different...
The idea that nuts and bolts evolve doesn't work.
Not only that every variety of conveyance in the universe will have essentially the same parts ~ top, bottom, front, back, left, right, up, down, electrons ~ all the features of "charm" ~ it's memes all the way down ~ not turtles at all.
So, what's the independent factor in all this? Well, that'd be the empty spaces and how they are defined by "stuff".
Great analogy...mind if I use it on occasion? I will give the credit to a native American woman.
“junk” DNA is the data segment
Evolutionists and other animal idol groups point to the vast intelligence of some species, like chimps and dolphins.
Should be any time now, and these species will start building their own towns, churches, universities, etc. Just waiting...
Why did humans evolve, but chimpanzees did not? I thought the "Theory of Evolution" says that everything evolves. How come sharks haven't evolved, or the coelacanth?
Did you read the sentence? "since diverging from a common ancestor about six to eight million years ago"
Both chimps and humans have evolved. They just evolved in different directions. The chimp of today probably has no more in common with our common ancestor than we do. Evolution says a species will become better suited to its environment, not that it will necessarily evolve in a direction we perceive as "higher."
Sharks and other species may evolve little because they are supremely well-suited to an environment that has changed little in a very long time.
Call me when an ape publishes a thesis on "Man".
I’m waiting for the study to show the differences between Homo sapiens and OWSers.
|GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach|
Time for me to admit it. I’m actually a chimp. They gave me a mac and internet access.
Hang on a second while I fling this poo...
Would you like my thoughts on metaphysical poetry?
“Would you like my thoughts on metaphysical poetry?”
Yes, and no monkeying around.
I feel many of them were influenced subliminally by bananas.
“I feel many of them were influenced subliminally by bananas.”
That theory does have a certain appeal to it.
No...but have you typed the works of Shakespeare yet?
A ruse by any other gnome would small as swoop...
I’m working on it.
I am a little unclear, are the transpons (which I have heard mentioned before) things or the empty spaces? Also, wouldn’t be possible to study the DNA of bonobos which, while closer to chimps than we are, nevertheless are a later step in evolution from the chimps to see what differences there are between chimp, bonobo and human?