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Gene Regulation And The Difference Between Human Beings And Chimpanzees
Scince 2.0 ^ | October 26th 2011 | Gunnar De Winter

Posted on 10/27/2011 5:49:24 AM PDT by Pharmboy

When the DNA sequences of Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes were sequenced, the difference between the sequences of coding genes was smaller than expected based on the phenotypic differences between both species. If not the coding genes, then what is responsible for these dissimilarities?

In the words of the authors of a new study that took a look at this question:

Although humans and chimpanzees have accumulated significant differences in a number of phenotypic traits since diverging from a common ancestor about six to eight million years ago, their genomes are more than 98.5% identical at protein-coding loci. Since this modest degree of nucleotide divergence does not seem sufficient to explain the extensive phenotypic differences that exist between the two species, it has been hypothesized that the genetic basis of the differences lies at the level of gene regulation and is associated with the extensive insertion and deletion (INDEL) variation between the two species.

So, it might not be the genes, but the genomic ‘gaps’ between them. Junk DNA, or stretches of the genome without any known function, does not code for any protein, and turns out to be quite different between human beings and chimpanzees. A lot of the difference between the two evolutionary cousins is due to the insertion or deletion of retrotransposons, genetic elements that amplify themselves and constitute about half the genome in both species.

These gaps between the genes in both genomes can affect the extent to which genes are 'turned on or off'. The research team has found that the gaps in both genomes are significantly correlated with differences in gene expression. This suggests that the difference between chimpanzees and human beings might not be mostly due to changes in genes, but rather in changes of gene regulation.

The researchers conclude:

The results presented herein are consistent with the hypothesis that large INDELs, particularly those associated with retrotransposons, have played a significant role in human-chimpanzee regulatory evolution.

Not so different after all?

(Source: Scientific American, What makes us human?)

Reference

Polavarapu, N.; Arora, G.; Mittal, V.K. and McDonald, J.F. (2011). Characterization and potential functional significance of human-chimpanzee large INDEL variation. Mobile DNA. doi:10.1186/1759-8753-2-13. (Click here for a provisional version of the article.)


TOPICS: Science
KEYWORDS: chimps; genes; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; humanevolution
Well, for anyone following this gene story over the last 25 or so years, it had to be obvious that if the coding for the structural proteins were so close, there had to be differences elsewhere in the genes to account for the physical differences between apes and humans.

Oh...and as for the caption under the picture? The answer is VERY different...

1 posted on 10/27/2011 5:49:25 AM PDT by Pharmboy
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To: neverdem; SunkenCiv; ClearCase_guy; blam; thefactor

Ape-man ping...


2 posted on 10/27/2011 5:50:35 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must...)
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To: Pharmboy
I call it the nuts and bolts of creation....kinda like putting a car together. You want a Lincoln or a Chevy...you're still going to have nuts and bolts.

The idea that nuts and bolts evolve doesn't work.

3 posted on 10/27/2011 5:53:32 AM PDT by Sacajaweau
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To: Sacajaweau
You'll not only have nuts and bolts they will be made in pretty much the same design and size, as will the engine, body, chassis and a wide variety of other elements.

Not only that every variety of conveyance in the universe will have essentially the same parts ~ top, bottom, front, back, left, right, up, down, electrons ~ all the features of "charm" ~ it's memes all the way down ~ not turtles at all.

So, what's the independent factor in all this? Well, that'd be the empty spaces and how they are defined by "stuff".

4 posted on 10/27/2011 6:02:43 AM PDT by muawiyah
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To: Sacajaweau

Great analogy...mind if I use it on occasion? I will give the credit to a native American woman.


5 posted on 10/27/2011 6:11:36 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must...)
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To: Pharmboy

“junk” DNA is the data segment


6 posted on 10/27/2011 6:21:54 AM PDT by NonValueAdded (So much stress was put on Bush's Fault that it finally let go, magnitude 6)
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To: Pharmboy

Evolutionists and other animal idol groups point to the vast intelligence of some species, like chimps and dolphins.

Should be any time now, and these species will start building their own towns, churches, universities, etc. Just waiting...


7 posted on 10/27/2011 6:21:56 AM PDT by Rennes Templar (Fast & Furious: Holder gone by the end of the year.)
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To: Pharmboy
Although humans and chimpanzees have accumulated significant differences in a number of phenotypic traits since diverging from a common ancestor about six to eight million years ago...

Why did humans evolve, but chimpanzees did not? I thought the "Theory of Evolution" says that everything evolves. How come sharks haven't evolved, or the coelacanth?

8 posted on 10/27/2011 6:31:08 AM PDT by Cowboy Bob (Greed + Envy = Liberalism)
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To: Cowboy Bob
Why did humans evolve, but chimpanzees did not?

Did you read the sentence? "since diverging from a common ancestor about six to eight million years ago"

Both chimps and humans have evolved. They just evolved in different directions. The chimp of today probably has no more in common with our common ancestor than we do. Evolution says a species will become better suited to its environment, not that it will necessarily evolve in a direction we perceive as "higher."

Sharks and other species may evolve little because they are supremely well-suited to an environment that has changed little in a very long time.

9 posted on 10/27/2011 6:36:09 AM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: Rennes Templar
Vast intelligence??? They experiment...train them...They can only do what nature intended and what's wrong with that??

Call me when an ape publishes a thesis on "Man".

10 posted on 10/27/2011 6:36:53 AM PDT by Sacajaweau
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To: Pharmboy

I’m waiting for the study to show the differences between Homo sapiens and OWSers.


11 posted on 10/27/2011 6:41:20 AM PDT by JaguarXKE
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To: FReepers; everyone; All

12 posted on 10/27/2011 6:47:07 AM PDT by onyx (You're here on FR, so support it! Compiling New Sarah Ping List. Let me know if you want on it.)
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To: NonValueAdded
I well-remember back in the '80s when a very smart guy (I think it was David Baltimore) had a piece in Science about "junk" DNA. I thought to myself: "How could such a brilliant biologist think that a biologic system would add this much extraneous stuff?" Nature does not work that way...I never thought it was junk.
13 posted on 10/27/2011 7:26:48 AM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must...)
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Many thanks to Salamander and Odhinn

Click the pic and donate
or the Doberman gets it!

14 posted on 10/27/2011 8:11:37 AM PDT by TheOldLady (FReepmail me to get ON or OFF the ZOT LIGHTNING ping list)
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To: Pharmboy; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Thanks Pharmboy.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


15 posted on 10/27/2011 3:29:25 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's never a bad time to FReep this link -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Rennes Templar

“Just waiting...

Time for me to admit it. I’m actually a chimp. They gave me a mac and internet access.

Hang on a second while I fling this poo...

Would you like my thoughts on metaphysical poetry?


16 posted on 10/27/2011 4:01:50 PM PDT by Winstons Julia (Hello OWS? We don't need a revolution like China's; China needs a revolution like OURS.)
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To: Winstons Julia

“Would you like my thoughts on metaphysical poetry?”

Yes, and no monkeying around.


17 posted on 10/27/2011 4:27:13 PM PDT by Rennes Templar (Fast & Furious: Holder gone by the end of the year.)
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To: Rennes Templar

*picks nit*

I feel many of them were influenced subliminally by bananas.


18 posted on 10/27/2011 4:29:28 PM PDT by Winstons Julia (Hello OWS? We don't need a revolution like China's; China needs a revolution like OURS.)
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To: Winstons Julia

“I feel many of them were influenced subliminally by bananas.”

That theory does have a certain appeal to it.


19 posted on 10/27/2011 4:44:05 PM PDT by Rennes Templar (Fast & Furious: Holder gone by the end of the year.)
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To: Winstons Julia

No...but have you typed the works of Shakespeare yet?


20 posted on 10/27/2011 6:08:17 PM PDT by Pharmboy (Democrats lie because they must...)
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To: Pharmboy

A ruse by any other gnome would small as swoop...

I’m working on it.


21 posted on 10/27/2011 6:14:47 PM PDT by Winstons Julia (Hello OWS? We don't need a revolution like China's; China needs a revolution like OURS.)
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GRAPHIC BY THE CAJUN!



To: FReepers; All

Don't be an IDIOT or a WITCH

DONATE TO Free Republic


22 posted on 10/27/2011 6:16:02 PM PDT by onyx
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To: muawiyah; Sherman Logan; Pharmboy; SunkenCiv; blam; All

I am a little unclear, are the transpons (which I have heard mentioned before) things or the empty spaces? Also, wouldn’t be possible to study the DNA of bonobos which, while closer to chimps than we are, nevertheless are a later step in evolution from the chimps to see what differences there are between chimp, bonobo and human?


23 posted on 10/27/2011 11:32:39 PM PDT by gleeaikin
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To: gleeaikin
Transposons
24 posted on 10/28/2011 3:51:05 AM PDT by blam
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