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'Starbursts' and black holes lead to biggest galaxies
BBC News ^ | 1/25/12 | BBC

Posted on 01/25/2012 2:08:21 PM PST by NormsRevenge

Frenetic star-forming activity in the early Universe is linked to the most massive galaxies in today's cosmos, new research suggests.

This "starbursting" activity when the Universe was just a few billion years old appears to have been clamped off by the growth of supermassive black holes.

An international team gathered hints of the mysterious "dark matter" in early galaxies to confirm the link.

The findings appear in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

...

Using the 12-metre Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope in Chile, an international team led by Ryan Hickox of Dartmouth College studied the way distant galaxies from the early Universe grouped together.

Galaxies are understood to be surrounded by "haloes" of a mysterious material called dark matter, which clearly exerts a force but has never been detected. The team's experiments measured the effects of this gravitational force on the galaxy clusters.

With these measured dark matter haloes, and the help of a computer model that describes how the galaxies and their haloes should evolve, the team showed that the frenetic "starbursting" galaxies develop into the enormous elliptical galaxies we see more nearby.

"This is the first time that we've been able to show this clear link between the most energetic starbursting galaxies in the early Universe, and the most massive galaxies in the present day," said Dr Hickox.

However, these bouts of star formation appear to only last about 100 million years, seeming to come to an abrupt halt.

The team's new work adds weight to the idea that the starburst feeds material into the supermassive black holes at their centres.

These in turn emit powerful blasts of energy as they consume the stars, blowing away the very clouds of gas that could otherwise have coalesced into even more stars.

(Excerpt) Read more at bbc.co.uk ...


TOPICS: Astronomy; Chit/Chat; Science
KEYWORDS: biggest; blackholes; darkmatter; galaxies; starbursts; stringtheory

1 posted on 01/25/2012 2:08:25 PM PST by NormsRevenge
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"Starbursting" galaxies can be seen by the APEX telescope, overlaid with an image from Spitzer
2 posted on 01/25/2012 2:09:18 PM PST by NormsRevenge (Semper Fi ... Godspeed .. Monthly Donor Onboard .. Obama: Epic Fail or Bust!!!)
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over at eso.org

The Wild Early Lives of Today’s Most Massive Galaxies
Dramatic star formation cut short by black holes
http://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1206/
25 January 2012

Using the APEX telescope, a team of astronomers has found the strongest link so far between the most powerful bursts of star formation in the early Universe, and the most massive galaxies found today. The galaxies, flowering with dramatic starbursts in the early Universe, saw the birth of new stars abruptly cut short, leaving them as massive — but passive — galaxies of aging stars in the present day. The astronomers also have a likely culprit for the sudden end to the starbursts: the emergence of supermassive black holes.

Astronomers have combined observations from the LABOCA camera on the ESO-operated 12-metre Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope [1] with measurements made with ESO’s Very Large Telescope, NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, and others, to look at the way that bright, distant galaxies are gathered together in groups or clusters.

The more closely the galaxies are clustered, the more massive are their halos of dark matter — the invisible material that makes up the vast majority of a galaxy’s mass. The new results are the most accurate clustering measurements ever made for this type of galaxy.


3 posted on 01/25/2012 2:12:21 PM PST by NormsRevenge (Semper Fi ... Godspeed .. Monthly Donor Onboard .. Obama: Epic Fail or Bust!!!)
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ESO.org

This red circle on this chart shows the position of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, in the southern constellation of Fornax (The Furnace).

4 posted on 01/25/2012 2:14:56 PM PST by NormsRevenge (Semper Fi ... Godspeed .. Monthly Donor Onboard .. Obama: Epic Fail or Bust!!!)
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To: NormsRevenge

There’s no such thing as a black hole, and no such thing as an early universe, the universe, like God, is eternal. The idea of an expanding universe and the idea of a big bang and a 17B year age for the universe were based on a misinterpretation of redshift phenomena which has since been cleared up, try a google search on “Halton Arp”.


5 posted on 01/25/2012 2:16:17 PM PST by varmintman
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To: NormsRevenge
And they come in so many flavors!

There, we have that out of the way...

6 posted on 01/25/2012 2:28:27 PM PST by freedumb2003 (Spoiler Alert! The secret to Terra Nova: THEY ARE ALL DEAD!!!)
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To: varmintman
Starburst and black ho ...whatever you want to call it Photobucket Photobucket
7 posted on 01/25/2012 2:35:26 PM PST by BubbaJunebug
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To: BubbaJunebug

I thought the Obamas were more into Skittles.


8 posted on 01/25/2012 2:37:43 PM PST by dfwgator (Don't wake up in a roadside ditch. Get rid of Romney.)
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To: NormsRevenge

Maybe some starburst and Nehi's for the trip...

9 posted on 01/25/2012 2:42:10 PM PST by the invisib1e hand (religion + guns = liberty.)
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To: varmintman

The “Big Bang” is exceedingly in line with the Genesis description ~ so, which “god” is it who deviates?


10 posted on 01/25/2012 3:14:07 PM PST by muawiyah
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To: varmintman

The Hubble telescope and its successors have completely discredited Arp. Sorry to be the bearer of bad news, but facts are facts.


11 posted on 01/25/2012 7:52:36 PM PST by Melas (u)
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To: Melas
The Hubble telescope and its successors have completely discredited Arp. Sorry to be the bearer of bad news, but facts are facts.

Sorry, but that's BS. Most real experts view NGC 7603 as unanswerable proof of Arp's thesis, i.e. a very low and two very high redshift objects which are unarguably part and parcel of the same thing:

Do your own google search on ngc7603.

12 posted on 01/25/2012 9:38:13 PM PST by varmintman
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To: muawiyah
The “Big Bang” is exceedingly in line with the Genesis description...

"Big bang" is bad physics and bad theology rolled into a package.

Having all the mass of the universe collapsed to a point would be the mother of all black holes; nothing would ever "bang(TM)" its way out of that.

Likewise for a supposedly omniscient and omnipotent God to suddenly determine that it would be a cool thing to create a universe while the idea had never occurred to him previously in the infinite expanse of time backwards from that is basically idiotic, and whether that happened 17 billion years ago or 6000 years ago doesn't even matter. The overwhelming likelihood is that the universe at large, like God, is eternal, and that the creation stories we read in the Bible and other ancient literature refer to the creation of our own living world and local environment, and not to the creation of the entire universe.

13 posted on 01/25/2012 9:43:52 PM PST by varmintman
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To: brytlea; cripplecreek; decimon; bigheadfred; KoRn; Grammy; married21; steelyourfaith; Mmogamer; ...

Thanks NormsRevenge. An “extra, extra” ping to the APoD list members.


14 posted on 01/26/2012 7:41:49 PM PST by SunkenCiv (FReep this FReepathon!)
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To: AdmSmith; bvw; callisto; ckilmer; dandelion; ganeshpuri89; gobucks; KevinDavis; Las Vegas Dave; ...

Thanks NormsRevenge.

· String Theory Ping List ·
721 posted on 04/24/2007 8:14:42 PM PDT by DocRock
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15 posted on 01/26/2012 7:43:20 PM PST by SunkenCiv (FReep this FReepathon!)
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To: SunkenCiv
If each of these has a black hole in it, that seems like a lot given the area covered in the pic.


16 posted on 01/26/2012 7:51:48 PM PST by bigheadfred
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To: bigheadfred

These look like red holes to me. :’)


17 posted on 01/26/2012 8:35:53 PM PST by SunkenCiv (FReep this FReepathon!)
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To: SunkenCiv

Me too. I just didn’t want to say anything.


18 posted on 01/27/2012 8:06:35 AM PST by bigheadfred
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To: varmintman

You said do a search. I did a search. I found this. I’m not impressed:

Arp originally proposed his theories in the 1960s; however, telescopes and astronomical instrumentation have advanced greatly since then: the Hubble Space Telescope was launched, multiple 8-10 meter telescopes (such as those at Keck Observatory) have become operational, and detectors such as CCDs are now more widely employed. These new telescopes and new instrumentation have been utilized to examine QSOs further. QSOs are now generally accepted to be very distant galaxies with high redshifts. Moreover, many imaging surveys, most notably the Hubble Deep Field, have found many high-redshift objects that are not QSOs but that appear to be normal galaxies like those found nearby.[6] Moreover, the spectra of the high-redshift galaxies, as seen from X-ray to radio wavelengths, match the spectra of nearby galaxies (particularly galaxies with high levels of star formation activity but also galaxies with normal or extinguished star formation activity) when corrected for redshift effects.[7][8][9] As more recent experiments have expanded the amount of collected data by orders of magnitude, it has become increasingly simple to test Arp’s postulates directly. A recent study stated that:

“... the publicly available data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 2dF QSO redshift survey to test the hypothesis that QSOs are ejected from active galaxies with periodic noncosmological redshifts. For two different intrinsic redshift models, [...] and find there is no evidence for a periodicity at the predicted frequency in log(1+z), or at any other frequency.”[10]

Nonetheless, Arp has not wavered from his stand against the Big Bang and still publishes articles[11] stating his contrary view in both popular and scientific literature, frequently collaborating with Geoffrey Burbidge (until his death in 2010) and Margaret Burbidge.[12]


19 posted on 01/27/2012 10:47:18 AM PST by samtheman
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To: SunkenCiv

Is that gas cloud flipping us the bird?


20 posted on 01/27/2012 12:41:13 PM PST by colorado tanker
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To: colorado tanker; SunkenCiv
Is that gas cloud flipping us the bird?

I thought it was a gun finger.

Either way, we are screwed.

21 posted on 01/27/2012 7:50:27 PM PST by bigheadfred
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To: colorado tanker; bigheadfred

Yeah, so much for the whole benevolent universe fiction.


22 posted on 01/28/2012 8:36:04 AM PST by SunkenCiv (FReep this FReepathon!)
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