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Are We Sliding Backward on Teaching Evolution?
TIME ^ | 04/24/2012 | Adam Cohen

Posted on 04/24/2012 4:21:57 AM PDT by SeekAndFind

Tennessee was the center of the national debate when it prosecuted John Thomas Scopes for the crime of teaching evolution. Now, 87 years after the Scopes “monkey trial,” Tennessee is once again a battleground over the origins of man. This month, it enacted a controversial new law — dubbed the “monkey bill” — giving schoolteachers broad new rights to question the validity of evolution and to teach students creationism.

The Tennessee legislature has been on a determined campaign to impose an ideological agenda on the state’s schools. Last week, the house education committee passed the so-called “Don’t say gay” bill, which would make it illegal to teach about homosexuality. The state senate just passed a bill to update the abstinence-based sex-education curriculum to define hand holding as a “gateway sexual activity.”

Unlike those bills, Tennessee’s “monkey bill” is now law. School boards and education administrators are now required to give support to teachers who want to “present the scientific strengths and scientific weaknesses” of various “scientific theories,” including “biological evolution” and “the chemical origins of life.” The new law also supports teachers who want to question accepted scientific thinking on two other hobgoblins of the far right: global warming and human cloning.

Backers of the “monkey bill” argued that it is intended to defend academic freedom. But the law encourages teachers to inject dubious ideas into their instruction. As the National Association of Biology Teachers said in a letter to the governor of Tennessee, evolution “should not be misrepresented as controversial or needing of special evaluation.” It should be presented as a scientific explanation “for events and processes that are supported by experimentation, logic analysis, and evidence-based revision based on detectable and measurable data.”

(Excerpt) Read more at ideas.time.com ...


TOPICS: Education; Science; Society
KEYWORDS: creation; creationism; darwin; evolution; publiceducation

1 posted on 04/24/2012 4:21:58 AM PDT by SeekAndFind
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To: SeekAndFind

Evolution is, in truth, nothing more than an incomplete theory. But in terms of academia in general, it is a religion.


2 posted on 04/24/2012 4:38:26 AM PDT by sayuncledave (et Verbum caro factum est (And the Word was made flesh))
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To: SeekAndFind
Umm well if you are it sort of disproves your pet myth.

geez sometimes I'm ashamed of how stupid the human race allows itself to be.

3 posted on 04/24/2012 4:40:13 AM PDT by the invisib1e hand
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To: SeekAndFind

Evolution is a brain-dead ideological doctrine which teaches that ones neighbor is a meat byproduct of random events and which has been overwhelmingly refuted over a very long period of time via a sizable number of unrelated avenues of research. No normal science theory would survive such a history of disproof; you’re dealing with a false pseudo-religion for yuppies here, not a science theory.


4 posted on 04/24/2012 4:52:57 AM PDT by varmintman
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To: SeekAndFind
There is nothing that makes God and science mutually exclusive. Actually, science, when it is directed to discovering truth (as opposed to obfuscation to get published and funded), is very spiritual (at least that's my take).

The left constantly tries to paint anyone who doesn't share their failed ideological beliefs as ‘bigots’ and ‘hicks’ and ‘throwbacks’ and ‘neanderthals’ who are ‘anti-modern’. It is imperative that we not let them do this.

It is political suicide to let the left claim the territory of intellectual superiority. As far as the evolution issue goes, those of us on the ‘non-left’ (which is what we should be calling ourselves - instead of letting them pigeonhole us as ‘the right wing’ etc.) should not let this kind of ‘God vs. science’, ‘religion vs. evolution’ theme go forward. In my view the proper stance should be to demonstrate superior scientific understanding - nail them on their insufficient knowledge, and then nail them on their closed minded arrogance.

For example, remind them that the Earth, by radiometric dating, is probably at least 4.5 billion years old, and that the known universe is probably at least 3 times older than that. Then remind them that dinosaurs didn't appear until probably 260 million years ago.

Finally, remind them that the average human lifespan on the planet is ~67-68 years, but that in that incredibly short period of time some people become so arrogantly convinced that they know everything there is to know about who we are and how we got here that they have convinced themselves that creation is impossible and that there is no such thing as God. Then ask them whether they think it makes more logical sense that all of existence has a reason for being, or whether it makes more sense that the entirety of this vast universe ‘just happened’. Paint them as the close-minded ideologues that they are. Don't cede this ground to them, ever.

5 posted on 04/24/2012 5:05:15 AM PDT by pieceofthepuzzle
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To: pieceofthepuzzle

——The left constantly tries to paint anyone who doesn’t share their failed ideological beliefs as ‘bigots’ and ‘hicks’ and ‘throwbacks’ and ‘neanderthals’ who are ‘anti-modern’. It is imperative that we not let them do this.——

The evolution critique is simple. Punk eek or micro?

If micro, where are the billions of transitional fossils? After 150 years, the fossil record is clear. Overwhelmingly, almost without exception, species disappear from the fossil record the same way they appeared, millions of years prior.

If punk eek, what’s the mechanism?

That’s it. Evolutionary theory is dogma, not science.


6 posted on 04/24/2012 5:16:02 AM PDT by St_Thomas_Aquinas (Viva Christo Rey!)
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To: SeekAndFind

Panic in the streets!

It’s the failure to teach reading and math that’s the real problem ... why it seems that’s even impacting their religious indoctrination efforts! Maybe they’ll care, now.


7 posted on 04/24/2012 5:37:25 AM PDT by Tax-chick ("A little plain food, and a philosophic temperament, are the only necessities of life."~W. Churchill)
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To: SeekAndFind

Teaching THEORY is fine. It’s just that facts keep getting it’s way!


8 posted on 04/24/2012 5:44:51 AM PDT by Doc Savage ("I've shot people I like a lot more,...for a lot less!" Raylan Givins)
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To: SeekAndFind

Last week, the house education committee passed the so-called “Don’t say gay” bill, which would make it illegal to teach about homosexuality.

WOW..A State that is actually doing the right thing and looking out for our children’s future!
Oh and it was not about “teaching about homo sex” they were against it was the homofacist agenda of indoctrination of children that this is meant to stop..........


9 posted on 04/24/2012 5:45:19 AM PDT by SECURE AMERICA (Where can I sign up for the New American Revolution and the Crusades 2012?)
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To: SeekAndFind
“... giving schoolteachers broad new rights to question the validity of evolution and to teach students creationism.”

I wonder WHICH version of Creation will be taught?

No doubt WASP teachers will teach the Judeo-Christian version, but what version of Creation will Afrocentric or islamist teachers cover?

How will diversity & multiculturalism affect the curriculum? If your child has a Buddhist biology teacher, who favors the Buddhist version of creation, are you satisfied this is the best Creation education for YOUR child? Given the gov’t penchant for dictating school curriculum, what will the “official” gov’t version of creation be? Will feminist teachers “sanitize” Eve's role in the loss of Paradise on Earth? Will islamic biology teachers (oxymoron?) teach about the moon goddess & the jinns?

Finally, are you comfortable with ceding the basic religious education of your children to the ultra-liberal education monopoly in the USA? Given the terrific job they are doing teaching reading, writing, & arithmetic, surely they will teach Creationism to your complete religious satisfaction, right? If a teacher has "broad new rights to question the validity of evolution", then doesn't that same teacher have broad new rights to question the validity of YOUR version of Creation?

Old saying: Be careful what you wish for!

I am astounded that conservatives would cede their child's basic religious education to a system that teaches elementary school kids how to use a condom, & that little Johnny has 2 mommies, & a dad who is intimate with his German Shepard.

Simple people produce simpleton ideas.

10 posted on 04/24/2012 6:02:37 AM PDT by Mister Da (The mark of a wise man is not what he knows, but what he knows he doesn't know!)
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To: pieceofthepuzzle
There is nothing that makes God and science mutually exclusive. Actually, science, when it is directed to discovering truth (as opposed to obfuscation to get published and funded), is very spiritual (at least that's my take).
The left constantly tries to paint anyone who doesn't share their failed ideological beliefs as ‘bigots’ and ‘hicks’ and ‘throwbacks’ and ‘neanderthals’ who are ‘anti-modern’. It is imperative that we not let them do this.


I agree. I try to explain to the fools that God, the one true God, is what actually helped develop modern science! Until God was revealed and understood, people didn't question how the sun rose or why the plants grew or anything else - they simply prayed to A god like water gods or earth gods or sun gods, etc... They didn't really study particulars (at least not in great numbers), until western societies allowed people to open their minds by allowing them to know that God was the reason for the beginning, now lets figure out the intricate details! In other words, God CREATED modern science!
11 posted on 04/24/2012 6:11:24 AM PDT by ExTxMarine (PRAYER: It's the only HOPE for real CHANGE in America!)
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To: St_Thomas_Aquinas

“If micro, where are the billions of transitional fossils? After 150 years, the fossil record is clear. Overwhelmingly, almost without exception, species disappear from the fossil record the same way they appeared, millions of years prior.”

You are arguing your point from a position of scientific strength, which is part of what I was trying to say.


12 posted on 04/24/2012 6:11:31 AM PDT by pieceofthepuzzle
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To: pieceofthepuzzle

-—You are arguing your point from a position of scientific strength, which is part of what I was trying to say.——

I guess I wasn’t clear. I was trying to reinforce your point by presenting the scientific argument in a memorable nutshell.


13 posted on 04/24/2012 6:32:30 AM PDT by St_Thomas_Aquinas (Viva Christo Rey!)
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To: St_Thomas_Aquinas

I know. You did a much better job at being succinct than me. I’m definitely not a very good soundbite guy. If I had to pay a dollar per word, I’d be broke in no time.


14 posted on 04/24/2012 6:35:31 AM PDT by pieceofthepuzzle
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To: sayuncledave; pieceofthepuzzle; St_Thomas_Aquinas
sayuncledave: "Evolution is, in truth, nothing more than an incomplete theory.
But in terms of academia in general, it is a religion."

Evolution is, in truth, nothing more than a scientific theory.
But in terms of academia in general, they defend evolution theory the same way they defend every other scientific theory.

So, if you wish to posit a "religion" for those academicians who claim to be irreligious, then their "religion" would not be "evolution".
Their "religion" -- that is to say, their core value -- is science (aka Methodological Naturalism), and evolution is just one branch of their science.

As for "Creationism" it is not science at all, since Creationism begins with somebody's interpretation of scriptures, then goes looking for supporting evidence, ignoring everything that contradicts it.

Evolution should be taught in science classes.
Creationism can be taught in religion classes.
And ideas like: God created the Universe, with all its Methodological Naturalism, and God endowed humans with certain inalienable rights... those ideas are appropriate for any classroom, whether scientific, religious, political or otherwise.

As for evolution's alleged "holes" or "incompleteness", let me suggest an analogy:
You could just as well say the science of medicine is "incomplete" and has "holes" because it did not yet cure _____________ (pick some incurable disease).
But science has cured or improved many diseases, and the average person today lives nearly twice as long as people a hundred years ago.
So medical science is not necessarily rendered invalid by what it does not cure.
Likewise, evolution theory is not necessarily rendered invalid by what it does not explain.

And much of medical science (like many other sciences) is built on our understandings of the long-term processes and workings of evolution.

15 posted on 04/24/2012 8:19:18 AM PDT by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: SeekAndFind

“Are We Sliding Backward on Teaching Evolution?”

just remove the last word and you have a truer title


16 posted on 04/24/2012 8:49:04 AM PDT by bravo whiskey (If the little things really bother you, maybe it's because the big things are going well.)
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To: BroJoeK

I agree with your post, except for the following.

-—Likewise, evolution theory is not necessarily rendered invalid by what it does not explain.-—

The theory of evolution is diametrically opposed to the empirical evidence.

Fossils have been collected for 150 years. They paint a uniform picture. Species remain static over time. Species exit the fossil record the same way they enter. Period.

The evidence directly contradicts Darwin’s theory.

The remaining, minority position is that evolution occurs in great leaps. But no remotely plausible mechanism has ever been proposed.


The question of human origins touches all sciences, since man is a unity of body and soul. No complete theory regarding human origins can ignore either aspect of human nature.

What then should be taught to children? This is more a question of authority. Since parents are children’s primary educators, they should have the power to decide.


17 posted on 04/24/2012 8:56:39 AM PDT by St_Thomas_Aquinas (Viva Christo Rey!)
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To: BroJoeK
Medicine is incomplete, and historically is full of examples of ‘dogma’ that were later refuted (e.g. bleeding patients to get rid of ‘ill humors’, extensive surgical treatment of ulcers that are now treated with antibiotics for H. pylori, etc.).

Lack of humility and a penchant for dogma are enemies of truth and fact, and all of us are susceptible to these human flaws, including scientists. When scientists hold fast to theories that are either not definitively testable, or that are not entirely consistent with observations or experimental results, then they are making a decision to ‘believe’ in their theory - irrespective of proof. This is, in fact, not different than religion. That's not the way science is supposed to work, but it often does.

The scientific method is not, unfortunately, applied nearly as frequently as it should be in experimental science. There are a lot of reasons for this, including conscious or unconscious bias in data interpretation in order to ensure publication. Recently a scientist who had been the head of cancer research at Amgen published a letter to Nature in which he described the efforts of a team of scientists from Amgen to replicate/confirm the results from 53 landmark scientific publications on cancer biology/research. They were only able to replicate 6 of the 53. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v483/n7391/full/483531a.htm

This doesn't mean that science can't be trusted. Science has been a big part of my life for a long time. It's a very important part of who I am. However, like any other endeavor that involves human beings, it is both fallible and corruptible.

The bottom line is that science doesn't ‘disprove’ God, although there are those who try to ascribe this function to science. I wholeheartedly stand by my assertion that belief in God and in the scientific method are in no way mutually exclusive, and that in searching for scientific truth one is often spiritually moved by what one finds.

18 posted on 04/24/2012 9:29:21 AM PDT by pieceofthepuzzle
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To: pieceofthepuzzle

Ping for later...


19 posted on 04/24/2012 12:31:54 PM PDT by BrandtMichaels
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To: St_Thomas_Aquinas; pieceofthepuzzle
St_Thomas_Aquinas: "The theory of evolution is diametrically opposed to the empirical evidence.

"Fossils have been collected for 150 years.
They paint a uniform picture.
Species remain static over time.
Species exit the fossil record the same way they enter...

"The evidence directly contradicts Darwin’s theory.
The remaining, minority position is that evolution occurs in great leaps.
But no remotely plausible mechanism has ever been proposed."

Hmmmmm... where to start?...

Yes, it's true that species come and go over relatively short intervals -- typically a few million years.
But remember that the word "species" is just a scientific construct, one of many describing biological classifications, including such terms as "sub-species", "breed", and "race" which come and go on even shorter time scales.
Indeed, we've seen "breeds" of domesticated animals developed over the short span of human history:

So every fossil, without exception, belongs to some longer-lived higher order or class, which scientists can determine by examining common characteristics.
It's a fact, for example, that human bones share certain characteristics in common with every other mammal, including the earliest proto-mammals from over 300 million years ago:


"Mammalian and non-mammalian jaws. In the mammal configuration, the quadrate and articular bones are much smaller and form part of the middle ear.
Note that in mammals the lower jaw consists of only the dentary bone."

So, yes, "species", "sub-species" & "breeds" come and go, but fossil records show that larger related families, orders and classes have survived for tens and hundreds of millions of years.

And the important point here is: DNA analyses of existing (or recently extinct) species confirms what the fossil record suggested -- that those with very similar characteristics also have closely matching DNA.
And DNA has a rate of mutations which can be measured in living species and calculated back to geological time-frames.

Certain DNA mutation (roughly one per generation) go on regardless of any outward modifications to a "species", and can be used, for example, to estimate when, say, St_Thomas_Aquinas and BroJoeK last shared a common ancestor. ;-)

And if, for example, that last common ancestor was several million years ago, and if our sub-species had lived all those years in radically different environments, then we might well expect that today our families could no longer interbreed -- hence by definition, we'd be different "species", regardless of how similar we looked.

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "Period"

No, not "period", but rather "comma", followed by a more detailed explanation. ;-)

20 posted on 04/27/2012 5:18:27 AM PDT by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: pieceofthepuzzle
pieceofthepuzzle: "The bottom line is that science doesn't ‘disprove’ God..."

Agreed.
The technical terms are "methodological naturalism" versus "philosophical naturalism".

Science by definition is based on "methodological naturalism".
Some irreligious scientists claim that only "philosophical naturalism" is valid.

But in effect their "philosophical naturalism" simply fills the void left by the absense of a theistic component in their overall understandings.
And a basic problem with "philosophical naturalism" can bee seen in words variously attributed to Haldane or Eddington:

That "strangeness", or in Haldane's words, "queerness" suggests there may be natural limits to "methodological natrualism".

;-)

21 posted on 04/27/2012 5:41:49 AM PDT by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: BroJoeK

-—But remember that the word “species” is just a scientific construct, one of many describing biological classifications, including such terms as “sub-species”, “breed”, and “race” which come and go on even shorter time scales.-—

Aristotle classified things (genus/species) according to common characteristics and specific differences.

Modern classification of species assumes that evolution has occurred, because of common characteristics between species. The difficulty is that the fossil record overwhelmingly demonstrates the fact that species are static. They remain unchanged as they enter and exit the fossil record, except for minor variation within species.

-—Indeed, we’ve seen “breeds” of domesticated animals developed over the short span of human history:?-—

This is variation within a species directed by human intelligence. For your analogy to hold on a wide scale, evolution would have to be directed by a great intelligence. Regardless, the fossil record contradicts this idea.

-—It’s a fact, for example, that human bones share certain characteristics in common with every other mammal, including the earliest proto-mammals from over 300 million years ago:-—

This evidence is ambiguous, because it could imply evolution or a common designer.

-— So, yes, “species”, “sub-species” & “breeds” come and go, but fossil records show that larger related families, orders and classes have survived for tens and hundreds of millions of years.-—

I don’t see your point.

The evidence simply contradicts Darwin’s expectation that the fossil record would show an unbroken continuum of change.

-—And the important point here is: DNA analyses of existing (or recently extinct) species confirms what the fossil record suggested — that those with very similar characteristics also have closely matching DNA.-—

Sounds plausible, but THERE IS NO FOSSIL EVIDENCE to support microevolution. You can’t ignore this fact or wish it away. The lack of evidence MUST BE EXPLAINED SCIENTIFICALLY.

Moreover, upon closer examination, this data is not very compelling evidence of evolutionary theory. DNA-sharing is ambiguous evidence, supporting evolutionary theory or a common designer. Are we more closely related to cows, cats or mice? How closely? Are we related to bananas?

Cat: 90%
Cow: 80%
Mouse: 75%
Fruit Fly: 60%
Banana: 50%

-—And DNA has a rate of mutations which can be measured in living species and calculated back to geological time-frames.-—

Cut and paste below...

While it is convenient for evolutionary biologists to assume that various DNA proteins evolve at a fixed rate, a recent study blows a hole in this theory. The September 25, 2001 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, geneticist Francisco Rodriguez-Trelles and colleagues at the University of California, Irvine, indicate the idea of a molecular clock may be hopelessly flawed. “It may be ripe for the pawnshop” say Menno Schilthuizen, writing in Science Now.

Calculating the different mutation rates for three well-known genes for 78 species, researchers found widely different mutation rates even for closely related species. “Molecular clocks are much more erratic than previously thought and practically useless to keep accurate evolutionary time,” says Schilthuizen. The authors of the research conclude that the neutral theory of molecular evolution (predictable or constant rates of change) is flawed and that changes in the rate of variation are left to the vagaries of natural selection
(randomness). With no evidence to confirm the neutral theory of molecular evolution, scientists say this amounts to a “denial of there being a molecular clock.”

-—And if, for example, that last common ancestor was several million years ago, and if our sub-species had lived all those years in radically different environments, then we might well expect that today our families could no longer interbreed — hence by definition, we’d be different “species”, regardless of how similar we looked.-—

So... WHERE IS THE FOSSIL EVIDENCE?

Eventually scientific hypotheses should address reality.


22 posted on 04/27/2012 6:59:47 AM PDT by St_Thomas_Aquinas (Viva Christo Rey!)
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To: St_Thomas_Aquinas
St_Thomas_Aquinas: "...the fossil record overwhelmingly demonstrates the fact that species are static.
They remain unchanged as they enter and exit the fossil record, except for minor variation within species."

DNA analyses overwhelmingly demonstrate the fact that species experience genetic mutations every generation, and that the average rates over time of certain types of mutations can be observed and hence calculated.

The majority of DNA mutations have no effect on an organism's appearance or functions, since they occur in genetic areas sometimes refered to as "junk DNA".
Of those mutations which do cause some change in an organism, the majority produce changes which degrade its chance to survive and reproduce, and are therefore not passed on to future generations.

And in the case of a stable environment, where a species has already perfectly adapted, all genetic changes must necessarily be negative, and so the species may not "evolve" for millions of years.

But when the environment changes (i.e., grows colder, or warmer, wetter, dryer, a new predator, etc.) then some mutations will prove more advantageous than others and the species can begin to evolve again.

And that explains the stability of species we see in the fossil records, despite the fact that genetic mutations occur in every generation.

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "For your analogy to hold on a wide scale, evolution would have to be directed by a great intelligence."

All theistic evolutionists -- which means, most Christians -- believe that God does direct evolution, that nothing happens by "accident" and everything is according to God's purposes.
The issue, perhaps, is whether this great machine of God's creation was designed perfectly to, in effect, grow human beings the way a large tree (the Universe) grows from a small seed (Big Bang).
Or did, perhaps, the Universe / machine require God to tinker and modify to insure its results comply with God's plan?

I think the real Aquinas would say that since God is perfect, His creation, the Universe, must be perfectly designed and therefore would not require much in the way of God's direct interventions until the arrival of human beings capable of both rational thought and irrational sinful behavior.
At this point, Aquinas would say, God must step in to provide what Nature alone never can: a path for human salvation.

The Bible clearly tells us that God enjoyed the process of creating His Universe, was well satisfied with His work and at the end of each phase of Creation, "God saw that it was good.".
So we can only imagine how reluctant God was/is to intervene directly in the affairs of sinful humans.

My point is: nothing prevents the science of evolution from being an accurate representation of God's methods of creation.

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "This evidence is ambiguous, because it could imply evolution or a common designer."

Neither rules out the other.
The evidence suggests that God's design was executed through processes described by the word "evolution", those chiefly being 1) descent with modifications, and 2) natural selection.

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "The evidence simply contradicts Darwin’s expectation that the fossil record would show an unbroken continuum of change."

I doubt if even Darwin originally expressed it as you here claim.
Regardless, scientists have long understood that major changes in well adapted species only happen after major changes in their environments.
Indeed, species whose environments remain stable can survive virtually unchanged for tens, even hundreds of millions of years -- crocodiles and sharks come to mind.

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "Sounds plausible, but THERE IS NO FOSSIL EVIDENCE to support microevolution.
You can’t ignore this fact or wish it away.
The lack of evidence MUST BE EXPLAINED SCIENTIFICALLY."

First of all, I don't accept the alleged distinction between "micro-evolution" and "macro-evolution", except in the sense that most evolution occurs in infinitely small steps, "micro-evolution", which over many millions of years can add up to major changes in species: "macro-evolution."

As for fossil evidence, you have only to review the most intensely studied evolution of all -- our pre-human ancestors.
So far, scientists have identified about two dozen species, or sub-species or breeds of pre-humans going back to our last common ancestor with chimpanzees, about six million years ago.
Some of those have been found to be so similar (i.e., Neanderthals) they are thought by some to have interbred with modern humans.
That would mean Neanderthals were not a separate species at all, but simply the result of micro-evolution caused by species isolation.

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "DNA-sharing is ambiguous evidence, supporting evolutionary theory or a common designer.
Are we more closely related to cows, cats or mice?
How closely? Are we related to bananas?"

Again: evolution and a common designer are not mutually exclusive.
How closely are we related to cows, cats, mice and bananas?
Your numbers seem reasonable, in terms of DNA similarities, and when translated into geological terms, they mean maybe 150 million years separating us from cows, cats and mice, but over 600 million years between us and bananas.
So they are all very distant cousins, some more distant than others. ;-)

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "With no evidence to confirm the neutral theory of molecular evolution, scientists say this amounts to a 'denial of there being a molecular clock.' "

In fact, despite various complexities, "molecular clocks" are still powerful tools in understanding the rates of genetic changes over time.
So there is no "denial of there being a molecular clock," but instead there are many "clocks", and scientists must take great care in how the "clocks" are read.

St_Thomas_Aquinas: "So... WHERE IS THE FOSSIL EVIDENCE?
Eventually scientific hypotheses should address reality."

I've already mentioned fossil evidence of about two dozen different pre-human hominid species, sub-species, breeds, etc. -- each only slightly different from the ones before and after.

So what exactly is your problem with addressing reality?

;-)


23 posted on 04/28/2012 3:24:54 PM PDT by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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