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Why there’s a boom in Chinese students attending US universities
Quartz ^ | 11/13/2012 | Naomi Rovnick

Posted on 11/13/2012 4:55:43 PM PST by SeekAndFind

Almost 200,000 Chinese students joined North American universities in the last academic year, an increase of 23% from the previous year according to the Institute of International Education, a US nonprofit.

The Chinese call them "sea turtles," the lucky few who go abroad—the US often being their first choice—for education, and then return home with better English and a broader cultural perspective to get good jobs with Western companies. (The nickname applies because sea turtles return home to lay eggs for the next generation.)

China's education system emphasizes rote learning at the expense of creativity. While Americans are more often taught to think and speak independently from kindergarten, Chinese students do well in math and science at the expense of independent thinking. Many companies value mathematical ability. But focusing on this alone doesn't prepare young people for winning clients, giving presentations or closing deals.

In China, students push themselves incredibly hard to get into local universities by studying for the rote learning and memorization heavy "Gao Kao" (higher entrance exam). They have been known to attach intravenous drips to themselves while preparing so they do not have to take meal breaks. But this exam system is “holding China back,” says Helen Gao in The Atlantic:

“If the country wants to keep growing, its state economists know they need to encourage entrepreneurship and creativity, neither of which is tested for on this life-determining exam.”

As this Wharton paper outlines, it may be better for Chinese students to get their degrees from a second- or third-tier foreign university than an elite Chinese school. Multinationals in China say “it is difficult to find acceptable hires despite having so many college-educated applicants,” the paper adds.

Multinationals tend to prefer hiring sea turtles because they come with better inter-cultural skills.

The head of Human Resources for Greater China at an American real estate consultancy told me earlier this year: “We look for US-educated Chinese staff to take senior positions or join the management track. They tend to be better at adjusting to our working culture, presumably as they have lived abroad. Mostly, our locally educated hires cannot think laterally and lack the confidence to make bold decisions. They are uncomfortable expressing opinions, so as managers we never know what they are thinking.”

He said communication between Western managers and locally educated Chinese staff was such a problem his company had resorted to psychometric testing to try and find out exactly how the locals expressed doubt, anger, confidence and other emotions. He added “the tests did not work because they were designed by Westerners for Westerners.”

The head of sales training for East Asia at a British recruitment consultancy shares a different but no less worrying view. “It is very, very hard to train locally educated Chinese people how to call potential clients and persuade them to hire us,” she said. “They believe it is very wrong to approach someone you do not know, and who is above you in the social hierarchy. They tell me my sales training is un-Chinese.”

The IIE data show that the most popular subject for Chinese students to take in America is business/management, at 29% of the total. That may be because American MBAs teach skills such as group work, working in teams with a flat hierarchical structure, and solving real life strategic problems.

The first year of the MBA program at Yale University, for example teaches students “to draw on a broad range of information, tools, and skills to develop creative solutions and make strategic decisions,” its website says.

The second and third most popular subjects for Chinese students at US universities, according to the IIE, are engineering and math/computer science. On its website, the school of engineering and applied sciences at Harvard features an interview with an undergraduate about how her studies there unleashed her creativity.

China’s problem extends to other countries in East Asia. One American lecturer who teaches English at a privately funded Central Taiwanese university told me a few months back:

“My college just held a cartoon drawing competition for undergraduates, who are obviously aged at least 18. Why this was thought suitable for young adults, I cannot say. Anyway, most of their cartoons were carbon copies of images of Spongebob Squarepants or Bugs Bunny.”

Singapore has similar problems. As does South Korea. In this article, a former Korean education minister says the country’s students ”devote themselves to a style of examination preparation centered around memorization.”

Regurgitating chunks of textbook is not a skill multinational companies look for. On the careers section of its website, Goldman Sachs says it prioritizes “quick thinking, passion and communication skills above specific qualifications.” Nestle says on its careers site to potential new recruits: “If you’re keen to take on new and bigger responsibilities, you have to show that you’re able to do so.” Even the insurance sector provides no refuge for the linear thinker. “This is an environment where your creativity matters,” Axa says on its jobs website (italics Axa’s own).

But “sea turtles” do not always do well in China. While away, they lose the ability to build the personal connections that are very important for getting deals done in China’s system known as “guanxi,” This recent University of California, Santa Barbara paper (pdf) outlines how, in the connections-focused venture capital industry, sea turtles are unproductive compared to locally educated staff. And this article illustrates the problems sea turtle academics have assimilating socially and getting promoted when they go home to teach in Chinese universities.

The sea turtles are an immensely important source of business for US institutions. While their numbers are rising, enrollments from the rest of Asia have been falling. According to the IIE, enrollments at US universities by students from India, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea all declined last year. That is likely because the economies of these export-driven countries are slowing down (enrollments from India have also fallen at Australian universities.)

But China’s rich just get richer (paywall). And as China’s income inequality rises, the government still shows no sign of wanting to give its young people the independent thinking skills that may make them more appealing to Western companies but also lead them to question the Communist Party. So sea turtles should help to keep US universities afloat for a while longer.



TOPICS: Business/Economy; Education; Society
KEYWORDS: china; college; students; university

1 posted on 11/13/2012 4:55:50 PM PST by SeekAndFind
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To: SeekAndFind

They got the money.


2 posted on 11/13/2012 5:01:30 PM PST by Logical me
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To: SeekAndFind

For all this yada-yada about “rote learning,” I’d like to see a survey on the occurrence of Chinese and Indians on scientific / engineering papers. It seems like you’d be hard-pressed to find a paper in the practical sciences without a Chinese or Indian author mentioned in it.


3 posted on 11/13/2012 5:06:52 PM PST by James C. Bennett (An Australian.)
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To: Logical me

Maybe they send the son’s over here to find a girl. They aborted all the females in China.


4 posted on 11/13/2012 5:19:54 PM PST by Blackirish
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To: James C. Bennett
In my field, what you typically see from mainland China and India are re-run experiments from 15-20 years ago; basically carbon copies that try and duplicate the results and/or setup of a previous work.

Now, a Chinese or Indian name in a paper from anywhere else pretty much guarantees a quality manuscript with new results.

5 posted on 11/13/2012 5:23:32 PM PST by opticks
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To: James C. Bennett
We lived in Japan for 13 years. All the educrats in America said the same thing about Japanese students.

My own daughter was in a Japanese junior high and took their equivalent of the Iowa basics tests in February of that year. She scored in the 46th percentile, meaning she was more or less average for the Japanese.

We went back to the U.S.A. in time for her to take the test in her freshman year of high school a mere 7 months later. She scored in the 92nd percentile. In other words, kids with average math ability in Japan would be in the top 10% in the U.S.A. I imagine you would find similar stories with most of the countries in East Asia.

6 posted on 11/13/2012 5:35:58 PM PST by Vigilanteman (Obama: Fake black man. Fake Messiah. Fake American. How many fakes can you fit in one Zer0?)
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To: SeekAndFind

why not educate our kids first


7 posted on 11/13/2012 5:39:04 PM PST by dalebert
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To: SeekAndFind

Ah, our diabolical scheme to infect Chinese culture with our failed “education” system quackery is coming to fruition.


8 posted on 11/13/2012 5:39:31 PM PST by Jeff Chandler (www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpAOwJvTOio)
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To: Vigilanteman

RE: She scored in the 92nd percentile.

Yes but 92nd percentile compared to WHAT OTHER KIDS? What ethnic backgrounds?

Japan is a homogeneous society in terms of ethnicity. America is DIVERSE.

I’d imagine the bad ones will drag the average down.


9 posted on 11/13/2012 5:41:15 PM PST by SeekAndFind
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To: SeekAndFind

So much information/technology to steal from America, so little time.


10 posted on 11/13/2012 5:43:35 PM PST by john drake
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To: Jeff Chandler

RE: Ah, our diabolical scheme to infect Chinese culture with our failed “education” system quackery is coming to fruition.

The Chinese aren’t coming here to major in LGBT studies or ethnic studies or any other grievance studies out there. They are here for the HARD SCIENCES and TECHNOLOGY degrees.

You can BS a lot with the programs that end in the word “studies”. You can’t BS Science, Math and Engineering. When your calculations are wrong, it just won’t work.


11 posted on 11/13/2012 5:43:58 PM PST by SeekAndFind
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To: john drake

RE: So much information/technology to steal from America, so little time.

Well, these are the sort of people we’d like to give LEGAL IMMIGRATION to. Why not encourage them to be Americans instead?


12 posted on 11/13/2012 5:45:11 PM PST by SeekAndFind
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To: SeekAndFind

It is also called “infiltration”.

Go there, learn the culture/language, learn a skill at their universities, and then either return home to work against them, or stay there and infiltrate your way up society to the point that you are trusted.

Then start the espionage.

It happened in the 1950’s and that is how Red China got their nuclear bombs, via US education.

The communists never change their tactics. Even if it is only a small percentage of the 200,000 students here, that is one helluva lot of agents for future use.


13 posted on 11/13/2012 5:52:32 PM PST by MadMax, the Grinning Reaper
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To: Vigilanteman

Besides being very hard working, the Japanese have ( at least they used to) the highest average IQ in the world.


14 posted on 11/13/2012 5:57:08 PM PST by The Sons of Liberty (Never Underestimate the Power of Evil or Evil Doers)
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To: SeekAndFind

I suspect they are here at their government’s allowance, not because they’re mommy and daddy are rich, or they want to become u.s. citizens. If they did, they’re remaining families at home would be held hostage. Remember, the communist dictatorship still remains intact in China, and they are still the enemy of freedom. That part hasn’t changed.


15 posted on 11/13/2012 5:58:05 PM PST by john drake
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To: SeekAndFind
You can’t BS Science, Math and Engineering.

Michael Mann and other warm-mongers have done a pretty good job of it.

16 posted on 11/13/2012 6:08:43 PM PST by Moonman62 (The US has become a government with a country, rather than a country with a government.)
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To: SeekAndFind
A thousand grains of sand
17 posted on 11/13/2012 7:01:06 PM PST by posterchild (Remember that thou art dust, and to dust thou shalt return.)
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To: SeekAndFind

China is swimming in US dollars. It makes sense to exchange some of them for a bunch of trained specialists.


18 posted on 11/13/2012 7:01:11 PM PST by Greysard
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To: john drake

That’s the mentality in a nut shell. Copy it down to the most minute detail. They are very good at this and have been before they even went communist. They take great pride in copying something perfectly. While that skill does have its uses, it doesn’t produce very much in the way of new ideas, solutions, or things. It produces a very stale and stagnant culture with very little room to grow. Welcome the world of lords and subjects.

Given the technological level that now exists and the copy mentality, their growth is phenomenal and unprecedented in human history in terms of a society playing catch up. But then what? Where is all the innovation? Where are all the new ideas? Who will find solutions to implement these to make them reality? Right now despite the problems in the West, it is there or at least is rooted from there where those ideas and solutions come from for the most part. But darkness is descending over the Western world as well since it has embarrassed a culture that is similar to the lords and subjects. Things will not end well for anyone at this rate.


19 posted on 11/13/2012 7:05:51 PM PST by DarkWaters ("Deception is a state of mind --- and the mind of the state" --- James Jesus Angleton)
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To: SeekAndFind
They are here for the HARD SCIENCES and TECHNOLOGY degrees.

I have a number of Chinese and other Asian students in my engineering classes. Other than with the Koreans I'm not particularly impressed.

As others have noted they are good at rote subjects or memorization, but in applying that math knowledge creatively to solve a problem they get beat by blonde haired North Dakota tractor mechanics.

Another point - they are uniformly humorless.

20 posted on 11/13/2012 7:15:16 PM PST by Last Dakotan
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To: DarkWaters

RE: They take great pride in copying something perfectly. While that skill does have its uses, it doesn’t produce very much in the way of new ideas, solutions, or things. It produces a very stale and stagnant culture with very little room to grow. Welcome the world of lords and subjects.

_________________

You know, the above used to be said of the Japanese and Koreans too.


21 posted on 11/13/2012 7:18:14 PM PST by SeekAndFind
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To: Last Dakotan
Another point - they are uniformly humorless.

Look at the left in this country, its the same thing. Look at the left of the last century, and they where the same way and of course you could follow a path to their door by all the victims they scattered about. Godless, soulless human beings are very regimented and cookie cutter in appearance and abilities. Non of which is good for the long term survivability of a technologically advanced society.
22 posted on 11/13/2012 7:24:32 PM PST by DarkWaters ("Deception is a state of mind --- and the mind of the state" --- James Jesus Angleton)
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To: SeekAndFind

And yet they did grow past the just copying mentality to become what they are now at least to some degree or another. They did what the Roman’s did. They took the ideas of the Etruscans’ and then made there own changes for the better. That set them apart from everyone else and we can learn about the results from history.

Also note that the Japanese are going through a huge age demographics shift as well and its not good for them, they haven’t completely escaped the trappings of the past. The same can be said for the younger generation of Koreans who cannot identify with the older generation and there understanding and experience with communism which may prove to be fatal at some later date.

I will also point out that eventually the Romans lost their way, several centuries of debasing the currency(see bread and circuses) also debased the culture into the lords and subject. Its a cycle, and unfortunately that cycle usually only goes one way with the very small exception of say a thousand years or so between each one.


23 posted on 11/13/2012 7:38:57 PM PST by DarkWaters ("Deception is a state of mind --- and the mind of the state" --- James Jesus Angleton)
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To: DarkWaters
Where is all the innovation? Where are all the new ideas? Who will find solutions to implement these to make them reality? Right now despite the problems in the West, it is there or at least is rooted from there where those ideas and solutions come from for the most part.

I can't speak for all industries. But the USA lost electronic industry at least a whole decade ago. Today I have to beg companies like Samsung or Toshiba to send me a few samples of their memories - and they refuse! They don't even make datasheets on many their parts in English! Components that we get here cost 10x more than in Asia, to the point that we can't use them to build competitive products even if the US-based workers work for a bowl of rice per day, like their counterparts in China.

Today I can only identify a handful of leading electronic component design houses in the USA. Micron is all that we have in memories, with IDT serving a fringe market of specialty RAM. Intel and AMD (whatever of it remains) are making CPUs. Analog Devices, TI and LTC are making good parts. But that's a drop in the ocean. All LCDs are made in Asia. All crystals are made in Asia. Passives are all made in Asia. You'd be a fool to make boards here, except for prototypes - you can't beat Taiwan's prices.

At the same time ARM processors that power most of handheld devices are designed by a UK company. China has its own processor. Most of the innovation in storage tech happens in Asia; some in Europe; not much here. The USA is quickly becoming a 3rd world country where only assembled goods can be purchased, but not the parts and technology to build more. The USA still has some decent places where science is made (MIT, IBM) but that advantage is not forever. Microsoft is crumbling as we speak, beaten into irrelevance by mobile computing. Apple is battling Samsung, HTC and others - not very successfully; the android army is overwhelming. There are thousands of smaller design houses in China that make some very interesting products.

There is a natural reason for all that. When the factories moved to China the engineering talent followed. With no jobs for technologists here none were graduating. With no engineers produced, existing companies cannot replenish the old blood, and new companies cannot get started. There is very little reason today for a young person to choose technology for his career - it is virtually a dead end here. Silicon Valley still has jobs for good engineers, but that's the Valley. Step outside, and it's a wasteland out there, with no industry in sight. All the factories that should be employing US people are in China, employing Chinese people. I'm sure China is very grateful for that windfall of contracts and orders; it allowed them to become the third country in the world with manned spaceflight capability. (Well, and a little creative borrowing of ideas, but who is counting.) At the same time NASA has nothing to fly to space on - in part that's the same problem; the country that flew to the Moon cannot fly a man 300 miles upward anymore.

24 posted on 11/13/2012 8:03:25 PM PST by Greysard
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To: SeekAndFind

I heard modern China has more people making $100,000 than USA today.
They want their children get education.


25 posted on 11/13/2012 9:08:00 PM PST by cunning_fish
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To: Greysard
To be blunt, we are going the way Rome did when she no longer had the moral strength. The way we go down is not necessarily the same way they went nor in the same time frame, ours will be much shorter than theirs unless something drastically changes.

Also, I remember when the PCB manufactures where packing up and leaving during the mid to late 90’s. I have seen the spec manuals for various components that you are talking about. But to be clear, they where able to take some one else’s idea(s) and use it for there own enrichment(we did do the same at the beginning our founding but we also had unprecedented levels of freedom) and to some extent they have added there own innovations but that has also been a mix of engineers here and abroad. But they also have a stale culture, more rooted in authoritarianism and corruption than freedom but ours has become more stale and in some respects is less free and more corrupt than theirs, which is why they are doing better in some areas but its still restrictive compared to where we use to be. Given that, they will only go so far since they do not posses the freedom need to be innovative to the point where it will be helpful for the long term gain of their society or anyone else for that matter.

But Why has this happened? Growing bureaucracy here at home(Europe had similar problems at the time of our founding), tax disadvantages, a poor educational system, a belief that cheap manufacturing would last forever and not see the rising costs with a more modern society (China, India, etc) as it is starting to happen now, not to mention the price slashing that the Chinese would use and then find away to make up for it with either inferior material, less material, come back to you with increased costs and you now have no place to go else where (they have you over the barrel) or sell counterfeit items to other countries where you haven't established licensing and would be to costly for you to take legal means to do so. We can talk about other issues as well such as the manipulation of the dollar by our politicians and ones abroad, currency pegs, etc. But lets face it, our problems stem from something more basic and foundational in nature, it is the break down in our Judeo-Christian values, ethics, and morals across our entire society. Drip by Drip which has over time turned into a torrent water fall like the one you can see in the Niagara river.

26 posted on 11/15/2012 8:01:26 AM PST by DarkWaters ("Deception is a state of mind --- and the mind of the state" --- James Jesus Angleton)
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