Skip to comments.How-to: Picking a desktop environment in Linux
Posted on 12/03/2012 6:58:24 AM PST by ShadowAce
We've taken you through a tour of Window Managers in Linux, and now it's time to show you the Window Manager's bigger brother: the desktop environment, or DE for short. With a sea of choices out there, we can see where Linux newbies might feel a bit overwhelmed. Catch us after the break and we'll show you some of our favorites, along with a few honorable mentions.
First things first: a desktop environment is an implementation of a graphical user interface commonly mimicking a physical desktop. Think about your grade school desktop on your computer screen, with folders, binders and notepaper and you'll get the idea. A desktop environment also encompasses a slew of other tools to assist you in graphical computing. These include, but are not limited to:
Another important tidbit of information here is that a DE utilizes a widget toolkit, which provides a set of controls that display information to the user, like a window box. There are two big ones here, GTK (The Gimp Toolkit) and Qt, which is technically more than just a widget toolkit, but that's another article.
Second thing you need to know: a window manager is an implementation of a graphical user interface with a primary goal of managing the location and positioning of application windows on your screen. Plain and simple.
A window manager is not a desktop environment, and a desktop environment is not a window manager. However, a desktop environment does contain a window manager in its suite.
This is a fundamental question that even IBM's Watson would have trouble answering. Certainly it depends on the user's preference, but there are some specific questions you can ask yourself to help you decide:
1) Are you new to Linux and open source operating systems in general?
2) Do you prefer a menu-driven style of GUI?
3) Do you like desktop icons?
4) Do you prefer using the mouse to navigate your computer no matter what?
If you answered "yes" to three or more of the questions above, you'll more than likely prefer a Desktop Environment over a standalone Window Manager.
Desktop environments in Linux (and other open source operating systems for that matter) span a diverse spectrum of styles and options. There are flame wars being waged daily over which DE is best and which DE is the worst. The point here is to remember the beauty of open source; you have the power to choose your environment. Users spend endless hours customizing the look and feel of their desktop environments (and Window Managers) and tend to get pretty passionate. We're going to cover three of the most popular DE's out there, along with touching on some honorable mentions to help you get this all sorted out and get you kickstarted in a direction to choose your own path.
KDE 4.9, also known as the K desktop environment, has been around since 1996. It's gone through quite a few facelifts to get to its current state, version 4.9. This particular DE just so happens to be one of the most popular environments out there, and rightfully so. KDE boasts a healthy set of bundled applications that it provides out of the box:
Caveat emptor here: depending on your Linux distribution, KDE may be packaged with a different number of applications -- sometimes less, sometimes more.
As you can see above, stock KDE isn't much to look at. However, the KDE system settings menu allows you to make some nice tweaks to your environment.
After a few quick modifications, you can get a nice-looking environment set up in no time. If you take a few minutes to play around with the system settings and throw in some desktop widgets, you can come up with a pretty decent-looking environment, like the one below.
KDE sports a familiar menu-driven task bar reminiscent of a certain popular OS.
You can customize which applications appear in the "Favorites" section of the menu for quick access to your most-used applications.
The desktop area supports the placement of widgets. There are several that come pre-installed, offering some useful info like weather forecasts, CPU utilization, social media updates and upcoming calendar events, among other things. You'll find even more online through sites like kde-look.org.
These widgets are not to be confused with the widget toolkit we talked about earlier, which in KDE's case, uses Qt by default.
On our somewhat aging Linux box, a triple-core AMD Phenom 8650 with 4GB of memory, KDE 4.9 feels fairly snappy and caused very little lag when we moved windows around with desktop effects turned on.
All in all, KDE is a full-featured DE that provides a decent amount of modern amenities to your graphical computing environment.
For more info, check out KDE's homepage.
GNOME, like its nemesis KDE, has gone through a plethora of design changes over the years. Not quite as old as KDE, the GNOME Desktop Environment has been around since 1999. GNOME was spawned as a direct alternative to KDE in part due to the fact that KDE was built on the aforementioned proprietary Qt toolkit. Proprietary is a bad word in the open source community, and the fact that KDE is based on Qt has spawned some heated debate. However, even with the somewhat recent release of GNOME 3.6, some controversy still looms over the fundamental design shift from GNOME 2 to GNOME 3. See how tough choosing a DE can be? It's like picking sides in a war over which Zelda game is best.
GNOME is built on the GTK+ toolkit, a fully open source widget toolkit and comes with just about everything you need to fully use your computer. Some of the included applications in GNOME are:
The same warning applies here as with KDE; depending on your distro, you may have more or less packaged with GNOME 3.
As you can see, GNOME also isn't very fancy at first blush, except here there's not much you can do to change it other than swapping the background for another image. However, we recommend you add some flare via something like gdesklets and official GNOME Shell Extensions.
GNOME provides users with a top-of-screen, icon-centric, application menu to navigate their programs. It does not utilize desktop icons or even widgets out of the box. To access individual files you utilize the default file manager, Nautilus.
The menu is okay, we suppose, but we find the lack of available customizations disturbing. You're unable to add / remove icons at will directly from the menu. You have to either manually modify the configuration files or use a third-party tool.
The system settings menu for GNOME is rather limited as well, however we like the fact that you can add "online accounts" like Gmail and Facebook. This is a pretty slick feature that really belongs in all modern GUIs. This provides a nice streamlined inclusion of your Gmail calendar and Facebook Chat.
In brief, the performance here is something of a mixed bag. On the one hand, the application menu can sometimes feel a bit sluggish. However, we used multiple applications at once and had no real delay moving windows around.
For more info, check out GNOME's homepage.
XFCE, version 4.10, is a nifty little desktop environment. It's meant to be fast and super-lightweight while still looking pretty. XFCE is very modular, so your mileage may vary depending on which components you choose to make use of. It also varies per distribution like the previously mentioned DE's. We'll be using a full-fledged XFCE installation below with all modules installed.
XFCE is based on the GTK widget toolkit, like GNOME, and boasts the ability to run with 40MB of memory. Yup, that's 40 megabytes. XFCE is technically just as old as KDE, having been started in 1996. Though what you see now is much different than what XFCE was in the '90's.
XFCE provides an ample supply of utilities to get around your computer including, but not limited to:
The stock XFCE environment is a decent setup with not only a mouse-driven application menu at the top of the screen, but also an OS X-like dock bar at the bottom.
Everything you see in XFCE is fully customizable, from dock positions to what icons are present. With a few quick changes, you can get a sleek-looking environment setup.
The top task bar allows you to add "items," which are basically mini-applets similar to KDE's widgets. These applets provide different types of information like local weather info and battery status. There are also action items to add that perform a task when you click them. A few examples here are:
The dual dock and application menus are a perfect mix of quick access to favorites and full access to all applications. The fact that the dock is present at all times gives you one less step to access your favorite applications.
XFCE is very snappy, with no delays in doing anything that we've experienced. This is one high-performing Desktop Environment even on low-powered machines.
For more info, check out XFCE's homepage.
OK, it's time for some honorable mentions. Since we can't cover every Desktop Environment under the sun, we'll list a few more for you to check out on your own with a little bit of description. These are in no particular order:
For the purposes of this article we sampled just a few desktop environments, and suffice to say, none of them is perfect. Fortunately, at least, with Linux you have the luxury of customizing your space based on your workflow or personal preferences. Each of the DEs mentioned here provide some means of doing just that. We hope this entices you to get out there and explore your options -- you won't really know what works for you until you try a few.
In fairness to XFCE, I haven’t taken the time to really try and configure it the way I want, but for my day to day use, I find Mate to be the best of the bunch.
Call me crazy, but I just like being able to make things the way I want them and have them work in a logical manner. This stuff with Unity and Gnome 3 where I’m supposed to up and change everything about my workflow to suit some developers idea of how a ‘paradigm change’ should be implemented, is pure idiocy.
My desktop is not a tablet. My desktop is not a phone. My desktop is not a laptop. My desktop is not Scott Baio. My desktop is MY DESKTOP. Leave it the hell alone, so I can get my work done and stop putting obstacles in the way of updating my distros because of all of these effing braindead changes! ARGH! /end of rant. :-)
Wait, there’s more to linux than a CLI?
As a long-time Solaris user, I prefer KDE. I’m running Fedora in work as our Linux systems are all running Redhat.
We still have some Solaris servers in work, but since Oracle bought Sun out, the support has taken a nose-dive and they’re gradually switching to Redhat on Intel boxes or VMware. I did try Gnome, but I didn’t care for it. I guess I’m set in my ways after 20 years of using CDE/KDE. :-)
The Ubuntu 12.10LTS running on my old AMD Athlon dual core 64X2 has thousands of free apps, free OS updates and has long term support. Never needed Windows 8 or Mac OS mountain lion.
Yeah, but can you play Total War?
Bookmark for later
Fedora Gnome user here. Used KDE for a long time and went over to Gnome on Ubuntu. Been using it every since.
> My desktop is not a tablet. My desktop is not a phone. My
> desktop is not a laptop. My desktop is not Scott Baio. My
> desktop is MY DESKTOP. Leave it the hell alone, so I can
> get my work done and stop putting obstacles in the way of
> updating my distros because of all of these effing
> braindead changes! ARGH! /end of rant. :-)
I share your pain. Really. Don’t like Gnome-3, but the developers have told us to get used to it or go pound sand.
Right--so switch to a DE that will work with your style. You are not stuck with Gnome. Choose something else.
Better question to ask is do I play Total War.
I don’t think my old PC can even handle Total War even with Linux wine or Microsoft windows.
I did choose one, as was indicated in the first paragraph of my post. :-)
I wish these subjects didn’t always have to be about a one-up or a put-down. It’s almost as tiring as having to expend the effort to research what NEW desktop environment to use, because some asshats took the ‘paradigm’ that made sense for decades and fouled it up for no reason whatsoever.
You may not think that matters or may not think I should vent about it, but hey, you can always find someone to post to who suits you better than I. After all, you are not stuck talking to an ungrateful troglodyte like me. ;-)
I read that, but this it just slipped out of my brain--my apologies.
While I never used Gnome--and only know about the whole paradigm change in it from other sources--I can understand your anguish. It is difficult to leave an environment where you may have grown comfortable.
Good find.. bookmarking ;)
I am currently using KDE...
I’m using Linux Mint with MATE on my three-year old netbook with an ATOM N270 processor, runs real good.
Not a DE. I run FVWM under Gentoo. I also prefer text based browser and use lynx.
Kde, woot! Though they have a tendency to regress on some releases. Some idiots out there will still whine that unix/linux doesn’t have a gui...
I really can’t agree with the statement that a DE includes a web browser. It may be technically true but I basically use chrome or firefox - I wouldn’t think of using the DE’s browser.
I use Gnome3 and aside from
- harder to customize (as mentioned)
- activities menu is a bit sluggish (as mentioned)
I find myself quite liking it.
That was a joke, right?
I’ve been running Mint on an older HP laptop for about four months now. I was hoping for a bit snappier performance but it has been rock steady. I mostly use it for all the stuff my employer has blocked my Windoze PC from accessing ;-)
Best thing for an older machine (and low RAM) is XFCE..
Try it out ;)
Thanks for posting this excellent article.
For uttering this blasphemy, you are hereby banished to the land of Zork!
I totally remember always turning on maximum verbosity...
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