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Einstein Proved Right on Gravity輸gain
Wall Street Journal ^ | 04/25/2013 | Gautam Naik

Posted on 04/25/2013 1:10:04 PM PDT by SeekAndFind

Scientists have subjected Albert Einstein's famous theory of gravity to its toughest real-world test so far—and it has prevailed.

Einstein's general theory of relativity states that objects with mass cause a curvature in space-time, which we perceive as gravity. Space-time, according to Einstein's theories of relativity, is a four-dimensional fabric woven together by space and time.

For example, a bowling ball causes a dent in a mattress, and that dent changes the otherwise straight motion of a nearby marble on the same mattress. Similarly, the mass of the sun distorts the space-time around it. A body with less mass, like the earth, travels along one path in that distorted space, which we call its orbit.

Scientists aren't testing the general theory because they think it is wrong but rather because they are certain it can't be the final explanation—just as Isaac Newton's notion of gravitational force was superseded by Einstein's explanation.

Einstein's theory of gravity, published nearly a century ago, has passed every test it has been subjected to. Nonetheless, scientists have been trying to pin down precisely at what point Einstein's theory of gravity breaks down, and where an alternative explanation will have to be devised. Einstein's framework for his theory of gravity, for example, is incompatible with quantum theory, which explains how nature works at an atomic and subatomic level.

Consider that for a black hole, Einstein's theory "predicts infinitely strong gravitational fields and density. That's nonsensical," said Paulo Freire, an astrophysicist at the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany and co-author of the study, which appears in the journal Science.

(Excerpt) Read more at online.wsj.com ...


TOPICS: Astronomy; History; Science
KEYWORDS: einstein; gravity

1 posted on 04/25/2013 1:10:04 PM PDT by SeekAndFind
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To: SeekAndFind

FROM ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS:

Dr. Freire and his colleagues put Einstein to the test in a cosmic laboratory 7,000 light years from earth, where two exotic stars are circling each other.

One, known as a white dwarf, is the cooling remnant of a much lighter star. Its companion is a pulsar, which spins 25 times every second. Though the pulsar is just 12 miles across, it weighs twice as much as the sun.

“When you have such a big mass in such a small space you have extremely high gravity,” said Charles Wang, a theoretical physicist at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, who wasn’t involved in the study.

The gravity on the pulsar’s surface is 300 billion times as great as the gravity on Earth. The conditions there approach the relentless, overwhelming power of a black hole, which swallows even light.

“We’re testing Einstein’s theory in a region where it has never been tested before,” said Dr. Freire.

The pulsar and white dwarf pair emit gravitational waves and the binary star system gradually loses energy. As a result, the stars will move closer to each other and orbit faster.

Einstein’s theory suggests the stars’ orbital periods—the time they take to go around each other—ought to shrink by about eight-millionths of a second per year.

Dr. Freire’s and his colleagues used several telescopes to take precise measurements about the two-star system. Their results perfectly matched the Einstein-based prediction.

Though Einstein’s framework remains intact so far, “the study is significant for the way observations by astronomers are helping to identify new, extreme cases” to test his general theory of gravity, said Dr. Wang.


2 posted on 04/25/2013 1:11:03 PM PDT by SeekAndFind
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To: SeekAndFind

A good case has been made for the theory that gavity pushes rather than pulls.


3 posted on 04/25/2013 1:16:10 PM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: SeekAndFind

Very interesting. Thanks for posting.


4 posted on 04/25/2013 1:18:19 PM PDT by onedoug
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To: cuban leaf

I personally think gravity may be the key to interstellar travel.


5 posted on 04/25/2013 1:25:31 PM PDT by cripplecreek (REMEMBER THE RIVER RAISIN!)
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To: SeekAndFind

Another interesting phenomenon of physics is that if you look from outer space, you can tell where Michael Moore is by looking for the dent in the earth.


6 posted on 04/25/2013 1:28:12 PM PDT by GrandJediMasterYoda (Someday our schools will teach the difference between "lose" and "loose")
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To: SeekAndFind
“We’re testing Einstein’s theory in a region where it has never been tested before,” said Dr. Freire.

For some reason the old theme to "Star Trek" just popped up in my head.

7 posted on 04/25/2013 1:32:01 PM PDT by Fido969
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To: cuban leaf
A good case has been made for the theory that gavity pushes rather than pulls.

There is no gravity -- the Earth sucks.

</oldie but goodie>

8 posted on 04/25/2013 1:34:23 PM PDT by freedumb2003 (LBJ declared war on poverty and lost. Barack Obama declared war on prosperity and won. /csmusaret)
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To: SeekAndFind

Too heavy for me.


9 posted on 04/25/2013 1:36:06 PM PDT by I want the USA back (Pi$$ed off yet?)
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To: cripplecreek

I personally think gravity may be the key to interstellar travel.

Me too, but I admit I’m not an expert. ;-)


10 posted on 04/25/2013 1:36:45 PM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: cuban leaf

Gravity is an oddball. We’re all familiar with it but its still very much unexplained.


11 posted on 04/25/2013 1:37:51 PM PDT by cripplecreek (REMEMBER THE RIVER RAISIN!)
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To: SeekAndFind; a fool in paradise

Personally, I try to ignore gravity. Don’t like it, don’t have any use for it.


12 posted on 04/25/2013 1:38:58 PM PDT by Revolting cat! (Bad things are wrong! Ice cream is delicious!)
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To: SeekAndFind

:: the earth, travels along one path in that distorted space, which we call its orbit ::

Which many folks (including Eistein) ^implied^ is that the Earth could “fly a tangent” at any moment if it weren’t for the laws of gravity.

In “every-man language”, this translates to: If Obama could ignore, repeal or even defund the laws of gravity, the “erff” would go screaming off into the Milky Way to its sure destruction.

All praise be to Obama [piss be upon him!]


13 posted on 04/25/2013 1:41:57 PM PDT by Cletus.D.Yokel (Catastrophic Anthropogenic Climate Alteration: The acronym explains the science.)
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To: SeekAndFind

I’m willing to bet that it breaks down at the quantum level.


14 posted on 04/25/2013 1:44:04 PM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (Iツ知 not a Republican, Iツ知 a conservative! Pubbies haven't been conservative since before T.R.)
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To: SeekAndFind

15 posted on 04/25/2013 1:47:14 PM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (Iツ知 not a Republican, Iツ知 a conservative! Pubbies haven't been conservative since before T.R.)
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To: SeekAndFind

16 posted on 04/25/2013 1:51:39 PM PDT by colorado tanker
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To: SeekAndFind; Ezekiel; TurboZamboni

“One, known as a white dwarf, is the cooling remnant of a much lighter star. Its companion is a pulsar, which spins 25 times every second. Though the pulsar is just 12 miles across, it weighs twice as much as the sun.”

Phenomenal...

The Pulsar’s 25x/second spin = 1500 RPM.

A tire on a car going 60 MPH does only 747 RPM.

http://www.ehow.com/about_5076999_formula-rpm.html

And yet something TWELVE MILES ACROSS with 2x the weight of the Sun is spinning at TWICE that RPM...

(The Earth’s RPM = 0.00069...)

We are but dust...


17 posted on 04/25/2013 1:58:36 PM PDT by Yehuda
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To: Jack Hydrazine; All
I’m willing to bet that it breaks down at the quantum level.

Exactly! They claim they are repeatedly testing Einstein to "determine where his theory breaks down" then a few sentences later say "it breaks down at the quantum level".

To the experimenters: "so then you already KNOW where it breaks down then, right?" ---Asked in a Judge Judy type voice, full of sarcasm and contempt.

Honestly I don't understand the reasoning here. Or maybe they should just admit they like testing it 'cuz it's fun. (After all what's not cool about bending light and altering the flow of time? Nothing!)

Now for a real fun question: Quote, "Consider that for a black hole, Einstein's theory 'predicts infinitely strong gravitational fields and density. That's nonsensical,' said Paulo Freire..."

Why's that so 'nonsensical', hmm? :) After all, if any measurable mass is crushed into a single one dimensional point, wouldn't that by definition make its density "infinite"? And we better hope its gravity would be infinite too, or else we might have another universe on our hands and that would be one too many IMO (I already don't like my neighbors)....

18 posted on 04/25/2013 2:06:28 PM PDT by FourtySeven (47)
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To: FourtySeven

Einstein’s classic thought experiment involves sitting on a train travelling at the speed of light. If you hold a mirror in front of your face, will you see your reflection in a mirror?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVKFBaaL4uM


19 posted on 04/25/2013 2:27:55 PM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (Iツ知 not a Republican, Iツ知 a conservative! Pubbies haven't been conservative since before T.R.)
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To: Yehuda

That bad boy is definitely whipping around. Figure 40 mile circumference, so 480 miles per second, or over a million miles per hour for someone standing on the surface.

...of course there wouldn’t be much left of that person as they would weigh something like 5 trillion pounds...but then again, you’ll need to be that heavy to keep from flying off the object.

...I do like Earth.


20 posted on 04/25/2013 2:29:50 PM PDT by BobL (Look up "CSCOPE" if you want to see something really scary)
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To: Fido969

But Captain! I canna change the laws of physics.


21 posted on 04/25/2013 3:09:41 PM PDT by DManA
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To: BobL

“so 480 miles per second, or over a million miles per hour for someone standing on the surface.”

/smh...


22 posted on 04/25/2013 3:25:40 PM PDT by Yehuda
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To: SeekAndFind

23 posted on 04/25/2013 3:31:11 PM PDT by Lancey Howard
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To: SeekAndFind

I once heard that the eyes actually take in everything upside-down and the brain automatically turns it “rightside-up”. (shrug) Anyway, that got me to thinking that maybe the entire universe is actually inside-out and our bodies convert it to outside-in the same way. That would explain why everything on earth isn’t tossed off into space by the spinning earth’s centrifugal force. That is, the spinning earth’s centrifugal force is what holds us down.

Or, maybe it’s just becaue of this mysterious “gravity” myth... (chuckle) Yeah right.


24 posted on 04/25/2013 3:40:16 PM PDT by Lancey Howard (I'm serious.)
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To: Jack Hydrazine; Revolting cat!
Einstein’s classic thought experiment involves sitting on a train travelling at the speed of light. If you hold a mirror in front of your face, will you see your reflection in a mirror?

I'd be curious to hear how many light years of bad luck it would be to break a mirror at a time like that.

25 posted on 04/25/2013 4:33:30 PM PDT by a fool in paradise (America 2013 - STUCK ON STUPID)
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To: a fool in paradise; SeekAndFind; cuban leaf; onedoug; cripplecreek; GrandJediMasterYoda; Fido969; ..
Being the designated party poopr is a dirty job, but somebody's gotta do it...

As far as I know, pretty much everything Einstein ever said about gravity was wrong.

For starters Einstein claimed that information could not be transmitted faster than C. Nonetheless it is well known that gravity propagages instantaneously to within our ability to measure. Any time you ever take one step you are sending a gravitational message of sorts out into the cosmos at infinite speed.

Einstein described gravity as a sort of a four-dimensional differential geometry thing. There is no way to start with that and believe that gravity near our own Earth's surface could ever have changed much within recent geological time. Nonetheless it is an easy demonstration that it has i.e. that the largest dinosaurs would not even be able to stand in our present gravity due to the familiar and simple square/cube problem which prevents 200-lb athletes from competing in gymnastics.

There is also no way to start with Einstein's description of gravity and believe that humans would ever be able to control it, but the Podkletnov experiment is sufficiently real and advanced technological nations all have black projects dealing with gravity control.

26 posted on 04/25/2013 8:16:08 PM PDT by varmintman
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To: varmintman

So when we send messages to our satellites far out in solar system there is no delay between the time it was sent and received?


27 posted on 04/25/2013 8:48:42 PM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (Iツ知 not a Republican, Iツ知 a conservative! Pubbies haven't been conservative since before T.R.)
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To: GrandJediMasterYoda
Another interesting phenomenon of physics is that if you look from outer space, you can tell where Michael Moore is by looking for the dent in the earth.

Here's another. Michael Moore is already dead. It's just that his mass is so great that he's warped space-time around him to such an extent that we perceive him at an earlier time when he still lived.

28 posted on 04/25/2013 9:01:28 PM PDT by MCH
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To: varmintman
...it is well known that gravity propagages instantaneously to within our ability to measure.

Incorrect

29 posted on 04/25/2013 10:19:22 PM PDT by onedoug
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To: varmintman
Personally, I could never figure out why, of all the particles we know about, the photon is the one that travels the fastest.

In any event, I tend to be philosophical when it comes to mysteries of the cosmos and physics in general. Living beings are perception processors - - and such concepts as 'space', 'time', 'existence', 'life', 'gravity', and well, ...'concept', are simply notions that have evolved and been collectively agreed upon by our species - - and shared to some extent with and among every other living earthly species - - over the course of eons.

So keep looking out into forever for the answers if you wish. It's fun to do, and I have a great deal of respect for the hobby. Estimates of "the size of the universe" (LOL!) will continue to grow every few months or so, and "unexplained mysteries" will pile up, so the hobbyists will always have plenty to keep them busy. As for me, I prefer to look for my answers right here inside my being. First I'd like to figure out to what extent the development of the humans "senses" (touch, sight, hearing, and smell) were a response to habitat (earth) and conversely, to what extent habitat is the result of human senses. (I know - - good luck with that.)

By the way, it will be interesting to see "how big the universe is" once that Hubble replacement gets up there and starts looking into the distance.

30 posted on 04/25/2013 11:17:56 PM PDT by Lancey Howard
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To: cuban leaf

>> A good case has been made for the theory that gavity pushes rather than pulls.

Said the antagonist.


31 posted on 04/25/2013 11:50:41 PM PDT by Gene Eric (The Palin Doctrine.)
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To: varmintman

>> As far as I know, pretty much everything Einstein ever said about gravity was wrong.

Is there a limit to “pretty much everything ever said”?


32 posted on 04/25/2013 11:56:19 PM PDT by Gene Eric (The Palin Doctrine.)
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To: KevinDavis

bump


33 posted on 04/25/2013 11:59:39 PM PDT by GeronL (http://asspos.blogspot.com)
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To: varmintman
Nonetheless it is an easy demonstration that it has i.e. that the largest dinosaurs would not even be able to stand in our present gravity due to the familiar and simple square/cube problem...

Or, it could be for the same reason ancient people were said to live 200+ years - - the earth was spinning faster back then.
And during the time of the dinosaurs, probably much faster.

34 posted on 04/26/2013 12:04:44 AM PDT by Lancey Howard
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To: Gene Eric

>> A good case has been made for the theory that gavity pushes rather than pulls.

Said the antagonist.


Not really. I just think that a good case has been made for the theory that gravity pushes rather than pulls. It’s gaining steam partly because it explains some of the irregularities we find with the real world that are not explained by the concept of gravity pulling.

I didn’t mean to be antagonistic. I was just mentioning that there is some fairly new controversy on the subject.

Think of my remark as a casual mention in a thread praising the movie “An Inconvenient Truth” that the earth may not be warming.


35 posted on 04/26/2013 3:12:49 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: varmintman

I remember that Ptolemy’s explanation of how our solar system functions actually worked - up to a point. Eventually it was scrapped of course.


36 posted on 04/26/2013 3:23:16 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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To: onedoug
...it is well known that gravity propagates instantaneously to within our ability to measure.

Incorrect

1. Wikipedia is a valuable resource for any sort of topic for which no controversy could plausibly exist. For anything else (such as this topic), Wikipedia is worthless.

2. If there actually is such a thing as a "gravity wave", it will propagate at C as wiki claims. That's a big "IF" however; nobody has ever seen a gravity wave.

3. Gravity itself, however, propagates instantaneously as I noted. This has been known for centuries and our own solar system would not hold together otherwise.

Tom Van Flandern's page on gravity speed experiments:

http://metaresearch.org/cosmology/speed_of_gravity.asp

37 posted on 04/26/2013 5:46:21 AM PDT by varmintman
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To: varmintman

I don’t believe that is correct. He said MASS could not be accelerated to a speed faster than C. As far as I know he said nothing about masless information.


38 posted on 04/26/2013 6:24:26 AM PDT by DManA
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To: varmintman

Face on Mars. Richard c. Hoagland. Coast to Coast AM. Oh, yeah!

“Van Flandern was a prominent advocate of the belief that certain geological features seen on Mars, especially the “face at Cydonia”, are not of natural origin, but were produced by intelligent extra-terrestrial life, probably the inhabitants of a major planet once located where the asteroid belt presently exists, and which Van Flandern believed had exploded 3.2 million years ago.[34] He gave lectures on the subject,[35] and at the conclusion of the lectures he described his overall conception:[citation needed]
“We’ve shown conclusively that at least some of the artifacts on the surface of Mars were artificially produced, and the evidence indicates they were produced approximately 3.2 million years ago, which is when Planet V exploded. Mars was a moon of Planet V, and we speculate that the Builders created the artificial structures as theme parks and advertisements to catch the attention of space tourists from Planet V (much as we may do on our own Moon some day, when lunar tourism becomes prevalent), or perhaps they are museums of some kind. Remember that the Face at Cydonia was located on the original equator of Mars. The Builder’s civilization ended 3.2 million years ago. The evidence suggests that the explosion was anticipated, so the Builders may have departed their world, and it produced a massive flood, because Planet V was a water world. It is a coincidence that the face on Mars is hominid, like ours, and the earliest fossil record on Earth of hominids is the “Lucy” fossil from 3.2 million years ago. There have been some claims of earlier hominid fossils, but Lucy is the earliest that is definite. So I leave you with the thought that there may be a grain of truth in The War of the Worlds, with the twist that WE are the Martians.
When it was first imaged, and into the 21st century, the “Face” is near universally accepted to be an optical illusion, an example of pareidolia, and theories that it was an artificial artifact were considered to be pseudo-science.[36][37] After analysis of the higher resolution Mars Global Surveyor data NASA stated that “a detailed analysis of multiple images of this feature reveals a natural looking Martian hill whose illusory face-like appearance depends on the viewing angle and angle of illumination”.


39 posted on 04/26/2013 8:23:27 AM PDT by procrustes (You make Free Republic look bad!)
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To: varmintman

...Violates causality.


40 posted on 04/26/2013 9:39:32 AM PDT by onedoug
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To: procrustes
Tom may have been wrong on time frames and the odd point but he was not wrong about artificial things being found on Mars. Mother nature does not do straight lines or Bezier curves on a three mile scale:

I mean I can understand people claiming those original low-res images from the 76 Viking probe didn't prove anything but the arguments should have ended with the high-res images which started coming in around 99. Denial isn't just a river in Egypt.

41 posted on 04/26/2013 11:06:34 AM PDT by varmintman
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To: cuban leaf

Was a ludic remark with emphasis on “ant/anti”.


42 posted on 04/26/2013 11:13:54 AM PDT by Gene Eric (The Palin Doctrine.)
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To: Gene Eric

I try to have fun with this stuff. It’s what keeps me sane when arguing the “goofy sciences” (evolution and AGW) on predominantly liberal sites.


43 posted on 04/26/2013 11:50:10 AM PDT by cuban leaf (Were doomed! Details at eleven.)
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