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The Hidden City of Angkor Wat
Science Magazine ^ | 6-20-2013 | Richard Stone

Posted on 06/21/2013 7:07:41 AM PDT by Renfield

In the year 802 C.E., the founder of the medieval Khmer empire, Jayavarman II, anointed himself "king of the world." In laying claim to such a grandiose title, he was a little ahead of his time: It would be another few centuries before the Khmers built Earth's largest religious monument, Angkor Wat, the crowning glory of a kingdom that stood in what is today northwestern Cambodia. But Jayavarman II had good reason to believe that his nascent kingdom, in the sacred Kulen hills northeast of Angkor, was a record-holder. Airborne laser scanning technology, or LiDAR, has revealed the imprint of a vast urban landscape hidden in the Kulen's jungle and in the lowlands surrounding Angkor Wat; by the 13th century, the low-density cityscape covered an area of about 1000 square kilometers.

The findings show that the cityscape at the heart of the Khmer Empire of the 9th to 15th centuries C.E. was much more sprawling and complex than archaeologists realized and lend weight to the hypothesis that, strained by climate change, the complexity of the kingdom's vast waterworks was its ultimate undoing. The LiDAR revelations are "astonishing," says Roland Fletcher, an archaeologist at the University of Sydney in Australia and a member of the international team whose findings are in press at the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

At its height, the medieval Khmer empire encompassed much of modern-day Cambodia, central Thailand, and southern Vietnam. Archaeologists have long inferred that Angkor was the most extensive city of its kind in the preindustrial world. Its singular achievement was a complicated network of waterways and reservoirs that were apparently vital to producing enough rice to sustain a population that in the center's heyday numbered in the hundreds of thousands.

Through painstaking ground and aerial surveys and excavations, Fletcher and colleagues in recent years have uncovered evidence that Angkor's waterworks began to break down around the time that the kingdom faded from the historical record. "Things are going wrong by the 1300s," Fletcher says. Signs of severe distress include massive sand deposits in canals and the ruins of a spillway that the Khmers may have ripped apart themselves. In 2009, tree ring data indicated a potential culprit: a decades-long period of megamonsoons and droughts in Southeast Asia in the 14th century.

To get a better understanding of Angkor's urban landscape, Fletcher's colleague at Sydney, Damian Evans, turned to LiDAR, an instrument that a few years ago mapped hidden features of medieval Mayan ruins in Central America. Using a helicopter for just 20 hours of flight time in April 2012, a consortium put together by Evans imaged 370 square kilometers of terrain, encompassing Angkor and two nearby temple complexes, Phnom Kulen and Koh Ker. LiDAR laid bare the imprints of a 9th century city on the Kulen, known from inscriptions as Mahendraparvata. "We found the great early capital of the Khmer empire," Fletcher says. "The discovery of this early Angkorian city is a very exciting example of LiDAR's use in the region," adds Miriam Stark, an anthropologist at the University of Hawaii, Manoa, who has recently started to conduct research at Angkor but was not involved in last year's LiDAR campaign.

The LiDAR survey also showed that the medieval settlements at Phnom Kulen and Koh Ker had extensive hydraulic engineering on a scale comparable to Angkor, showing a much wider reliance on water management systems "to ameliorate annual-scale variation in monsoon rains and ensure food security," the team reports. The LiDAR readings also uncovered cryptic coil-shaped rectilinear embankments covering several hectares near Angkor Wat. "It was an unbelievable surprise," Fletcher says. "Nothing like them had been seen before in Khmer architecture." He speculates that they had some role in farming, but for now their function remains a mystery.

The LiDAR data also add weight to the idea that Angkor's complicated waterworks unraveled. It uncovered "very serious" erosion in parts of the ancient city that, Fletcher believes, accounts for the deep sand deposits documented in the team's excavations.

TOPICS: Agriculture; History; Science
KEYWORDS: angkorthom; angkorwat; archaeology; australia; cambodia; damianevans; france; globalwarminghoax; godsgravesglyphs; irrigation; jayavarmanii; khmerempire; kohker; laketonlesap; lidar; mahendraparvata; nasa; phnomkulen; rolandfletcher; siemreap
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To: Eric in the Ozarks


I also made the mistake of booking the Cambodia leg immediately following the Thailand flight.

So I was to continue on. A couple hours delay in BKK at the airport then on to Phnom Penh. I’m not out of shape (not badly anyway) but hadn’t even considered I should put a day or so in between the two flights.

I’m sure they’re fine. Just commenting is all.

Still considering another visit, to tell the truth.


21 posted on 06/22/2013 10:15:41 AM PDT by Cringing Negativism Network
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To: Cringing Negativism Network

I was there. It ain’t fun. (and no, not in Christmas of 1969.).

22 posted on 06/22/2013 10:25:34 AM PDT by Safetgiver ( Islam makes barbarism look genteel.)
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To: Cringing Negativism Network
Our couple are resting up at a Bangkok hotel before setting out to see the sights. We've received a couple of text photos w/ golden temple backgrounds...
23 posted on 06/22/2013 7:24:10 PM PDT by Eric in the Ozarks (NRA Life Member)
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To: Eric in the Ozarks

I’m sort of jealous.

I know it’s quite hot there now, but still am.

Thanks for the response!

24 posted on 06/23/2013 6:13:17 AM PDT by Cringing Negativism Network
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To: sauropod


25 posted on 06/23/2013 6:22:54 AM PDT by sauropod (Fat Bottomed Girl: "What difference, at this point, does it make?")
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To: pajama pundit

I’ll go with that. Wish I was back in college to jam that up a prof’s arse. LOL “CE” Cristian Era, love it.

26 posted on 06/24/2013 8:58:25 AM PDT by Tuketu (The Dim Platform is splinters bound by crazy glue. We need a solvent)
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To: Renfield; SunkenCiv
We finally made it to Angkor last year and it was worth the journey. It's one of the most incredible places on Earth. We hired a guide which I highly recommend. Not only because of the personal tour but also because Cambodia is very corrupt and he took care of the bribes and vigorish.

Unfortunately, only the sacred places were built in stone. The city, including the royal palace, were built of wood, long since gone. This article fits with the story we were told of a once vast city. You can still see some of the waterworks.

The current belief is Angkor was abandoned because it was too vulnerable to attack from the resurgent Thai kingdom based in Ayutthaya, so they retreated to Phnom Penh.

If you go, be sure to take in the "Tomb Raider" temple. The tree roots are so intertwined with the building that it is not being completely restored. It is something straight out of Indiana Jones. Parts of the Tomb Raider movie were filmed there.

I agree with the comments about not trying to do too much on arrival in Bangkok. Even a nonstop is a long flight. Take a recovery day. Even though Bangkok is congested and smoggy, there are fascinating sights in their own right like the old Royal Palace complex and Wat Po temple. Plus, there is great dining. Pick your price point. One of the best meals I've had in Thailand I got for under $2 in a street noodle joint in Chaing Mai.

27 posted on 06/24/2013 12:33:10 PM PDT by colorado tanker
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