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Confederates' 'slave hunt' in North a military disgrace
Pittsburg Post Gazette ^ | June 30, 2013 12:16 am | Frank Reeves

Posted on 07/03/2013 5:41:43 PM PDT by donmeaker

In June 1863, when Brig. Gen. Albert Jenkins' cavalry, in the vanguard of the Confederate army, galloped into Pennsylvania, its aim wasn't only to spy and steal supplies.

The soldiers were also determined, as historian Margaret Creighton notes, to round up African-Americans, whom the Confederates regarded as "contraband" that should be returned to "rightful" owners.

The "slave hunt," as contemporaries and later historians called this phase of the Confederate invasion, would last as long as Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia remained in Pennsylvania. It ended only when the defeated Southern troops retreated back to Virginia after the Battle of Gettysburg.

(Excerpt) Read more at post-gazette.com ...


TOPICS: History
KEYWORDS: civilwar; gettysburg; thecivilwar; whitesupremacy
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For an army to attack unarmed and defenseless civilians is a disgrace and, by modern standards, a war crime. The African-Americans whom Southern soldiers rounded up, seized and in some cases fired upon, did not threaten the Army of Northern Virginia. As Coddington wrote a generation ago: "Under no circumstances could the Confederates justify the hunt on military necessity."

For Jacob Hoke, who witnessed the slave hunts and in the 1880s would write a well-regarded history of "The Great Invasion," the raids revealed the object for which many Southerners had waged war: "to found a government based on human slavery."

1 posted on 07/03/2013 5:41:43 PM PDT by donmeaker
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To: donmeaker

But the War of Northern Aggression was not about slavery.


2 posted on 07/03/2013 5:46:53 PM PDT by Wellington VII
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To: donmeaker

Well this should be interesting.


3 posted on 07/03/2013 5:47:01 PM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: donmeaker

this is what i was telling someone te othger day why it would have been war one way or the other with the CSA had thgey left peacibly or not. tey did crap like this and they werent going to stop. it would have been an act of war and we’d have had cwi anyway.


4 posted on 07/03/2013 5:47:35 PM PDT by Secret Agent Man (Gone Galt; Not averse to Going Bronson.)
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To: donmeaker
the raids revealed the object for which many Southerners had waged war: "to found a government based on human slavery."

Complete BS.

5 posted on 07/03/2013 5:48:41 PM PDT by PistolPaknMama
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To: PistolPaknMama

It is no B.S. that the pro-slavery forces were aggressively pushing the slave economy into new territories.

It is no B.S. that in the 1860s pro-slavery forces were aggressively pushing slavery as a positive social good - both for the slave owners AND the slaves.


6 posted on 07/03/2013 5:52:21 PM PDT by DManA
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To: donmeaker

It is true that Lee’s Army kidnapped many free blacks from the Union states they invaded. They believed that they were justified in doing so because of their own runaway slaves.

It is also true that many black US Army soldiers captured in uniform were murdered after being captured by Confederate forces, although there is no evidence linking Lee to this.


7 posted on 07/03/2013 5:57:05 PM PDT by iowamark
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To: PistolPaknMama
Yep, it looks like they took a whole new attitude about owning humans...

Slavery[edit]

There are several major differences in the two constitutions in the area concerning slavery.

Article I Section 9(1)
The importation of negroes of the African race from any foreign country, other than the slaveholding States or Territories of the United States of America, is hereby forbidden; and Congress is required to pass such laws as shall effectually prevent the same.[32]
While the US Constitution reads
The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.[33]
Article I Section 9(2)
Congress shall also have power to prohibit the introduction of slaves from any State not a member of, or Territory not belonging to, this Confederacy.[34]
While the U.S. Constitution has a clause that states "No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed"[35] the Confederate Constitution adds a phrase to protect slavery.
Article I Section 9(4)
No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law denying or impairing the right of property in negro slaves shall be passed.[36]
Article IV Section 2(1)
The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States; and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their slaves and other property; and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby impaired.[37]
Article IV Section 3(3)
The Confederate States may acquire new territory; and Congress shall have power to legislate and provide governments for the inhabitants of all territory belonging to the Confederate States, lying without the limits of the several states; and may permit them, at such times, and in such manner as it may by law provide, to form states to be admitted into the Confederacy. In all such territory, the institution of negro slavery as it now exists in the Confederate States, shall be recognized and protected by Congress, and by the territorial government: and the inhabitants of the several Confederate States and Territories, shall have the right to take to such territory any slaves lawfully held by them in any of the states or territories of the Confederate states.[38]

8 posted on 07/03/2013 5:57:16 PM PDT by rockrr (Everything is different now...)
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To: donmeaker

Add to fact that Jeb Stuart had ridden off with bulk of
Confederate cavalry on a showy ride around the Union Army

He arrived at Gettysburg on night of July 2 with his men and horses completely worn out........

By wasting time rounding up the local black people had totally ignored it military duty to screen the Army of Northern Virginia and provide intelligence of movements
of Army of Potomac.

Is why Confederates blundered into Union forces outside
Gettyburg


9 posted on 07/03/2013 6:11:28 PM PDT by njslim (St)
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To: rockrr

This subject has been debated on FR at least since 1999 when I joined. I have no intention of getting in a debate with you. Post whatever you like, but you may want to waste your misguided energy on someone else.


10 posted on 07/03/2013 6:12:49 PM PDT by PistolPaknMama
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To: PistolPaknMama

Are you saying that you are a waste of time?


11 posted on 07/03/2013 6:20:12 PM PDT by rockrr (Everything is different now...)
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To: 0.E.O

I really do not give a fig that blacks were once slaves


12 posted on 07/03/2013 6:28:21 PM PDT by AEMILIUS PAULUS (It is a shame that when these people give a riot)
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To: Wellington VII

The War of the Great Rebellion had different motivations on different people.

The people who started the war, the politicians of the slave power, wanted to protect, extend and further the cause of slavery.

The people who refused to surrender to the slave power had war forced upond them, and had different motivations.

Conscripted southern soldiers wanted to stay alive, to keep faith with other men of their units, and to avoid being shot as deserters or skulkers by the Slave power.

Northern politicians didn’t want to hand over government to the politicians who supported the slave power.

Nothern soldiers were given leave to go home to vote in the 1864 election, and overwhelmingly supported Lincoln who would continue the war, over McClellan who would surrender to the slave power.


13 posted on 07/03/2013 6:41:45 PM PDT by donmeaker (Blunderbuss: A short weapon, ... now superceded in civilized countries by more advanced weaponry.)
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To: PistolPaknMama

It wasn’t debated.


14 posted on 07/03/2013 6:42:33 PM PDT by donmeaker (Blunderbuss: A short weapon, ... now superceded in civilized countries by more advanced weaponry.)
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To: PistolPaknMama
With all due respect, search for the Confederate Constitution and read it.

Slavery is a "right"...see art 1 sec 9 paragraph 4...

...otherwise a really good document..

15 posted on 07/03/2013 6:45:41 PM PDT by B.O. Plenty (Give war a chance........)
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To: iowamark

Per Jeff Davis, who had some minor position in the pretended confederate government...

“On and after February 22, 1863, all free negroes within the limits of the Southern Confederacy shall be placed on the slave status, and be deemed to be chattels, they and their issue forever.

All negroes who shall be taken in any of the States in which slavery does not now exist, in the progress of our arms, shall be adjudged, immediately after such capture, to occupy the slave status, and in all States which shall be vanquished by our arms, all free negroes shall, ipso facto, be reduced to the condition of helotism (abolute slavery), so that the respective normal conditions of the white and black races may be ultimately placed on a permanent basis, so as to prevent the public peace from being thereafter endangered.”


For good measure - in the same address on Jan 5, 1863, he said slavery was the “cornerstone” of the Confederacy. Here is that part:

“... it ought not to be considered polemically or politically improper in me to vindicate the position which has been, at an early day of this Southern republic, assumed by the Confederacy, namely, that slavery is the corner-stone of a Western Republic.”


16 posted on 07/03/2013 6:55:40 PM PDT by donmeaker (Blunderbuss: A short weapon, ... now superceded in civilized countries by more advanced weaponry.)
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To: njslim

Some will write that the confederate cavalry not taken by JEB Stuart could have been better used....

What were they being used for? Slave hunting, which was out and out kidnapping despite any lack of documentation that the persons seized had wver been slaves. Upon the orders of the pretended president of the pretended confederacy.

After all, slavery is the necessary foundation of any Western Republic. We have it from Jeff Davis himself.


17 posted on 07/03/2013 6:58:57 PM PDT by donmeaker (Blunderbuss: A short weapon, ... now superceded in civilized countries by more advanced weaponry.)
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To: njslim

“Add to fact that Jeb Stuart had ridden off with bulk of
Confederate cavalry on a showy ride around the Union Army”

Ah yes, yet another “False truth” about Gettysburg.

Stewart was screening Lee’s right from the cavalry of Kilpatrick, and the PA militia. He was slowed tremendously by the capture of 125 fat supply wagons he was taking to Lee.

In truth, it was Early’s cavalry, under Elijah White that was raiding to the north, into Hanover and York County. Stewart intended to join with them, screening the Right from union forces advancing from DC and Philly.

Stewart was also delayed by Delaware Cav in the Battle of Westminster, also known as “Corbitt’s Charge”. This running gunbattle in the streets and buildings of Westminster, Md delayed Stewart for several critical hours, delaying his arrival in Hanover, where he ran smack into Farnsworth and Custer. (He would fight Custer again at Gettysburg.)

Stewart felt that it was very important to get the captured supplies to Lee. In addition, Confederate communications were brought almost to a halt all over Central Pa by Messengers getting bushwacked by locals and the militia.


18 posted on 07/03/2013 7:09:05 PM PDT by tcrlaf (Well, it is what the Sheeple voted for....)
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To: donmeaker

Stewart WAS NOT SLAVE-HUNTING..

He was in running firefights from the time he left Virginia. Early’s Cav, to the north, on the other hand, were. This misnotion has been corrected many times, but it is tough to get past any “Accepted truth”.


19 posted on 07/03/2013 7:13:15 PM PDT by tcrlaf (Well, it is what the Sheeple voted for....)
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To: donmeaker

While bringing this aspect of the war up on the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg may serve a purpose in your mind, I fail to see it.
Suffice It to say, the South did not prevail, slavery was abolished and you Yanks won the war...
Looking at the results 150 years later, seems to me the liberal, blue, Yankee-loving states aren’t doing so hot....


20 posted on 07/03/2013 7:19:54 PM PDT by matginzac
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To: donmeaker

It was the Union armies that tagged slaves with the dehumanizing term “contraband.” Most of the slaves that were kidnapped by Union forces were force-marched to the North and were not permitted to return home. Unfortunately, very few could be rescued by Confederate forces.


21 posted on 07/03/2013 7:28:46 PM PDT by Tau Food (Never give a sword to a man who can't dance.)
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To: iowamark

It is also true that General Sherman, who married his sister, did not like black people and allowed 700 black camp followers to drown during his march to the sea.


22 posted on 07/03/2013 7:34:32 PM PDT by The_Media_never_lie (Actually, they lie when it suits them! The crooked MS media must be defeated any way it can be done!)
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To: donmeaker
FWIW, as a Canuck who feels priviledged to be able to post on this site, I have to ask one thing. On the eve of July 4th, a day of celebration of the founding of the United States, is this the best time to post an article that is sure to arouse old wounds and divisions?

In my country, that would be akin to posting an article on St. Jean Baptiste Day, in a French-language Quebec newspaper, concerning how marvelous a commander was General Wolfe and how badly he defeated the French. True or not, the timing would be questionable, to say the least.

Just my 2¢.

23 posted on 07/03/2013 7:55:11 PM PDT by A Formerly Proud Canadian (I once was lost but now I'm found; blind but now I see.)
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To: tcrlaf

Stuart, when he finally arrived, he was rebuked by Lee “Well, you’ve gotten here at last”.

Stuart was not engaged in slave hunting. He was caught on the wrong side of the Union Army after turning South at Aldie, VA and running smack into Howard, Reynolds, Sedgwick and Sickles units, was pushed further East, and could not turn back to be on the west side of the Union advance to screen Ewell on the right. If he had taken a direct mountain route, and not gone foraging- he would have met Ewell as ordered, and things would have been different up near Cashtown
.
This was the second screwup— Stuart had been surprised days earlier at Brandy Station, having earlier given a full dress review to Lee of his units. Surprised by Pleasonton, he just got away.

At Rockville, MD he captured a wagon train of 140 brand-new, fully loaded wagons and mule teams. The wagon train slowed Stuart’s advance. He had interpreted Lee’s orders as placing importance on gathering supplies. The army of N. VA was foraging, and under orders to pay (albeit with csa script) for things. The general idea of the campaign was to put the VA.army between the Union Army and Washington. As it was, Stuart came close enough on this run to Washington, to cause pursuit by two Union cavalry brigades. He later claimed if the horses hadn’t been so tired, he could have taken Lincoln prisoner. Cavalry braggadocio, but the idea was to strike fear in the capitol.

All in all with the communications of the day, he was first a fighter, and secondly an intel unit.


24 posted on 07/03/2013 7:59:59 PM PDT by John S Mosby (Sic Semper Tyrannis)
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To: A Formerly Proud Canadian

You are quite correct, sir. The posters are self-appointed and self-righteous progressive types, obsessive about continuously grinding their screed on others.

Nevermind that the Southerners they love to poke at, have in large numbers over the many years, served in our armed forces with great distinction and courage, fighting and dying for our country in foreign lands— because they are the best fighters bar none.

It takes a Canadian to remind us of how great our country is, and to show what it means to be respectful of fellow countrymen. Thank you, sir.


25 posted on 07/03/2013 8:07:14 PM PDT by John S Mosby (Sic Semper Tyrannis)
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To: matginzac

Yes indeed— it serves only their purpose to needle true Patriots as they remember their loved ones who gave all on foreign battlefields, and as they remember that it was their ancestors who gave us our Bill of Rights and Constitution.


26 posted on 07/03/2013 8:26:21 PM PDT by John S Mosby (Sic Semper Tyrannis)
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To: tcrlaf
Stewart WAS NOT SLAVE-HUNTING..

You are right, he really wasn't "slave hunting."

Went here... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_G._Jenkins and ran a search on the entire page for the word slave.

Zero results.

On a lighter note, if you want to enjoy a really good book, try "Rebel Raider: The Life of General John Hunt Morgan."

General John Morgan was an outstanding Confederate cavalry raider and as I recall led the deepest incursion into Union territory of the war.

The accounts of his raids, capture, subsequent escape from the Ohio Penitentiary, and eventual death during an encounter with Union cavalrymen would make a 2-3 hour adventure flick of epic proportions.

.

27 posted on 07/03/2013 8:31:07 PM PDT by TLI ( ITINERIS IMPENDEO VALHALLA)
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To: donmeaker; celmak

ping


28 posted on 07/04/2013 2:29:01 AM PDT by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: AEMILIUS PAULUS
I really do not give a fig that blacks were once slaves

OK

29 posted on 07/04/2013 5:04:57 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: The_Media_never_lie
It is also true that General Sherman, who married his sister, did not like black people and allowed 700 black camp followers to drown during his march to the sea.

Not really sure what Sherman has to do with all this but nothing in your post is factually correct. Sherman did not marry his sister. He married the daughter of the man who acted as his guardian after his father died. And while a number of freed blacks did drown at Ebenezer Creek trying to escape the rebel forces the number wasn't close to the figure you stated. Some drowned. Others were shot by the rebel soldiers under General Wheeler. The actual number of dead from both causes is unknown.

30 posted on 07/04/2013 5:15:26 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: A Formerly Proud Canadian
FWIW, as a Canuck who feels priviledged to be able to post on this site, I have to ask one thing. On the eve of July 4th, a day of celebration of the founding of the United States, is this the best time to post an article that is sure to arouse old wounds and divisions?

July 3rd is also the 150th anniversary of the end of the Battle of Gettysburg and there have been literally dozens of posts on that subject, including this one.

31 posted on 07/04/2013 5:17:13 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: Tau Food
It was the Union armies that tagged slaves with the dehumanizing term “contraband.”

Yeah, the Southerners just called them "property". Sooooo much better.

Most of the slaves that were kidnapped by Union forces were force-marched to the North and were not permitted to return home. Unfortunately, very few could be rescued by Confederate forces.

LOL!!!! Every time I think I've seen the highest level of crazy that a neo-Reb can achieve, one of y'all comes along and proves me wrong.

32 posted on 07/04/2013 5:22:00 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: A Formerly Proud Canadian

It’s an important anniversary. 150 years. So there are lots of things being printed about it and people are talking about the subject.


33 posted on 07/04/2013 5:22:41 AM PDT by DManA
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To: rockrr
Here is a very interesting site that compares the Confederate constitution with the real Constitution and notes all the differences. Link
34 posted on 07/04/2013 5:29:25 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: rockrr

Very informative post, thanks.


35 posted on 07/04/2013 5:55:08 AM PDT by mac_truck ( Aide toi et dieu t aidera)
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To: donmeaker

That’s verrry interesting.

Do you have a link to the entire speech or document?


36 posted on 07/04/2013 6:25:07 AM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: Sherman Logan; donmeaker
Found it.

http://corematerials.homestead.com/files/jd63.pdf

This is one of the most fascinating things I've seen recently. Not only was the CSA not contemplating the freeing of slaves in 1863, they proclaimed the enslavement of all free blacks, including all they were able to capture when invading Union states.

In view of these facts, and conscientiously believing that the proper condition of the negro is slavery, or a complete subjection to the white man, and entertaining the belief that the day is not distant when the old Union will be restored with slavery nationally declared to be the proper condition of all of African descent

Not sure what Jeff meant by the bolded section. He seems to be saying the CSA would consider rejoining the Union if it just agreed to base itself on Negro slavery.

37 posted on 07/04/2013 6:37:23 AM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: John S Mosby

I detect a bit of perversity in the posting of “slave hunters” article on the 3rd day of a horrific battle’s commemoration...
Didn’t sit well with me, I’m afraid....


38 posted on 07/04/2013 6:55:04 AM PDT by matginzac
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To: matginzac

Not only perverse, but ridiculous inasmuch as by 1863 the army on maneuvers was concerned with feeding themselves and finding shoes, including the cavalry (short on horse feed). Hence the capturing of 140 loaded wagons by Stuart. Little to no focus on escaped slaves by that point and on “foreign soil”. Entire claim is silly.


39 posted on 07/04/2013 7:15:24 AM PDT by John S Mosby (Sic Semper Tyrannis)
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To: John S Mosby

Totally true and anyone interested in the war’s history would know that and refrain from such a posting.
BTW, I have a gentleman living in my home with me who goes by the name Wade Hampton...named after the famous Confederate cavalry general from SC...my 88 yr old father!


40 posted on 07/04/2013 7:23:01 AM PDT by matginzac
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To: PistolPaknMama
"Our new Government is founded upon exactly the opposite ideas; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race, is his natural and moral condition."

Alexander Stephens, Confederate Vice President, from his first public speech after his inauguration.

The Vice President of the Confederacy said that the whole point of the Confederate government was enforcing the inequality of black people. Was he confused? Do you know more about the Confederacy than he did?

41 posted on 07/04/2013 7:38:00 AM PDT by wideawake
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To: John S Mosby
Entire claim is silly.

But also well documented by Stephen Sears, Noah Andre Trudeau, Ted Alexander, and a host of others. While that was not the purpose of Stuart's ride or the Southern campaign as a whole free blacks were, shall we say, targets of opportunity and an unknown number, possibly in the hundreds, were taken.

42 posted on 07/04/2013 8:44:17 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: John S Mosby
Here is a link to Ted Alexander's article on the subject.
43 posted on 07/04/2013 8:46:41 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: Tau Food
It was the Union armies that tagged slaves with the dehumanizing term “contraband.” Most of the slaves that were kidnapped by Union forces were force-marched to the North and were not permitted to return home. Unfortunately, very few could be rescued by Confederate forces.

Dude... you could be a speech writer for Nancy Pulosi with your talent for turning things upside down and inside out at the same time.

44 posted on 07/04/2013 8:46:59 AM PDT by Ditto
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To: 0.E.O

You aren’t a member. Kolob awaits.


45 posted on 07/04/2013 8:50:07 AM PDT by John S Mosby (Sic Semper Tyrannis)
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To: 0.E.O

You aren’t a member. Kolob awaits.


46 posted on 07/04/2013 8:50:52 AM PDT by John S Mosby (Sic Semper Tyrannis)
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To: Ditto

For your information as to the source of the term and the destination of the individuals:

The “tag” did come from union army. Contraband was a term commonly used in the United States military to describe the status for escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces. General Benj. “Beast” (we call him Spoons, for the fact he would steal the silver from Southern homes for himself) Butler, educated as an attorney, took a position that, if Virginia considered itself a foreign power to the U.S., he was under no obligation to return slaves; he would hold them as “contraband of war”— he coined the word. Because the practice effectively recognized the seceded states as foreign entities, Lincoln disapproved of it.

Gen. Butler did not pay the escaped slaves wages for work they did and he continued to refer to them as slaves. Union SecNavy Gideon Welles issued a directive to pay $10 a month plus day rations for work. The union army paid less at $8/month for males and 4/month for females. US Congress and union army determined that the US would not return escaped slaves who went to union lines and classified them as contraband. They used many as laborers to support Union efforts and eventually began to pay them wages. This was met often by the northern populace with derision and anger, esp. among poor Irish immigrants (sound familiar— abuse of new immigrants?) who were forced economically and otherwise into army drafted service who saw this as hypocrisy as they did not want to join the army but work for it. Coupled with the fact that, thanks to Congress increasing the draft and allowing wealthy northerners to pay a commutation fee of $300 to hire a substitute and not be drafted— this all had a great deal to do with the NYC draft riots which occurred just after Battle of Gettysburg, the anger directed at blacks in the city. A dirty little secret is that in NYC there was much support for secession— money to be made in the conflict (as always in sovereign conflict and finance).

Prior references in this thread as the term being used by CSA, came from the fact that contrabands were left behind by escaping union army- they dumped them as they ran. This was done commonly, and on union soil, but especially true of the camp followers of “freed” slaves who followed Gen. Sherman’s columns on his sea march in GA. “Rescued” is silly, although many slaves wanted to stay where they were vs. guaranteed poverty and abuse of another kind following their “liberators”.


47 posted on 07/04/2013 9:33:24 AM PDT by John S Mosby (Sic Semper Tyrannis)
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To: John S Mosby
You aren’t a member. Kolob awaits.

Hmmmmm. Must be one of those southern thangs that we Yankees just wouldn't understand.

48 posted on 07/04/2013 11:09:00 AM PDT by 0.E.O
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To: A Formerly Proud Canadian

The Gettysburg battles took place around the 4th of July.

I suggest you read the threads you like, and don’t comment on the ones you don’t care for.

Of course, if as you celebrate the United States, one my have much the same feeling as I do when I celebrate the defeat of those who would have destroyed it. Some of those people were embarrassed by the Declaration of Independence statement that “We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal...” Royalists and slave power lost causers still choke on that.


49 posted on 07/04/2013 8:11:22 PM PDT by donmeaker (Blunderbuss: A short weapon, ... now superceded in civilized countries by more advanced weaponry.)
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To: John S Mosby

If one was respectful of one’s fellow countrymen one wouldn’t make common cause with a foreigner against them.


50 posted on 07/04/2013 8:12:56 PM PDT by donmeaker (Blunderbuss: A short weapon, ... now superceded in civilized countries by more advanced weaponry.)
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