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Word For The Day, Thursday, July 18, 2013 – syllogism
dictionaries ad nauseam | 18 July 2013 | Thursday's sub

Posted on 07/18/2013 6:22:40 AM PDT by secret garden


In order that we might all raise the level of discourse and expand our language abilities, here is the daily post of "Word for the Day".

syllogism\SIL-uh-jiz-um\ noun
1. a deductive scheme of a formal argument consisting of a major and a minor premise and a conclusion
2. a subtle, specious, or crafty argument
3. deductive reasoning

Example sentences:
Kelly could not prove it, but she suspected that her opponent's arguments were a series of sneaky syllogisms based on dubious "facts."

"She learned to read [Thomas] Aquinas in the original, mastered the syllogism, pursued Socratism, then took that highly classical background with her to Dominican University in River Forest, Ill., where she graduated with a master’s degree in library and information science."
— From an article by Kevin Nevers in theChesterton Tribune (Indiana), May 8, 2013

Etymology:
For those trained in formal argument, the syllogism is a classical form of deduction. One example is the inference that "kindness is praiseworthy" from the premises "every virtue is praiseworthy" and "kindness is a virtue." "Syllogism" came to English through Anglo-French from Latin "syllogismus," which in turn can be traced back through Greek to the verb "syllogizesthai," meaning "to infer." In Greek "logizesthai" means "to calculate" and derives from "logos," meaning "word" or "reckoning." "Syl-" comes from "syn-," meaning "with" or "together."

The sentence must, in some way, relate to the news of the day. The Review threads are linked for your edification. ;-)
Practice makes perfect.....post on....


Review Threads:

Review Thread One: Word For The Day, Thursday 11/14/02: Raffish
Review Thread Two: Word For The Day, Tuesday 1/14/03: Roister
Review Thread Three: Word For The Day, Tuesday 1/28/03: Obdurate

WFB's attempt to emulate us ; ) No pushing at the door please!


TOPICS: Word For The Day
KEYWORDS:
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1 posted on 07/18/2013 6:22:40 AM PDT by secret garden
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To: secret garden; Fierce Allegiance; Jack Deth; MoochPooch; NeoCaveman; Conspiracy Guy; Laura Earl; ...

Rise and shine! I’m off to the vet.


2 posted on 07/18/2013 6:23:33 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: secret garden

‘bout time. ;-)


3 posted on 07/18/2013 6:24:09 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: secret garden
ObamaCare is a practical example of a syllogism: It's Hyped as the answer to all health care, it's costs are hidden and seldom repeated by the WH, and it's the end of decent medical care as we know it.
4 posted on 07/18/2013 6:25:24 AM PDT by theDentist (FUBO; qwerty ergo typo : i type, therefore i misspelll)
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To: SoothingDave
Hey, I got it posted before 8:30, after jogging the park!
5 posted on 07/18/2013 6:27:13 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: theDentist
A for you! F- for the DC crowd.
6 posted on 07/18/2013 6:28:00 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: SoothingDave
Here's your earworm for the day, for stirring it up.
7 posted on 07/18/2013 6:30:47 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: secret garden

http://triblive.com/news/allegheny/4314093-74/demolitions-homes-demolition#axzz2ZP6SS1g0

Meanwhile, the professional victim class in Pittsburgh is complaining that the city is demolishing too many abandoned homes in black neighborhoods.

Cause they’d rather live next to a firetrap crack house, apparently?!


8 posted on 07/18/2013 6:35:07 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: secret garden

No syllogisms in the prosecution’s case against George Zimmerman. Their case did not hold together, nor did it reach the conclusion that they wanted.


9 posted on 07/18/2013 6:56:27 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: secret garden

I took an excellent course in Formal Logic in college, taught by Dr. Leonard Peikoff, a close associate of Ayn Rand. The syllogism was the lynchpin of the syllabus. The format is Major Premise, Minor Premise, Conclusion. If the two premises are true, the conclusion must be true, as in:

Everyone connected to the Obama administration is a liar.
Jay Carney is connected to the Obama administration.
Therefore, Jay Carney is a liar.

I recall that the NEGATIVE may or may not be true:

(Here’s a case where it’s not true:)
Everyone connected to the Obama administration is a liar.
Bill Clinton is not connected to the Obama administration.
Therefore, Bill Clinton is not a liar.

(Here’s a case where it is true:)
Everyone connected to the Obama administration is a liar.
Mother Theresa is not connected to the Obama administration.
Therefore, Mother Theresa is not a liar.

The CONVERSE also may or may not be true:

(Here, it is true)
Everyone connected to the Obama administration is a liar.
Jay Carney is a liar.
Therefore, Jay Carney is connected to the Obama administration.

(Here, it is false)
Everyone connected to the Obama administration is a liar.
Bill Clinton is a liar.
Therefore, Bill Clinton is connected to the Obama administration.

One thing I recall fairly well is that the CONTRAPOSITIVE is always true (assuming the original syllogism is true.)

Thus:
Everyone connected to the Obama administration is a liar.
George Washington is not a liar.
Therefore, George Washington is not connected to the Obama administration


10 posted on 07/18/2013 6:58:59 AM PDT by TruthShallSetYouFree (July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence. Nov 6, 2012: Declaration of Dependence. R.I.P. America.)
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree

Correct. People often want the converse to be true, but that is not logically so.


11 posted on 07/18/2013 7:02:31 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: secret garden

We had the most amazing experience last night. When we got home from work and sat down for dinner, I spotted an enormous owl sitting on the upper cross bar of my garden swing. We’ve lived here 27 years. Although I’ve occasionally heard an owl, I’ve never seen one before.

I think this was a Great Horned Owl, although I’m not really sure.

He patiently sat there for a full 45 minutes (perhaps longer because he was already there when I first noticed him). He just was looking around — probably for small animals for a snack.

Then, suddenly, he spread his wings and flew swiftly and silently away. He went behind the barn, so I don’t know if he caught anything, but we have lots of rabbits, voles, and mice running arond.

He was awesome!


12 posted on 07/18/2013 7:02:59 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: secret garden

Busy day; conference call at 8:00am, meetings until 6:00pm, then off to the sperm bank to syllogism.


13 posted on 07/18/2013 7:04:12 AM PDT by lefty-lie-spy (Stay metal. For the Horde \m/("_")\m/ - via iPhone from Tokyo.g)
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To: lefty-lie-spy

Lmao!!


14 posted on 07/18/2013 7:14:50 AM PDT by xsmommy
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To: afraidfortherepublic
I spotted an enormous owl

That solves the mystery. Clearly, it was a spotted owl. :)

15 posted on 07/18/2013 7:16:38 AM PDT by TruthShallSetYouFree (July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence. Nov 6, 2012: Declaration of Dependence. R.I.P. America.)
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To: SoothingDave
Correct. People often want the converse to be true, but that is not logically so.

I was hoping that my memory was intact. I took the course in 1968.

16 posted on 07/18/2013 7:18:08 AM PDT by TruthShallSetYouFree (July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence. Nov 6, 2012: Declaration of Dependence. R.I.P. America.)
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree

A deductive argument can be valid or invalid. If it is valid and both premises are true, then the conclusion is true and the argument is sound. If it is invalid, it is unsound. If it is valid, but has a false premise, it is unsound.
An example of a valid hypothetical argument would be:
If A, then B
A
Therefore, B

Another would be:
If A, then B
Not B
Therefore, not A

Many people have a hard time with the second example, which is “modus tollens” meaning “denying the consequent”


17 posted on 07/18/2013 7:22:44 AM PDT by JoeRed
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree

I just knew somebody would pick up on that! But I dn’t think anyone has ever seen a spotted owl. LOL They are really shy.

All I can think is that WE Energies was here yesterday installing new electric poles along the side of my property. To do so, they tore out a lot of trees and brush and ran big trucks and compressors all day. This might have disrupted this owl’s usual roost.


18 posted on 07/18/2013 7:26:37 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree

I just knew somebody would pick up on that! But I dn’t think anyone has ever seen a spotted owl. LOL They are really shy.

All I can think is that WE Energies was here yesterday installing new electric poles along the side of my property. To do so, they tore out a lot of trees and brush and ran big trucks and compressors all day. This might have disrupted this owl’s usual roost.


19 posted on 07/18/2013 7:26:37 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree

It’s interesting to note what’s showing up around here, now that I no longer have a dog.


20 posted on 07/18/2013 7:28:39 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: JoeRed

Like I said, many people want to believe this is always logically true:

If A then B.
Not A.
Therefore, not B.

But it’s not.


21 posted on 07/18/2013 7:30:52 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: JoeRed
Another would be:
If A, then B
Not B
Therefore, not A

That appears to utilize the same same logic that the CONTAPOSITIVE syllogism does. As in:

If you are in the Obama administration, then you are a liar.
You are not a liar.
Therefore, you are not in the Obama administration.

Is that correct?

22 posted on 07/18/2013 7:31:21 AM PDT by TruthShallSetYouFree (July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence. Nov 6, 2012: Declaration of Dependence. R.I.P. America.)
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree; JoeRed

Yes, that is the contrapositive. That’s the term I learned for it.


23 posted on 07/18/2013 7:41:22 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree

Yep, that’s it. I haven’t heard the term “contrapositive” used before, but a quick search led me to this:

“The inference rule modus tollens, also known as the law of contrapositive, validates the inference from P implies Q and the contradictory of Q, to the contradictory of P.”


24 posted on 07/18/2013 7:57:30 AM PDT by JoeRed
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To: JoeRed; SoothingDave

Thank you.


25 posted on 07/18/2013 7:58:44 AM PDT by TruthShallSetYouFree (July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence. Nov 6, 2012: Declaration of Dependence. R.I.P. America.)
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree; JoeRed

In plain English:

If I wash my car, it will get wet.

“My car is not wet, therefore I did not wash it” is true.

“I did not wash my car, therefore it is not wet” is not. It could rain.


26 posted on 07/18/2013 8:12:03 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: afraidfortherepublic

27 posted on 07/18/2013 8:19:23 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: TruthShallSetYouFree
Yikes. I took a course on logic and argument last year and you are causing painful flashbacks but you get an A+ anyway.
28 posted on 07/18/2013 8:21:13 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: afraidfortherepublic

I just saw my first one in person last week at the park. He was enormous!


29 posted on 07/18/2013 8:23:23 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: lefty-lie-spy

A for you and welcome to WFTD!


30 posted on 07/18/2013 8:25:00 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: JoeRed

Are you trying to give me a headache? Welcome to WFTD!


31 posted on 07/18/2013 8:26:18 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: secret garden

If he has given you a headache, then you need to take an aspirin. ;-)


32 posted on 07/18/2013 8:39:12 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: secret garden

Who is going to the vet today-are all the creatures okay?

It is 74 and cloudy-I hope we get some more rain...

Obama is giving speeches today
Cloaked in syllogism and such
Praising Obamascare (again)-
Proving he’s out of touch

Just what part of “we hate it”
Does the emperor not understand?
We don’t care about his legacy
Of being historically grand

He is probably more likely
To have the legacy of a crook-
For using the Nixonian tactics
He found in Dick’s playbook...

I was back from hiking by 7 this morning-the mountain lion’s tracks heading into the deep woods, and the smell of carrion coming from a dead deer half covered up with leaves and grass in there made my hair stand up-I started singing and backed out, pepper spray and walking stick in hand, till I was at the top of the hill on the main trail...


33 posted on 07/18/2013 9:00:03 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: SoothingDave

Conclusion: Then my headache will go away. ;) I’m having a stressful day here and think it’s mostly tension.


34 posted on 07/18/2013 9:00:19 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: Texan5
Yikes. That turned an easy hike into a more cardiac activity. A+ for the poem.
My little dog who had cataract surgery 2 months ago now has a partially detached retina. I am sick about it.
35 posted on 07/18/2013 9:02:13 AM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: afraidfortherepublic; secret garden

Owls are awesome, aren’t they-the Great Horned are the ones heard mostly, but there is one that screeches, too-someone told me it is a kind of barn owl. I’ve never seen one of those, but I’ve seen the horned ones a few times at dusk taking off into the woods to find something small and helpless for dinner...

There is a pair of them that nest in the trees on the cliff-they’ve used the chimney cap as a courting perch every breeding season for years-the hooting echoes down the chimney into the living room...


36 posted on 07/18/2013 9:16:56 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: secret garden

Thank you!

Can they fix it? I hope so-no puppy needs that.

Seeing those tracks in the fresh mud, and smelling/seeing that deer was like someone turning the treadmill speed up without warning...


37 posted on 07/18/2013 9:23:51 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: secret garden

The furor over the Zimmerman/Martin case seems to be based on dysjunctive syllogism:

Zimmerman shot Martin. Martin was black. Zimmerman was non-black. Therefore, he is racist, because a non-black shot a black, not matter what the cause or circumstance.

If Zimmerman were black, it’s OK to have shot Martin, no matter what the circumstance (or if Martin had been white).

This is so much the liberal mind.

This reminds me of the argument against expelling troublemakers in public school because it discriminates against non-whites. A strange kind of logic.


38 posted on 07/18/2013 9:27:55 AM PDT by MoochPooch (I'm a compassionate cynic.)
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To: secret garden
I'll try this for a syllogism:

Rand Paul cares about civil liberties and a modest foreign policy.
Liz Cheney is running against Mike Enzi.
Paul is supporting Enzi.
Ergo, I like Mike.

39 posted on 07/18/2013 9:30:27 AM PDT by NeoCaveman (DC, it's Versailles on the Potomac but without the food and culture)
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To: secret garden

Off to the vet? So now you want a professional to do your hair?
Melvin, our vet, also makes hair pieces for the barber shop. Don’t go there ‘cause sometimes he forgets to trim the tail off the hide and it makes a person look like Davy Crockett in a skull cap.


40 posted on 07/18/2013 9:32:53 AM PDT by count-your-change (you don't have to be brilliant, not being stupid is enough)
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To: Texan5

Is your singing that bad? ;-)


41 posted on 07/18/2013 9:33:16 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: SoothingDave

It probably is-but I’ve been told that when you find yourself in close proximity with a large predator, you should make noise, back out of the area with outspread arms, and wave a stick or some such-in other words, attempt to look and sound large and dangerous as you get the hell out of there-and never, ever run.

Fresh tracks-since last night’s rain-and a half-covered recent kill was enough to spook me into leaving-I didn’t want to join that deer in the food cache...


42 posted on 07/18/2013 10:42:45 AM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: Texan5

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHQNa1YwZH0

Did you sing this song?


43 posted on 07/18/2013 11:48:02 AM PDT by SoothingDave
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To: SoothingDave

No-actually, I sang “Dirty Deeds” because that is what I sang the last time I wandered accidentally into that kitty’s dining room several years ago-I figured it might work again...


44 posted on 07/18/2013 12:45:53 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: Texan5
I have heard the great horned owl and a barred owl in our woods. That call can be kind of freaky.
45 posted on 07/18/2013 1:07:45 PM PDT by secret garden (Why procrastinate when you can perendinate?)
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To: secret garden

Wow-that is weird-I never heard that one before-but Husky girl jumped right up and howled at the computer, but she does that when we are outside at night and she hears the who-who sound of the horned owls up close...


46 posted on 07/18/2013 1:32:42 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: Texan5

I do think that the workman here who are installing new power poles along the eastern edge of our property must have disrupted Mr. Owl’s usual perch. I’ve never seen this guy before, even though I’ve heard the owls calling from time to time. I hope I see him again. He was amazing. I called a neighbor to warn her because she has 2 very small dogss that could be carried away quite easily. Her dogs are called Hava-Malts — a cross between a Maltese and a Havanese. Wouldn’t last a minute with your “panther”.

I read a book about the early days of TX when I lived there, and the early setlers called those big cats panthers.

You know what Ogden Nash wrote about panthers, don’t you?

“When called by a panther
Don’t anther.”


47 posted on 07/18/2013 1:37:40 PM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: count-your-change
Melvin, our vet, also makes hair pieces for the barber shop. Don’t go there ‘cause sometimes he forgets to trim the tail off the hide and it makes a person look like Davy Crockett in a skull cap.

Like that nutty Congressman who went to jail? I think he was from Ohio. Someplace in the Upper Mid-West. I've forgotten his name. They confiscated his toupee when they locked him up.

48 posted on 07/18/2013 1:41:17 PM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: afraidfortherepublic

I saw a red-tailed hawk grab a fair-sized rabbit right up out of a clearing in the woods once-I can just imagine what an owl could do to a toy dog...

You bet your ass I’m not going to answer the mountain lion-bikers and hikers in California and Colorado get eaten sometimes. Hasn’t happened in Texas, but who wants to be first?

This particular cougar/panther/mountain lion is responsible for the demise of several dogs-including a 70+ pound standard poodle-whose owners did not heed warnings from the game warden to keep their pets in a fence or indoors-the kitty is a protected species here-the dogs are not...

I remember that poem from childhood-a panther is just like a leopard, except that it hasn’t been peppered...


49 posted on 07/18/2013 3:11:28 PM PDT by Texan5 ("You've got to saddle up your boys, you've got to draw a hard line"...)
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To: xsmommy

Free for you. Just pay shipping and handling.


50 posted on 07/18/2013 4:05:57 PM PDT by hobbes1 (Hobbes1TheOmniscient® "St.Sarah, the1Tru Conservative that REFUSES to unite us and Save America"you)
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