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Ancient DNA and Neanderthals
Smithsonian ^ | 21st century | Human Origins

Posted on 07/18/2013 7:11:46 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

The FOXP2 gene is involved in speech and language (Lai et al. 2001)... Modern humans and Neanderthals share two changes in FOXP2 compared with the sequence in chimpanzees (Krause et al. 2007). Neanderthals may also have their own unique derived characteristics in the FOXP2 gene that were not tested for in this study... The researchers then tried to determine how the FOXP2 variant came to be found in both Neanderthals and modern humans...

Though chimpanzees also have different blood groups, they are not the same as human blood types. While the mutation that causes the human B blood group arose around 3.5 Ma, the O group mutation dates to around 1.15 Ma. Lalueza-Fox and colleagues (2008) tested whether Neanderthals had the O blood group. They found that two Neanderthal specimens from Spain probably had the O blood type, though there is the possibility that they were OA or OB...

The microcephalin gene relates to brain size during development. A variant of this, haplogroup D, may have been positively selected for in modern humans – and may also have come from an interbreeding event with an archaic population (Evans et al. 2006). Mutations in microcephalin cause the brain to be 3 to 4 times smaller in size. All of the haplogroup D variants come from a single copy that appeared in modern humans around 37,000 years ago. However, haplogroup D itself came from a lineage that had diverged from the lineage that led to modern humans around 1.1 million years ago. Although there was speculation that the Neanderthals were the source of the microcephalin haplogroup D (Evans et al. 2006), the Neanderthal DNA recently sequenced does not contain the microcephalin haplogroup D (Green et al. 2010).

(Excerpt) Read more at humanorigins.si.edu ...


TOPICS: History; Science; Travel
KEYWORDS: godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; neandertal; neandertals; neanderthal; neanderthals
This reconstruction of a male Neanderthal by John Gurche features pale skin, but not red hair.

This reconstruction of a male Neanderthal by John Gurche features pale skin, but not red hair.

1 posted on 07/18/2013 7:11:46 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
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The Neandertal Enigma
by James Shreeve

in local libraries
"Frayer's own reading of the record reveals a number of overlooked traits that clearly and specifically link the Neandertals to the Cro-Magnons. One such trait is the shape of the opening of the nerve canal in the lower jaw, a spot where dentists often give a pain-blocking injection. In many Neandertal, the upper portion of the opening is covered by a broad bony ridge, a curious feature also carried by a significant number of Cro-Magnons. But none of the alleged 'ancestors of us all' fossils from Africa have it, and it is extremely rare in modern people outside Europe." [pp 126-127]

2 posted on 07/18/2013 7:12:45 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: SunkenCiv

I’m pretty sure that Bill Clinton screwed a monkey once. Why not? He screwed all of us.


3 posted on 07/18/2013 7:15:07 PM PDT by blueunicorn6 ("A crack shot and a good dancer")
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Excellent, but it’s from IHT, so can’t quote:

Who’re You Calling a Neanderthal?
www-nc.nytimes.com/2013/05/03/opinion/global/Who-Are-You-Calling-a-Neanderthal.html


4 posted on 07/18/2013 7:15:13 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

5 posted on 07/18/2013 7:15:53 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: SunkenCiv

I was in the Piggly Wiggly with a guy that looked just like him.. However he was wearing a hoodie and I could be wrong.. :)


6 posted on 07/18/2013 7:18:14 PM PDT by carlo3b (Speechless in Sugar Land)
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To: SunkenCiv

As, I understand it, that nerve gap is marked by a dimple. Mine are not aligned, or easy to find. This has resulted in many long conversations, with fingers in my mouth. 5 to 7 shots, resulting in great numbness, with no effect on the nerve line. Work being done raw, is a joy.


7 posted on 07/18/2013 7:47:31 PM PDT by RedHeeler
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To: SunkenCiv

All he needs is a Keffiyah to complete the look.


8 posted on 07/18/2013 7:57:11 PM PDT by left that other site (You Shall Know the Truth, and the Truth Shall Set You Free...John 8:32)
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To: RedHeeler

Me also.

Runs in the family. Dental work is not fun.

What is interesting is that when I had my wisdom teeth pulled, the surgeon took one look at me and said I need a general anesthesia. He said that I “looked” like the local stuff wouldn’t work.


9 posted on 07/18/2013 8:05:03 PM PDT by redgolum ("God is dead" -- Nietzsche. "Nietzsche is dead" -- God.)
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To: SunkenCiv

The highest concentration of O-type blood is found in Wales, England.


10 posted on 07/18/2013 9:39:04 PM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv

I didn’t realize Gérard Depardieu was in Quest for Fire.


11 posted on 07/18/2013 9:43:36 PM PDT by Ransomed
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To: SunkenCiv

Nobody would notice that guy on a modern street in ordinary clothes and shoes.


12 posted on 07/18/2013 10:09:41 PM PDT by Nepeta
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To: SunkenCiv

If you have a ping list please add me to it.


13 posted on 07/19/2013 3:33:04 AM PDT by Dusty Road
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To: SunkenCiv

If you have a ping list please add me to it.


14 posted on 07/19/2013 3:38:51 AM PDT by Dusty Road
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To: blam

My husband is type O. Are they saying he’s a Neanderthal? Is this ammo that I could use in an argument? ;)


15 posted on 07/19/2013 6:02:51 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: afraidfortherepublic
afraidfortherepublic: "My husband is type O. Are they saying he’s a Neanderthal? Is this ammo that I could use in an argument?"

Well, maybe, but if he's O-negative, that's the "universal donor" blood type, meaning us Neanderthals can give our blood to help anybody.
Maybe Neanderthals are just all-around good guys?

Why else would you marry one? ;-)

16 posted on 07/19/2013 7:05:01 AM PDT by BroJoeK (a little historical perspective....)
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To: SunkenCiv

Looks like Edward James Olmos.


17 posted on 07/19/2013 8:38:23 AM PDT by Defiant (In the next rebellion, the rebels will be the ones carrying the American flag.)
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To: BroJoeK

Well he’s O+, but I married him ‘cause he’s handsome, smart, funny and could talk for hours about politics — not for his blood.


18 posted on 07/19/2013 11:36:58 AM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: afraidfortherepublic
" My husband is type O. Are they saying he’s a Neanderthal? Is this ammo that I could use in an argument? ;) "

LOL. You could use it but it may be incorrect. That never stopped my wives(ahem) though.

19 posted on 07/19/2013 12:24:05 PM PDT by blam
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To: afraidfortherepublic
Oh, never mind.

I just remembered that they were calling me 'hunk', not Neanderthal.

20 posted on 07/19/2013 12:32:01 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam
Ireland and Scotland are up there also. Poles and Lits have a lot of B's and Germanic types have A's.
21 posted on 07/19/2013 12:36:36 PM PDT by Little Bill (A)
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To: Nepeta

/bingo


22 posted on 07/19/2013 4:10:44 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: Ransomed

;’)


23 posted on 07/19/2013 4:10:51 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: blam

It was gratifying to read that O is only 1.15 million years old, and arose from A — the gene sequence for O doesn’t code for the protein because it is otherwise identical to A, but missing the first base pair.

The population of PreColumbian America appears to have been either 100 percent or nearly 100 percent O.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hh_antigen_system

[snip] Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express H antigen (also called substance H), the antigen which is present in blood group O. As a result, they cannot make A antigen (also called substance A) or B antigen (substance B) on their red blood cells, whatever alleles they may have of the A and B blood-group genes, because A antigen and B antigen are made from H antigen. For this reason people who have Bombay phenotype can donate RBCs to any member of the ABO blood group system (unless some other blood factor gene, such as Rhesus, is incompatible), but they cannot receive blood from any member of the ABO blood group system (which always contains one or more of A and B and H antigens), but only from other people who have Bombay phenotype... This very rare phenotype is generally present in about 0.0004% (about 4 per million) of the human population, though in some places such as Mumbai (formerly Bombay) locals can have occurrences in as much as 0.01% (1 in 10,000) of inhabitants and 1 in a million people in Europe. Given that this condition is very rare, any person with this blood group who needs an urgent blood transfusion will probably be unable to get it, as no blood bank would have any in stock. Those anticipating the need for blood transfusion may bank blood for their own use, but of course this option is not available in cases of accidental injury since one can not always plan for injury. [/snip]


24 posted on 07/19/2013 4:16:03 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: RedHeeler; redgolum

Ouch.


25 posted on 07/19/2013 4:16:40 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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To: SunkenCiv
Blood Groups And The History Of Peoples
26 posted on 07/19/2013 5:17:03 PM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Thanks blam.

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2901467/posts?page=9#9


27 posted on 07/19/2013 5:50:19 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (McCain or Romney would have been worse, if you're a dumb ass.)
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