Skip to comments.Ancient DNA and Neanderthals
Posted on 07/18/2013 7:11:46 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
The FOXP2 gene is involved in speech and language (Lai et al. 2001)... Modern humans and Neanderthals share two changes in FOXP2 compared with the sequence in chimpanzees (Krause et al. 2007). Neanderthals may also have their own unique derived characteristics in the FOXP2 gene that were not tested for in this study... The researchers then tried to determine how the FOXP2 variant came to be found in both Neanderthals and modern humans...
Though chimpanzees also have different blood groups, they are not the same as human blood types. While the mutation that causes the human B blood group arose around 3.5 Ma, the O group mutation dates to around 1.15 Ma. Lalueza-Fox and colleagues (2008) tested whether Neanderthals had the O blood group. They found that two Neanderthal specimens from Spain probably had the O blood type, though there is the possibility that they were OA or OB...
The microcephalin gene relates to brain size during development. A variant of this, haplogroup D, may have been positively selected for in modern humans and may also have come from an interbreeding event with an archaic population (Evans et al. 2006). Mutations in microcephalin cause the brain to be 3 to 4 times smaller in size. All of the haplogroup D variants come from a single copy that appeared in modern humans around 37,000 years ago. However, haplogroup D itself came from a lineage that had diverged from the lineage that led to modern humans around 1.1 million years ago. Although there was speculation that the Neanderthals were the source of the microcephalin haplogroup D (Evans et al. 2006), the Neanderthal DNA recently sequenced does not contain the microcephalin haplogroup D (Green et al. 2010).
(Excerpt) Read more at humanorigins.si.edu ...
It was gratifying to read that O is only 1.15 million years old, and arose from A — the gene sequence for O doesn’t code for the protein because it is otherwise identical to A, but missing the first base pair.
The population of PreColumbian America appears to have been either 100 percent or nearly 100 percent O.
[snip] Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express H antigen (also called substance H), the antigen which is present in blood group O. As a result, they cannot make A antigen (also called substance A) or B antigen (substance B) on their red blood cells, whatever alleles they may have of the A and B blood-group genes, because A antigen and B antigen are made from H antigen. For this reason people who have Bombay phenotype can donate RBCs to any member of the ABO blood group system (unless some other blood factor gene, such as Rhesus, is incompatible), but they cannot receive blood from any member of the ABO blood group system (which always contains one or more of A and B and H antigens), but only from other people who have Bombay phenotype... This very rare phenotype is generally present in about 0.0004% (about 4 per million) of the human population, though in some places such as Mumbai (formerly Bombay) locals can have occurrences in as much as 0.01% (1 in 10,000) of inhabitants and 1 in a million people in Europe. Given that this condition is very rare, any person with this blood group who needs an urgent blood transfusion will probably be unable to get it, as no blood bank would have any in stock. Those anticipating the need for blood transfusion may bank blood for their own use, but of course this option is not available in cases of accidental injury since one can not always plan for injury. [/snip]
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