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Archaeology: The milk revolution
Nature ^ | 7-31-2013 | Andrew Curry

Posted on 08/02/2013 11:45:10 AM PDT by Renfield

In the 1970s, archaeologist Peter Bogucki was excavating a Stone Age site in the fertile plains of central Poland when he came across an assortment of odd artefacts. The people who had lived there around 7,000 years ago were among central Europe's first farmers, and they had left behind fragments of pottery dotted with tiny holes. It looked as though the coarse red clay had been baked while pierced with pieces of straw.

Looking back through the archaeological literature, Bogucki found other examples of ancient perforated pottery. “They were so unusual — people would almost always include them in publications,” says Bogucki, now at Princeton University in New Jersey. He had seen something similar at a friend's house that was used for straining cheese, so he speculated that the pottery might be connected with cheese-making. But he had no way to test his idea.

The mystery potsherds sat in storage until 2011, when Mélanie Roffet-Salque pulled them out and analysed fatty residues preserved in the clay. Roffet-Salque, a geochemist at the University of Bristol, UK, found signatures of abundant milk fats — evidence that the early farmers had used the pottery as sieves to separate fatty milk solids from liquid whey. That makes the Polish relics the oldest known evidence of cheese-making in the world...

(Excerpt) Read more at nature.com ...


TOPICS: Agriculture; Food; History; Science
KEYWORDS: agriculture; animalhusbandry; archaeology; auroch; aurochs; dairy; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble

1 posted on 08/02/2013 11:45:10 AM PDT by Renfield
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To: SunkenCiv

Ping


2 posted on 08/02/2013 11:45:33 AM PDT by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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To: Renfield

What does 7,000 year old cheese taste like?


3 posted on 08/02/2013 11:48:51 AM PDT by fulltlt
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To: Renfield
Well, anyone can drink milk...just what happens afterward varies.
4 posted on 08/02/2013 12:02:24 PM PDT by Moltke (Sapere aude!)
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To: fulltlt

Take your pick. 7,000 yo gouda, swiss, blue cheese? Let your imagination run wild. LOL


5 posted on 08/02/2013 12:04:59 PM PDT by RJS1950 (The democrats are the "enemies foreign and domestic" cited in the federal oath)
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To: Renfield

Truly fascinating stuff!


6 posted on 08/02/2013 12:07:01 PM PDT by Standing Wolf
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To: Renfield

There are very few people however, who can’t eat cheese.


7 posted on 08/02/2013 12:10:18 PM PDT by Harmless Teddy Bear (Revenge is a dish best served with pinto beans and muffins)
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To: fulltlt
What does 7,000 year old cheese taste like?

Tastes like Limburger smells; and it stays around for a loooooong time :)

8 posted on 08/02/2013 12:11:48 PM PDT by chesley (Vast deserts of political ignorance makes liberalism possible - James Lewis)
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To: Renfield
Lactose, the sugars in milk, can't be broken down by many adults, hence lactose intolerance.

Lactose is broken down and converted into lactic acid when bacteria is introduced such with yogurt and sour cream. People can usually eat yogurt without any problems.

Cheese tolerance is somewhere in the middle.

9 posted on 08/02/2013 12:32:32 PM PDT by bgill (This reply was mined before it was posted.)
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To: Renfield

I never understood this one. The Mongols and similar peoples are shown as being largely lactose-intolerant by the map, yet we all know they were historically largely dependent on milk for food.


10 posted on 08/02/2013 12:33:56 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: Renfield

11 posted on 08/02/2013 12:42:07 PM PDT by afraidfortherepublic
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To: Sherman Logan

The Mongols largely used mare’s milk. I wonder how its lactose concentration differs from that of cows.


12 posted on 08/02/2013 12:52:44 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: Sherman Logan

They made the milk into yogurt, which is much lower in lactose than milk.


13 posted on 08/02/2013 1:14:19 PM PDT by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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To: Sherman Logan

In the case of the mare’s milk, it was fermented into something akin to slightly alcoholic buttermilk, called “kumis”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumis


14 posted on 08/02/2013 1:15:59 PM PDT by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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To: Renfield

A similar product made from goat’s milk is a big hit among the locals where I live.


15 posted on 08/02/2013 1:20:59 PM PDT by headsonpikes (Mass murder and cannibalism are the twin sacraments of socialism - "Who-whom?"-Lenin)
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To: Renfield

Lots of twists and turns to this.

The African Maasai tribe consume a lot of cow’s milk, often mixed with cow’s blood. I have no idea about what if any chemical interaction between the two fluids is, or if the blood breaks down lactose.

The Roman legions went great distances with hard cheese, which is one of the few primitive foods, like pemmican, that travel well. If you don’t have such a food, your travel is dependent on game animals, which for a large number of people is unlikely.

At least by the days of the republic, they were also big consumers of meat and grain, enough so that orders were issued that meat had to be either boiled or roasted.


16 posted on 08/02/2013 2:01:20 PM PDT by yefragetuwrabrumuy (Be Brave! Fear is just the opposite of Nar!)
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To: Renfield

Boy, that sounds really good. /s


17 posted on 08/02/2013 2:08:18 PM PDT by Sherman Logan
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To: Renfield

There’s something bugging me about that map of the world. I think there’s something missing, but I can’t quite put my finger on what it is . . .


18 posted on 08/02/2013 2:32:31 PM PDT by Mr Radical
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To: afraidfortherepublic; Renfield
To anyone who hasn't read the comments to the original article (and the "Dairy Diaspora" graphic), I must quote this one from "L B":

This is standard leftist propaganda that if it can't be "Out of Africa" it has to "Out of the Middle East". Nothing can evolve in (or expand out of) ancient Europe, and in fact ancient Europeans never even really existed, Europe has only ever been a "destination for immigrants". It's been proven that modern (Northern) Europeans are not primarily descended from the small number of Anatolian farmers who shifted their habitat up the Danube during the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. (Which incidentally, on the subject of leftist propaganda, was so much warmer than today that Denmark had a Mediterranean climate.) And the signature characteristic of adult lactase persistence in Europe is its identifiability with the blond Nordic type. The blonder you are, not the more Middle Eastern looking you are, the more likely you are to have it. So who are these blonds? Where did they come from? When did they get their hair and eye color? Where did they get those giant ultra-modern skulls and that microcephalin haplogroup D gene for larger brain size from? Where did they really spend the last glacial maximum -- are they the Iberians showing up in Morocco 30,000 years ago? When and by what routes did they re-populate the North Sea/Baltic region? How did they get down to the Ukraine for the Indo-European expansion 5000 years ago? That little bit of background context is needed, before we can ask when, where, and how did they become lactase-persistent, and how did this characteristic spread through Europe, and down to India with their chariots. A background context the Left is working full time today to erase from history -- in advance of the final erasure of its subjects as well.
19 posted on 08/02/2013 2:32:31 PM PDT by Mr Radical
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To: Renfield; SunkenCiv

Did SunkenCiv authorize this post?


20 posted on 08/02/2013 2:36:13 PM PDT by Defiant (In the next rebellion, the rebels will be the ones carrying the American flag.)
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To: Harmless Teddy Bear
I bet the rate of lactose intolerance has dropped like a stone in countries like Japan and S Korea since the end of WW2 and they began to develop (okay thats the 60's and 70's for S Korea)

Or are they putting something else in their cereal?

Want some Kuhn Po-ruh-soo-too?

Korean doesn't have an "f" sound.

21 posted on 08/02/2013 2:41:33 PM PDT by GeronL
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To: Sherman Logan

yet we all know they were historically largely dependent on milk for food.


fermented mares milk.......................


22 posted on 08/02/2013 2:46:52 PM PDT by PeterPrinciple
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To: GeronL
Probably.

I am firmly of the belief that our bodies turn on or turn off genes as our environment changes.

As to what do they pour on their cereal, I have known some people to use orange juice! :)

23 posted on 08/02/2013 3:00:00 PM PDT by Harmless Teddy Bear (Revenge is a dish best served with pinto beans and muffins)
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To: Harmless Teddy Bear

My gag reflex is tingling

:p


24 posted on 08/02/2013 3:01:22 PM PDT by GeronL
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To: Harmless Teddy Bear

bump


25 posted on 08/02/2013 3:15:07 PM PDT by GeronL
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To: Renfield; Defiant; StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; ...

Thanks Renfield. "The last aurochs died in Poland in 1627" it sez here -- remarkable, considering they were the basis for domesticated cattle and that event is prehistoric -- one long haul, and they almost made it to the present.

26 posted on 08/02/2013 5:40:07 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: bgill

The lactobacteria responsible for acidifying milk is naturally in the raw product. Acidified milk is not hospitable to the bad strains of bacteria that cause food born illness. Pasteurizing destroys the natural beneficial lactobacteria.

Raw milk need not be innoculated... it’s just a time issue. I have opened sealed and refrigerated bottles of raw milk 3 months past it’s “expiration date”... the cream on the top is literally sour cream. The skim milk is like buttermilk.


27 posted on 08/02/2013 5:49:35 PM PDT by Rodamala
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To: Harmless Teddy Bear

I used to know someone who was lactose intolerant and would put a can of fruit cocktail on his cold cereal.


28 posted on 08/02/2013 6:01:20 PM PDT by Bigg Red (Let me hear what God the LORD will speak. -Ps85)
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To: SunkenCiv

Fascinating stuff. I had no idea that cheese-making went back that far.


29 posted on 08/02/2013 6:02:23 PM PDT by Bigg Red (Let me hear what God the LORD will speak. -Ps85)
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To: Renfield

That is a very interesting map! Thanks. My ancestors all came from the British Isles and your map shows that is good for milk drinkers. I love milk, it is probably my favorite food.


30 posted on 08/02/2013 6:09:53 PM PDT by Ditter
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To: Renfield; fulltlt; Moltke; RJS1950; Standing Wolf; Harmless Teddy Bear; chesley; bgill; ...

The big bang therory season finale: leonards lactose intolerance jokes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09QIVM_JunQ


31 posted on 08/02/2013 6:15:12 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: Renfield

Interesting


32 posted on 08/02/2013 6:16:01 PM PDT by ZULU ((See: http://gatesofvienna.net/) Obama, do you hear me?)
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To: Bigg Red

And it’s probably much older, this looks like mature technology.


33 posted on 08/02/2013 6:16:40 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: Harmless Teddy Bear

That’s what it says in th article.


34 posted on 08/02/2013 6:55:46 PM PDT by ThanhPhero (Khách sang La Vang hanh huong tham vieng Maria)
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To: Renfield
So I guess it's true: Blessed are the cheesemakers.
35 posted on 08/02/2013 7:08:35 PM PDT by TrueKnightGalahad
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To: ThanhPhero

You expect me to actually read the article before commenting? :)


36 posted on 08/02/2013 7:19:42 PM PDT by Harmless Teddy Bear (Revenge is a dish best served with pinto beans and muffins)
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To: Renfield

That is a really interesting map. Thanks for posting it.


37 posted on 08/02/2013 7:43:21 PM PDT by zeugma (Be a truechimer, not a falseticker!)
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To: Ditter

I hate milk; can’t stand the stuff. Even as a baby, I wouldn’t drink it. I’m not lactose intolerant, but for some reason, I’ve always associated the aroma of milk with nausea.


38 posted on 08/03/2013 4:05:07 AM PDT by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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To: Mr Radical
Excellent post and my thoughts exactly. The orthodox view is that you are OOA or OOME. That's frozen archeology and nonthinking.
39 posted on 08/03/2013 4:48:12 AM PDT by 1010RD (First, Do No Harm)
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To: Renfield

Odd that a milk tolerance map would use white to indicate milk intolerance.


40 posted on 08/03/2013 5:15:53 AM PDT by ctdonath2 (Making good people helpless doesn't make bad people harmless.)
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To: Renfield
Alrighty then, I'll drink your part! :)

I have had a glass of milk every night before bed for my whole life. I am a 73 year old woman and when I get a bone scan every few years they always write WOW! on my chart.

Years ago when my husband was in the USCoastGuard I slipped down a flight of stairs and the doctor at a military hospital thought my wrist might be broken. He sent me to x-ray. When they looked at my x-ray (no break) they said I had the whitest bones they had ever seen on an x-ray and that was after looking mostly at the bones of healthy young men.

Milk is good! :)

41 posted on 08/03/2013 6:42:35 AM PDT by Ditter
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