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DNA reveals details of the peopling of the Americas
Science News ^ | August 12, 2013 | Tina Hesman Saey

Posted on 09/02/2013 8:46:52 AM PDT by SunkenCiv

The scientists examined the DNA of mitochondria, tiny power plants within cells that get passed down from mother to child. Scientists use mitochondrial DNA from living populations to decipher ancient movements of their ancestors. Most studies have examined only a small part of the mitochondria's circular piece of DNA. But Antonio Torroni, a geneticist at the University of Pavia in Italy, and his coauthors compiled complete mitochondrial genomes from 41 native North Americans and combined that data with information from previous studies... supports the widely accepted notion of an initial coastal migration wave. A second wave of migration probably left Siberia only a couple thousand years after the first wave. Instead of trickling down the coast, the second group slipped through an ice-free corridor running from Alaska into what is now southern Canada, the team found. The second wave never made it south of the present-day United States.

The mixture of first-wave and second-wave genetic signatures in some Native Americans today indicates that the newcomers and existing populations interbred.

A third wave of migration started around 4,000 years ago in Alaska and swept mostly eastward across Canada.

Previous studies of human migration into the Americas have sometimes focused on two types of languages that emerged among the tribes: the Na-Dene language family, including Navajo, Apache and Tlingit, and non-Na-Dene languages, including Algonquin, Ojibwe and Chippewa. Scientists had thought the language groups reflected genetic separation, with the second wave being restricted to the Na-Dene language family. But Torroni and his colleagues discovered that second-wave genetic marks occurred in people who spoke languages from both groups.

(Excerpt) Read more at sciencenews.org ...


TOPICS: History; Science; Travel
KEYWORDS: antoniotorroni; dna; emptydna; epigraphyandlanguage; genetics; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; migration; mtdna; nephitesandlamanites; science

subtitle, "Migrants came in three distinct waves that interbred once in the New World".
Interview with Professor Antonio Torroni of the University of Pavia | The Auramala Project

È permesso copiare, distribuire e/o modificare questo documento in base ai termini della GNU Free Documentation License, Versione 1.2 o successive pubblicata dalla Free Software Foundation; senza alcuna sezione non modificabile, senza testo di copertina e senza testo di quarta di copertina. Una copia della licenza è inclusa nella sezione intitolata Testo della GNU Free Documentation License.

1 posted on 09/02/2013 8:46:52 AM PDT by SunkenCiv
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

The rest of the Antonio Torroni keyword.

2 posted on 09/02/2013 8:47:59 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: AdmSmith; agrace; AnalogReigns; Cacique; caryatid; Celtjew Libertarian; CobaltBlue; ...
Genetic
Genealogy
>> PING <<
Send FReepmail if you want on/off GGP list
Marty = Paternal Haplogroup O(2?)(M175)
Maternal Haplogroup H
GG LINKS:
African Ancestry
DNAPrint Genomics
FamilyTree DNA
GeneTree
Int'l Society of Genetic Genealogy
mitosearch
Nat'l Geographic Genographic Project
Oxford Ancestors
RelativeGenetics
Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation
Trace Genetics
ybase
ysearch
The List of Ping Lists

3 posted on 09/02/2013 9:06:56 AM PDT by martin_fierro (< |:)~)
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To: SunkenCiv
The mixture of first-wave and second-wave genetic signatures in some Native Americans today indicates that the newcomers and existing populations interbred.

Can we please not use the term Native American, especially when describing how they migrated here.

4 posted on 09/02/2013 9:10:33 AM PDT by FreeReign
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To: martin_fierro

There was a fourth wave that was far larger and really populated North America.

The dominant Haplotype was R1B. The Atlantic Modal Haplotype.

But since that comes from Western Europe, I guess the Italian professor doesn’t want to talk about it.


5 posted on 09/02/2013 9:28:06 AM PDT by Regulator
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To: FreeReign

Pre-Columbian, hegemonic Occupiers.


6 posted on 09/02/2013 9:30:24 AM PDT by Paladin2
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To: FreeReign
Can we please not use the term Native American, especially when describing how they migrated here

The proper term is of course aboriginal.

But knowing their own migration paths and timing, even that can be sketchy to use. They aren't really "indigenous", just earliest arrivals.

And the use of the reference word for Amerigo Vespucci to describe them borders on hilarious.

7 posted on 09/02/2013 9:31:14 AM PDT by Regulator
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To: SunkenCiv

So.....we have “Sovereign Nations” of Chinese within our borders. That’s racist and discriminatory. The French don’t have their own sovereign nations within our borders. I think it’s time we quit pulling their rickshaws and let them be Americans.


8 posted on 09/02/2013 9:36:24 AM PDT by blueunicorn6 ("A crack shot and a good dancer")
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To: SunkenCiv

We are all immigrants.


9 posted on 09/02/2013 9:51:56 AM PDT by kabar
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To: FreeReign
Can we please not use the term Native American, especially when describing how they migrated here.

I use the term "Native American" because the term "Indian" is wildly inaccurate, and there is no accurate term by which to call them. "Native American" is the best among poor choices.

10 posted on 09/02/2013 10:05:15 AM PDT by exDemMom (Now that I've finally accepted that I'm living a bad hair life, I'm more at peace with the world.)
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To: SunkenCiv

What’s the source of the map? I’d like to see it with the explanation of the populations denoted by the letters.


11 posted on 09/02/2013 10:16:58 AM PDT by SuziQ
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To: Regulator

Aborigine: A member of the indigenous or earliest known population of a region

Which means of course that only the first-wave immigrants here discussed qualify. The second and third waves are no more aboriginal than the European fourth wave.


12 posted on 09/02/2013 10:50:59 AM PDT by Sherman Logan (Mark Steyn: "In the Middle East, the enemy of our enemy is also our enemy.")
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To: Regulator

Aborigine: A member of the indigenous or earliest known population of a region

Which means of course that only the first-wave immigrants here discussed qualify. The second and third waves are no more aboriginal than the European fourth wave.


13 posted on 09/02/2013 10:51:29 AM PDT by Sherman Logan (Mark Steyn: "In the Middle East, the enemy of our enemy is also our enemy.")
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To: exDemMom
I use the term "Native American" because the term "Indian" is wildly inaccurate

"Indian" is a morphing of "en Dios," the second half of what the Spanish missionaries called the continental inhabitants: "niños en Dios," meaning children in God.

"Native American" is the best among poor choices.

I would think that the best choice, though it will never catch on south of the Canadian border, is "First Nations," meaning the nations who were here first.

14 posted on 09/02/2013 11:27:56 AM PDT by chajin ("There is no other name under heaven given among people by which we must be saved." Acts 4:12)
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To: SunkenCiv; John S Mosby
The First Americans - The Windover Bog People
(They're European, 8,000 Years Old In Florida))
15 posted on 09/02/2013 11:47:15 AM PDT by blam
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To: exDemMom
"I use the term "Native American" because the term "Indian" is wildly inaccurate, and there is no accurate term by which to call them. "Native American" is the best among poor choices. "

How about Paleo-Americans.

There are no humans native to the Americas...everybody migrated here.

16 posted on 09/02/2013 11:52:00 AM PDT by blam
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To: chajin
Columbus thought he had reached "the Indies," so he called the natives "indios." I believe the Spanish government continued to refer to the Americas as the Indies for centuries thereafter. There is a trace of that in English with the terms "West Indies" and "East Indies" (reflecting the earlier use of "Indies" to mean East Asia).

The "en Dios" version sounds like a later invention.

17 posted on 09/02/2013 11:58:36 AM PDT by Verginius Rufus
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To: Regulator

Good point. And a large percentage of them are native Americans, having been born in America.


18 posted on 09/02/2013 2:27:58 PM PDT by OldNewYork (Biden '13. Impeach now.)
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To: exDemMom
"Native American" is the best among poor choices.

How about "Amerindian"? Still has lot of syllables though.

Personally, I like "NDN".

19 posted on 09/02/2013 2:52:51 PM PDT by Max in Utah (A nation can survive its fools, and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within.)
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To: Regulator
They aren't really "indigenous", just earliest arrivals.

That's right. Just like the rest of us, they're the descendants of immigrants.

In reality, with the possible exception of West Africa, every nation in the world is populated by people whose ancestors came from somewhere else. We're all "nations of immigrants."

20 posted on 09/02/2013 4:14:30 PM PDT by JoeFromSidney ( book, RESISTANCE TO TYRANNY, available from Amazon.)
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To: blam
There are no humans native to the Americas...everybody migrated here.

Technically speaking, everyone outside of Africa is a migrant. Some people just happened to migrate before other people.

21 posted on 09/02/2013 5:06:26 PM PDT by exDemMom (Now that I've finally accepted that I'm living a bad hair life, I'm more at peace with the world.)
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To: kabar
"We are all immigrants."

Actually (as was pointed out to me decades ago by a Brit) we're all just bloody visitors to the planet anyway.

22 posted on 09/02/2013 6:26:51 PM PDT by Paladin2
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To: Max in Utah
"Personally, I like "NDN". "

Careful. There's a line out there drawn between Big-endians and Small-endians.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endianness

23 posted on 09/02/2013 6:29:29 PM PDT by Paladin2
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To: blam

The video does not support “European.”


24 posted on 09/03/2013 1:46:23 PM PDT by ThanhPhero (Khách sang La Vang hanh huong tham vieng Maria)
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To: SunkenCiv
[sarcasm]The original peoples of the Americas were Spanish-speaking Roman Catholics who were socialist, pacifist, vegetarian, and environmentally concerned. They have always lived here. They never migrated from anywhere. They spring from the very Sacred Soil of their Socialist Motherland and had no depravity, original sin, or evil inclination of any kind. These latter concepts were invented by white Europeans to justify their e--vil, non-melanin-enriched natures.

This is the Truth. Any "science" that says otherwise is an alien ideology imported by the Foreign Devils. The USA is a lousy country. It is the lousiest country on the face of the earth and is responsible for Columbus and for all the sufferings of all the peoples of Central and South America throughout history (Spain, the apex of indigenous Hispanic civilization, is sacrosanct). The USA is so lousy, it never should have been founded in the first place.

There is only one way to undo the damage done by a country that never should have existed in the first place . . . that is to turn its government into a totalitarian state with total power over everyone within its accursed borders, including the originally aggrieved indigenous peoples. This transformation of an evil country that never should have existed into a totalitarian state will make everything all better and the oppressed pipples will be happy again.[/sarcasm]

25 posted on 09/03/2013 2:15:37 PM PDT by Zionist Conspirator (The Left: speaking power to truth since Shevirat HaKelim.)
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To: ThanhPhero
"The video does not support “European.”

Oops!

Sorry.

This one

26 posted on 09/03/2013 3:00:30 PM PDT by blam
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To: Zionist Conspirator
Supporters of indigenous cultures in South and Central America have less use for Spain than they do for the US.

But don't let that stop you when you're on a mad rant.

27 posted on 09/03/2013 3:23:13 PM PDT by x
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To: Zionist Conspirator

Even with the ‘tags’ they attack!


28 posted on 09/03/2013 3:35:57 PM PDT by editor-surveyor (Freepers: Not as smart as I'd hoped they'd be)
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To: exDemMom

I use the term “Siberian American”


29 posted on 09/03/2013 10:00:58 PM PDT by Archie Bunker on steroids (The fear of the lord is the beginning of wisdom (Psalm 111:10))
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To: x; wideawake; KC_Lion
Supporters of indigenous cultures in South and Central America have less use for Spain than they do for the US.

But don't let that stop you when you're on a mad rant.

Good heavens, what did I say that got your panties in a wad? Did you not see the [sarcasm] tags? Do you just have a policy of getting ticked off at everything I post? And it was meant to be humorous too!

If Spain is so politically incorrect, then why is Spanish (the language of a European conqueror) being shoved down our throats as the language of a sinless "indigenous pipple?" And I don't suppose you've ever heard of the old Falangist doctrine of Hispanidad (the Hispanification of the world and union of all Spanish-speaking peoples), huh? Jose Antonio Prima de Rivera may have come up with that one, but it sounds just like the "left wing" nationalism of Western Hemisphere Hispanics.

King Juan Carlos? That you???

30 posted on 09/04/2013 11:38:16 AM PDT by Zionist Conspirator (The Left: speaking power to truth since Shevirat HaKelim.)
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To: Zionist Conspirator
There are centuries of bad will and resentment between South American Indians and Spain that go beyond anything they might feel against the US.

Do you just have a policy of getting ticked off at everything I post?

Would that get in the way of your policy of going after Catholicism time and time again because of personal disillusionment?

And it was meant to be humorous too!

One thing I learned the hard way: a trick of humor is knowing when to quit.

31 posted on 09/04/2013 2:17:48 PM PDT by x
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To: x
Would that get in the way of your policy of going after Catholicism time and time again because of personal disillusionment?

Believe it or not, this time I wasn't "going after" Catholicism. I was "going after" the racial mysticism of the contemporary Left that holds that evil rednecks oppress allegedly indigenous Spaniards. Besides, don't you know that "Hispanics don't count" as Catholics? It's like how Blacks are never considered Fundamentalists.

32 posted on 09/04/2013 3:12:45 PM PDT by Zionist Conspirator (The Left: speaking power to truth since Shevirat HaKelim.)
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To: Zionist Conspirator
Christopher Columbus Discovering America is all Sarah Palin's Fault!

At least that is what the School books teach, because She said she could see the North Pole from her house...or something like that.

33 posted on 09/04/2013 6:32:54 PM PDT by KC_Lion (Build the America you want to live in at your address, and keep looking up.-Sarah Palin)
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