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Deadly 13th-Century Volcano Eruption: Mystery Solved?
National Geographic ^ | 9-30-2013 | Brian Handwerk

Posted on 10/01/2013 7:06:15 PM PDT by Renfield

One of history's great disaster mysteries may be solved—the case of the largest volcanic eruption in the last 3,700 years. Nearly 800 years ago, the blast that was recorded, and then forgotten, may also have created a "Pompeii of the Far East," researchers suggest, which might lie buried and waiting for discovery on an Indonesian island.

The source of an eruption that scattered ash from pole to pole has been pinpointed as Samalas volcano on Indonesia's Lombok Island. The research team, led by geographer Franck Lavigne of the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, has now dated the event to between May and October of 1257. The findings were published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"It's been a long time that some people have been looking," said Lavigne. After glaciologists turned up evidence for the blast three decades ago, volcano experts had looked for the origin of the eruption everywhere from New Zealand's Okataina volcano to Mexico's El Chichón.

The previously unattributed eruption was an estimated eight times as large as the famed Krakatau explosion (1883) and twice as large as Tambora in 1815, the researchers estimate. (Related: "Tambora: The Greatest Explosion in History.") "Until now we thought that Tambora was the largest eruption for 3,700 years," Lavigne said, but the study reveals that the 1257 event was even larger.....

(Excerpt) Read more at news.nationalgeographic.com ...


TOPICS: History; Science
KEYWORDS: catastrophism; godsgravesglyphs; indonesia; lombokisland; samalas; volcanoes

1 posted on 10/01/2013 7:06:15 PM PDT by Renfield
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To: SunkenCiv

Ping


2 posted on 10/01/2013 7:06:32 PM PDT by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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To: Renfield

I always thought that Krakatoa was the biggest one.


3 posted on 10/01/2013 7:11:19 PM PDT by Extremely Extreme Extremist (Governor Sarah Heath Palin for President of the United States in 2016)
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To: Renfield

>>The cataclysm blasted 10 cubic miles (40 cubic kilometers) of debris up to 27 miles (43 kilometers) high into the sky, producing fallout that settled around the world.<<

It is hard to even imagine something that huge. If Krakatoa=200Mt then this would have been 1600Mt or more — 500 H bombs.

Probably could be heard halfway around the world (assuming Krakatoa was heard 3,000 miles away).

And Yosemite will dwarf them all.

And all because people in the 1200s would not stop using their cars to get to work.


4 posted on 10/01/2013 7:21:39 PM PDT by freedumb2003 (Fight Tapinophobia in all its forms! Do not submit to arduus privilege.)
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To: freedumb2003

Yosemite?

Or Yellowstone?


5 posted on 10/01/2013 7:23:34 PM PDT by DuncanWaring (The Lord uses the good ones; the bad ones use the Lord.)
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To: Extremely Extreme Extremist
The eruption of Krakatau produced less volcanic ash than the 1815 Tambora eruption, which spewed something like 15 cubic miles of volcanic ash into the atmosphere. That was enough to cause pretty severe climatic changes, including essentially eliminating summer at the higher latitudes in 1816.

Today, the Indonesian volcanoes are VERY closely monitored because almost every volcano in the Indonesian Archipelago is capable of spewing out gigantic amounts of volcanic ash into the atmosphere. One volcano on Sumatra island--Toba--is a true supervolcano that could spew well over 140 cubic miles of ash in a single eruption event, which would have devastating worldwide effects on agricultural production.

6 posted on 10/01/2013 7:24:12 PM PDT by RayChuang88 (FairTax: America's economic cure)
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To: Extremely Extreme Extremist
Re: Tambora

Even Thomas Jefferson noted the change in the weather. Then there are the news stories about the year (1816) without a Summer.

7 posted on 10/01/2013 7:26:09 PM PDT by Calvin Locke
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To: DuncanWaring

>>Yosemite?

Or Yellowstone?<<

Thanks — I meant Yellowstone of course.

I was looking at some great pictures of the former recently so you can see how I messed it up.

The good news is that when the Yellowstone Caldera goes, my mistake will be erased along with the rest of humans.


8 posted on 10/01/2013 7:26:30 PM PDT by freedumb2003 (Fight Tapinophobia in all its forms! Do not submit to arduus privilege.)
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To: freedumb2003

Ha ha, thanks for getting me all nervous and then LOL!


9 posted on 10/01/2013 7:28:31 PM PDT by To Hell With Poverty (Ephesians 6:12 becomes more real to me with each news cycle.)
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To: DuncanWaring

I’m sure he meant Yellowstone, though there was a volcanic event just a few miles southeast of Yosemite 750,000 years ago that killed large animals as far away as present day Kansas and dropped hot rocks on what is now New York: the Long Valley Caldera.


10 posted on 10/01/2013 7:29:39 PM PDT by Inyo-Mono (NRA)
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To: Renfield
between May and October of 1257

Tracks with the beginning of the little ice age.

11 posted on 10/01/2013 7:33:03 PM PDT by Mike Darancette (The Presidency is broken.)
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To: Renfield

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lombok


12 posted on 10/01/2013 7:35:14 PM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (I’m not a Republican, I'm a Conservative! Pubbies haven't been conservative since before T.R.)
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To: freedumb2003

And if Yellowstone blows next year, it won’t be early, and if it doesn’t blow for another 10,000 years, it won’t be late.


13 posted on 10/01/2013 7:35:30 PM PDT by DuncanWaring (The Lord uses the good ones; the bad ones use the Lord.)
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To: Renfield

14 posted on 10/01/2013 7:38:28 PM PDT by Jack Hydrazine (I’m not a Republican, I'm a Conservative! Pubbies haven't been conservative since before T.R.)
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To: DuncanWaring

>>And if Yellowstone blows next year, it won’t be early, and if it doesn’t blow for another 10,000 years, it won’t be late.
<<

Just like my ex-wife.


15 posted on 10/01/2013 7:40:17 PM PDT by freedumb2003 (Fight Tapinophobia in all its forms! Do not submit to arduus privilege.)
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To: DuncanWaring

Equivocator . . .


16 posted on 10/01/2013 7:48:49 PM PDT by Vendome (Don't take life so seriously-you won't live through it anyway-Enjoy Yourself ala Louis Prima)
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To: freedumb2003

If Krakatoa=200Mt then this would have been 1600Mt or more — 500 H bombs.

So, was there the equivalent of a “nuclear winter”, or did the explosion create glo-bull warming?


17 posted on 10/01/2013 7:52:51 PM PDT by Ruy Dias de Bivar (Sometimes you need 7+ more ammo. LOTS MORE.)
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To: Ruy Dias de Bivar

It could have started the Little Ice Age which lasted quite a while. Solar activity during LIA was low, so maybe the combination?


18 posted on 10/01/2013 8:12:40 PM PDT by DBrow
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To: DuncanWaring

Don't stop him, he's on a roll.

19 posted on 10/01/2013 8:21:11 PM PDT by USNBandit (sarcasm engaged at all times)
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To: freedumb2003

And it was George W. Bush’s fault!


20 posted on 10/01/2013 8:58:16 PM PDT by GreyFriar (Spearhead - 3rd Armored Division 75-78 & 83-87)
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To: Calvin Locke

Mary Shelley came up with Frankenstein during the 1816 summer. She, her lover, and Lord Byron were hanging together in Switzerland bummed about the horrible weather. So to kill time they started to tell ghost stories and Mary’s would become Frankenstein.


21 posted on 10/02/2013 7:04:13 AM PDT by C19fan
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To: C19fan

I get the impression that there is a general consensus among literary scholars today, that Frankenstein was actually written by Percy Shelley, and simply published under his wife’s name.


22 posted on 10/02/2013 7:20:15 AM PDT by Renfield (Turning apples into venison since 1999!)
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To: 75thOVI; agrace; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aragorn; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; ...

Thanks Renfield.
Nearly 800 years ago, the blast that was recorded, and then forgotten, may also have created a "Pompeii of the Far East," ... pinpointed as Samalas volcano on Indonesia's Lombok Island. The research team... has now dated the event to between May and October of 1257.
A two list ping!


23 posted on 10/02/2013 7:40:12 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; decimon; 1010RD; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; ...

Thanks Renfield.

24 posted on 10/02/2013 7:40:30 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: Inyo-Mono
the Long Valley Caldera.

Yep. And it's showing signs of waking up. It's one of the deadliest volcanic threats in the U.S.

25 posted on 10/02/2013 8:45:25 PM PDT by Bernard Marx
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To: Renfield

If your name was Percy, would you want it widely known?


26 posted on 10/02/2013 9:06:02 PM PDT by eartrumpet
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Source of Mysterious Medieval Eruption Identified
http://news.sciencemag.org/earth/2013/10/source-mysterious-medieval-eruption-identified


27 posted on 10/03/2013 3:51:16 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: Extremely Extreme Extremist

Krakatoa must have been something...

people 20 miles away from the island were knocked over and went deaf from the blast


28 posted on 10/03/2013 4:55:17 AM PDT by Mr. K (Lies, Damned Lies, Statistics, and then Democrat Talking Points.)
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To: Calvin Locke
" Even Thomas Jefferson noted the change in the weather. Then there are the news stories about the year (1816) without a Summer. "

Eighteen Hundred And Froze To Death (The Infamous 'Year Without Summer')

29 posted on 10/03/2013 6:40:57 AM PDT by blam
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To: freedumb2003
The cataclysm blasted 10 cubic miles (40 cubic kilometers) of debris up to 27 miles (43 kilometers) high into the sky, producing fallout that settled around the world.

The Thera explosion, around mid-2nd millenium BC, had a dense-rock-equivalent index of 14 cu miles, and ended Minoan civilization.

30 posted on 10/03/2013 6:59:51 AM PDT by PapaBear3625 (You don't notice it's a police state until the police come for you.)
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Scientists Reveal Source of Medieval Europe’s “Year Without Summer”
http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/09012013/article/scientists-reveal-source-of-medieval-year-without-summer


31 posted on 10/05/2013 8:32:28 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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The Calliste keyword, newest to oldest: The Thera keyword, sorted:
32 posted on 10/05/2013 9:01:45 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's no coincidence that some "conservatives" echo the hard left.)
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To: RayChuang88; Renfield; Mike Darancette; SunkenCiv; All

Toba was about 74,000 years ago and left a caldera 18 by 65 miles wide. By comparison, Pinatubo left one 3 miles wide. The most recent Yellowstone caldera is at least 20 by 30 miles. The most recent Yellowstone event was around 640,000 years ago. I wonder if that and the Long Valley Caldera were the precipitaters of two of our ice ages. I know that there was a significant drop in temperatures after Toba, which had already begun about 125,000 years ago. Wonder what caused that. Also thought about this latest volcanic find being the start of the little ice age.


33 posted on 10/06/2013 12:58:14 AM PDT by gleeaikin
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To: gleeaikin

One thing we know was that after every major eruption on Earth in the last 45 years, California during the winter experiences way higher than normal rains. This was the case after Pinatubo erupted in 1991, and after two major volcanic eruptions in Iceland in 2010 and 2011. In Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula and in the home islands of Japan, there are a large number of very active volcanoes that could erupt in a major way and could change the climate of Earth for one year after the volcano erupts.


34 posted on 10/06/2013 5:03:56 AM PDT by RayChuang88 (FairTax: America's economic cure)
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