Skip to comments.The COMMUNIST THREAT to the Federation of Malaya [communist tactics examined]
Posted on 10/18/2013 2:45:47 PM PDT by matt1234
The COMMUNIST THREAT to the Federation of Malaya
The freeing of large areas of the Federation of Malaya from the menace of Communist Terrorism, and the impending destruction of the remaining Terrorist Forces, unfortunately has not completely foiled the Communist plot to obtain power and to create a Communist State in the Federation. As part of this deliberate Communist plan, Terrorism is giving way to the far more subtle activities of subversion, in which deception is inherent. For this reason the activities of the Communists are not always perceived by the public, and the real purpose for them is not so readily understood.
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNIST MOVEMENT
4. The avowed aim of Communists all over the world is to destroy the existing political and economic systems in non-Communist countries and to replace them by a World Union of Communist Republics. This plan was conceived by the Russian Communist leader, Lenin, nearly forty years ago, and is propagated to-day under the guise of Marxist-Leninist theory-the gospel of Communists.
7. While the Communist long-term aim never changes, the tactics and methods both advocated and employed are diverse, flexible and often extremely subtle. In the Federation of Malaya the Malayan Communist Party, as the local agency of the World Communist Movement, represents the chief means available to the Communists to promote Communism here. It is not the only means, for there are external forces at work as well. Since the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union held in 1956 the four following inter-related methods have been used to spread Communist influence in non-Communist countries as well as in the Federation of Malaya:
(a) The Building Up of the Party Apparatus.
10. In addition, and regardless of their legal position (the Malayan Communist Party is unlawful), Communist Parties in non-Communist countries require their members and supporters to carry out not only legal but also illegal tasks (such as the penetration of key Government departments, sabotage and espionage), on behalf of the Party. As Lenin put it- Communists must be able to agree to sacrifice and even-if need be-to resort to all sorts of stratagems, manoeuvres, illegal methods, evasions and subterfuges in order to achieve their ends.
(b) United Front Tactics.
11. Communist Parties regard themselves as the spearhead of the so-called revolutionary forces in their own countries. As such they do not attempt to convert the whole population to Communism but, instead, seek to make temporary alliances or united fronts with non-Communist elements and to collaborate on certain issues in the hope of persuading such elements to accept the political guidance of the Communist Party and to support international Communist propaganda lines. On the purpose of United Front Lenin had this to say:
It is possible to conquer the more powerful enemy only by exerting the utmost effort, and by necessarily, thoroughly, carefully, attentively and skilfully taking advantage of every antagonism of interest . . . . . . Those who do not understand this fail to understand even a grain of Marxism and of scientific modern socialism in general.More recently a Communist writer, in 1955, stated:
The Communists always support any democratic movement and all who fight for peace and progress. When they enter into contact with other parties and collaborate with them on a common . . . . . . platform, the Communists never let their final aim out of sight-the building of a Communist society. They do not lose sight of it even when co-operating with other currents in the workers movement which are not Marxist-Leninist.12. The main targets of united front tactics in the past have been leftwing but non-Communist mass organisations. These are still important targets as will be seen in a later part of this paper. In recent years, however, and in recognition of the fact that in those countries which have recently achieved their independence government is largely in the hands of the national bourgeoisie or middle class, Communist Parties have been advised to woo and to collaborate where possible with the national bourgeoisie in all policies which have the effect of eradicating ties with non-Communist countries. The wooing of the middle classes is purely a temporary subterfuge designed to help the Communists to gain power. As soon as their usefulness is at an end they are rapidly discarded. The process can easily be seen in China where, when the Communists first came into power, the majority of medium and small businessmen were allowed to continue functioning but have since been gradually eliminated by increasing pressure, and their concerns taken over by the State.
(c) International Communist Front Organisations.
15. The international Communist movement has always regarded international mass organisations (i.e., those catering for trade unionists, youth, women, professional classes, etc.) as important targets for Communist penetration and control. Since the Second World War the Communists have successfully brought a number of organisations such as the World Federation of Trade Unions (W.F.T.U.), the World Federation of Democratic Youth and the International Union of Students under their effective control. Other organisations, including the World Peace Council and the Womens International Democratic Federationalthough appearing to be non-political-have been under Communist control from the date of their foundation. The true object of these international communist front organisations was revealed by Giuseppe di Vittorio, an Italian Communist trade union leader, who when speaking as President of the W.F.T.U., said :
The W.F.T.U. aims at winning over people of all political parties; but if it is to enlist the support of artisans, the middle classes, peasants and intellectuals it must not be officially labelled as Communist or Soviet run.--SNIP--
(d) Communist Economic Subversion.
[commentary on foreign aid received; not applicable to the USA]
THE INFLUENCE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA
22. The Chinese Communist Party directs a very considerable propaganda effort at the peoples of South- East Asia in order to win admiration and support for the new order in China and for the policies of the Party. This effort is intended to woo the countries of South-East Asia from their associations with non- Communist powers and so undermine the strength of these powers, and to create a climate favourable to the acceptance of Communist ideas and policies preparatory to and in furtherance of the ultimate objective of establishing Communist States in the area. A factor of the greatest importance to the Chinese Communist Party in the promotion of these aims is the presence in many countries of considerable numbers of people of Chinese origin with ties of blood, sentiment and culture as well as trade with the Chinese Mainland. The Chinese Communist Party therefore, while seeking to extend its influence over all the peoples of South- East Asia, gives special attention to the overseas Chinese, as the Chinese outside China are collectively described. No effort is spared, through publications, films, the Press and radio, through personal contacts and sponsored visits to the Chinese Mainland, and through contacts made in commercial intercourse, to induce overseas Chinese by appeals to racial or patriotic sentiment, to accept the new order in China and to co-operate in promoting its programme. By these means also an advance can be made in the Communist indoctrination of overseas Chinese and in preparing the way for the development of the Communist movement. The significance to the countries of South-East Asia, and in particular to the Federation of Malaya, of the more important means adopted for extending the influence of the Chinese Communist Party, and thereby of Communism generally, is discussed in the following paragraphs :
23. The Party has said that all propaganda tools are weapons for class struggle. [Editorial in the Peking Chung Kuo Ching Nien Pao (China Youth) of the 4th September, 19581. Lenin laid down that the control of the printed word was essential for the effective control of a nation. This dictum has been closely followed by the Communist Party of China as revealed by the following extract from an article by the Vice- Minister of Culture, which appeared in the Peking Ren Min Ryh Pao (Peoples Daily) in October, 1957.
As everybody knows, books are powerful weapons of propaganda and education, and publishing houses are important cultural educational organs. In a Peoples Democraqy, the publishing business must be subject to Party and State leadership and control.The same policy has been applied to all other media of propaganda, e.g., cinematographic films, press and the radio.
(b) The Press.
27. The role of the Press in the promotion of Communism is explained in another report in the New China News Agency of September 21st, 1957.
Director Lu Ting-yi of the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China made an important speech. Lu Ting-yi pointed out that journalism was an instrument of class struggle. The New China News Agency was one of the class struggle weapons as were Government, Armed Forces, Courts, newspapers and schools. It was a weapon which the working class and the people of our country swung for the overthrow of capitalism and the building of socialism. The scores of thousands of words which the agency put out per day were intended to educate and unite the people, to lay the enemy bare and to beat him down. Lu Ting-yi declared that journalism must toe the line of politics. It was a department of knowledge high in political significance and divorcing it from politics was the capitalist way which must not be followed. Late or early release of a news item or its total suppression should all be considered in the light of political significance. Some news items had to be published fast and others to be held back. Thus it was necessary for correspondents to have a good knowledge of politics and political considerations must be paramount because journalistic skill would be void of significance if it were not for service in politics.--SNIP--
29. Radio broadcasting in Communist countries is another branch of the propaganda machine, and is subject to close direction by the Party in the same way and with the same objectives as other propaganda media. The entertainment programmes put out by the External Broadcasting Service of Radio Peking are designed to attract the attention of listeners, particularly overseas Chinese, to induce a respect for Communism by glorifying the achievements of China under the present regime and thus to make listeners more susceptible to Communist influence in the country of their domicile.
30. There is no attempt at objective presentation of news: everything that is broadcast is adapted to, or selected for, political expediency, in accordance with the theory quoted above that late or early release of a news item or its total suppression should all be considered in the light of its political significance. Some news items (have) to be published fast and others to be held back.
COMMUNIST AIMS AND METHODS IN THE FEDERATION OF MALAYA
GENERAL AIMS OF THE MALAYAN COMMUNIST PARTY
[commentary on failed armed revolution by communists; followed by switch to peaceful, subversive tactics by communists while retaining capability for
renewed armed struggle]
44. If the Party had been accorded legal status it would not have followed that it would have given up illegal and subversive methods. The essence of Communist strategy is deception and preparedness to resort to violence when necessary, and such a strategy demands the adoption of secret and illegal methods even when the Party has legal status. Yeong Kuo may be quoted again in this connection:
We are no believers in legality and are certainly not content with an open and legal struggle. Our aim is to cover up and support an illegal struggle by means of open and legal activities.Recognition of the Party would help the Party in the subversive campaign, but is not essential to that campaign.
Open and legal activities are used to create the conditions in preparation for a struggle to overthrow the enemy with illegal revolutionary methods.
THE PRESENT TACTICS OF THE MALAYAN COMMUNIST PARTY
45. Apart from the Terrorists tactics described in paragraph 43, the current programme of the Party is to offer openly to the public a political platform which in its general terms and aspirations has a popular appeal. At the same time Party executives are directed to infiltrate secretly into non-Communist organisations in order to promote agitation and to lead those organisations into a United Peoples Democratic Front which will be sympathetically disposed towards the political platform of the Malayan Communist Partya platform deliberately couched in deceptively unobjectionable terms. The Party is careful to conceal its ultimate aim, the neutralisation of those parties that may be its partners in the Front and the establishment of a Peoples Democracy, in which all authority is in the hands of the Communist Party.
46. The technique to be adopted in the promotion of a sympathetic United Front, in which the Communists hope eventually to play the leading role, is explained in detail by Yeong Kuo. He wrote :
If we do not make use of open and legal activities, we would have to restrict our movement within the narrow scope of secret activities. This would cause us to be separated from the masses and plunge us into a position of isolation and dangerand,
The purpose of making use of open and legal activities is to maintain the social position and professional standing of the comrades. Whenever there are parties or organisations which can be utilised, irrespective of whether they are neutral, backward or reactionary, or whether they are political or non-political, ways should be found to infiltrate into them. Make use of the programmes, postulates, policies, regulations, etc., of these parties and organisations which are favourable to the improvement of the masses living conditions to lead the masses into launching open struggles. Where there are no parties or organisations to exploit, ways should be devised to set up legal organisations which are appropriate to the masses degree of wakefulness and acceptance, in order to maintain contact with the masses and to serve their own interests. Where there are no parties and organisations to utilize, and where there are no favourable conditions to create new organisations, it is still possible to utilise places which the masses use for social gatherings (such as factories and schools in urban areas, and fishing villages, farms and small townships in rural areas) to maintain open contact with the masses and to serve their own interests. No matter what places we are in, we should always make more friends by posing as members of the masses working hard in the service of the interests of the masses. In this way we gradually establish and elevate our position in the open and step by step extend our contact with the masses and enlarge the scope of our service to the masses.Yeong Gos policy statement very clearly outlines the direction that the Partys secret and subversive campaign is now taking outside the jungle. The danger of this campaign lies in its subtlety and the wide field over which it is spread.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MALAYAN COMMUNIST PARTY AIMS
47. Although the field for subversive activity is virtually unlimited, there are certain specific targets which the Communists consider to be the most important to penetrate, influence or deceive. These are political organisations, youth and labour. In the following paragraphs an account is given of the methods being followed in these fields.
(a) Political Parties.
48. The Malayan Communist Party looks upon the approaching General Elections as an opportunity to contrive the defeat of the present Party in powerthe party which refused to accord the Malayan Communist Party the recognition it sought-and the substitution of a United Peoples Democratic Front. The Security Forces recovered a secret Directive to the Party executives dated June, 1958, laying down the policy to be followed in the Elections period. The Directive reads :
(a) To bring about the downfall of the Alliance in the General Elections for the victory of the political parties of the Socialist Front such as Party Raayat, the Labour Party, the Peoples Progressive Party and the Socialist Youth League.--SNIP--
(b) The overall method is to make good use of the Election campaign period to call upon the masses executives and active elements of the public to carry out largescale propaganda openly and constitutionally by using their legal status. Through the influence of the organised masses we approach their relatives and appeal to them to vote in favour of those candidates who are regarded by us as progressive elements. We may also use the students defiance of the education policy and urge their guardians not to vote for the Alliance. When possible we may assemble all the masses executives to take part in the propaganda campaign organised by the progressive parties candidates and appeal to the public to cast a blank vote or abandon their voting right when in their constituency only Alliance candidates and none from other political parties are contesting the elections.
(c) We appeal to the public to boycott all open elections rallies organised by the Alliance candidates or instigate the children and students to create disturbances and boo them at the scene. Any sort of disturbance will serve the purpose. We may even tip the public to use the transport facilities provided by the Alliance to go and cast their votes in favour of the candidates of the other political parties. During the election campaign our verbal propaganda is to disclose that the Alliance has been bluffing the people by making all kinds of pledges and the havoc that it has made since it came into power. The continuation of the Emergency is of particular importance. The public should be given to know that their democratic rights have been robbed clean by the Alliance and that the peace talks were abandoned.
50. An obvious target in the Federation, as everywhere else, is Youth. The younger generation is particularly susceptible to emotional appeals couched in idealistic terms. Communism offers a promise of unlimited future power and an absorbing political interest with a thrill of secrecy surrounding it. The Malayan Communist Party has a particular need to recruit educated youths. The Party has always suffered from a lack of educated, intelligent executives. Moreover, recruits from middle class families may provide the Party with a means for penetrating this influential class. In Malayan conditions, Chinese youth represents a subdivision of this target which is peculiarly susceptible to United Front work. In addition to the deceptive attractions of Communism itself, young Chinese may be conditioned to an acceptance of Communism through the mass of propaganda directed at them extolling the achievements of the Communist Party in China, the country of their ancestors.
57. Considerable importance is attached to the circulation of literature among school-children. Yeong Kuo wrote of this :
After having united the fellow students around them the active elements should, as a further step, assist them to progress. The ,method to be adopted should be first of all recommending literature books to them to read and then books on theories of revolution. After this, attempts should be made to link up the theories on revolution with practical work. The indoctrination of revolutionary theories should not be carried out by stuffing them in but by planning from shallow to deep.
The literature seized in Selangor alone during Police raids in October, 1958, contained 169 proscribed Communist or pro-Communist documents and ten bundles of other miscellaneous Communist propaganda. Eighty per cent of this literature was written by Chinese and Russian authors and their general trend was :
(a) To uncover the darkness of the capitalist society.
(b) To show, in the form of a novel, the theory of such subjects as liberation and independence and the necessity of achieving these by revolutionary means.
(c) To incite class friction and to promote and eulogise advanced Socialist ideals. This is done by reference to the achievements of Communists in Russia and China.
60. The capture of labour organisations is also a target of prime importance for any Communist Party, whether it be legal or proscribed. In the days of its legality, the Malayan Communist Party did, in fact, achieve considerable control over the labour movement, and since 1955 at least has been attempting to recover some of the ground lost since the dissolution of the Pan-Malayan Federation of Trade Unions and the concentration of effort on the armed struggle.
61. Amongst Yeong Kuos documents were Malayan Communist Party directives on the penetration of Labour, together with a lengthy China Communist Party policy document that he used as a basis for his instructions. This document advocated penetration of existing yellow labour unions (i.e. non-Communist unions) rather than the creation of exclusively Communist unions. Our comrades and revolutionary workers should enrol in such yellow labour unions and participate in the work and activities of such unions and also exploit these unions to organise the working masses. Labour Sections are to be set up at various levels within the (Communist) Party so as to direct the activities of the Labour movement. We should strive our utmost to win seats at every election of these unions and to gain control of their directing organs (high and low levels). If our activities within these yellow labour unions are completely successful (the masses and directing organs being under our direction) we ought not to transform these yellow labour unions into red labour unions immediately. The outward appearance that they are yellow labour unions should be preserved.
70. The Malayan Communist Party has realised for some time that it committed an error of judgment in launching its armed struggle in 1948. It is trying now to regain lost ground by reverting to the longer term methods of bringing about a United Front through which, by secret infiltration, it can prepare the way for another bid for power.
71. The directives and policy statements of the Party indicate the directions in which it seeks to extend its influence. They also make clear beyond doubt that subversion is a fundamental requirement for the promotion of Communist aims. Communists, to quote Yeong Kuo, are no believers in legality and are not content with an open and legal struggle . . . . .; their task is to cover up and support an illegal struggle by means of open and lawful activities. They must strive unceasingly for the overthrow of any system of Government which does not permit the leadership and absolute authority of the Party, and they must owe no loyalty to any other authority than the Party.
72. The threat of Communism lies in the refusal of its adherents to accept any system of government which does not recognise the leadership of the Communist Party, and this threat is aggravated by the adoption of deception and illegal means to win power. The need to defeat it is of the greatest importance, for once in power a Communist Government adopts totalitarian methods to ensure that it can never be supplanted.
24th February, 1959
GOVERNMENT PRESS, KUALA LUMPUR
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