IMO a great deal of renaissance art was based upon Roman examples. Just look art the art from Pompeii. They must have seen them in places like this.
The Romans "eyeballed" it, as did a lot of medieval illuminators in the west as Safavid Persia.
Filippo Brunelleschi was the first artist (known) to use mathematical linear perspective using established vanishing points.
As Joe 6-pack said, Brunelleschi — but his demo of the technique was of a six or eight-sided building that antedated him. :’) The Romans used trompe-l’oeil techniques in their mosaics (like these) and esp. in their frescoes, as seen in some of the surviving grand houses in the cities buried by Vesuvius.
And in statuary, there’s the Laocoon group, which inspired Michelangelo, even to the point that in recent years, it has been attributed to the big M working anonymously. That’s a ridiculous idea, btw. :’)
Trojan Treasure - 500th Anniversary Looms Over Laocoon
This is an example of what was known as “Byzantine” or “reverse” perspective. It mimics real perspective on a superficial level but is based on what the eye thinks it sees and not on the rules of perspective rendering that require either one or two vanishing points, a horizon line and depth of field emanating from the vanishing point(s).
True perspective drawing didn’t emerge until Brunelesci, Da Vinci and others began to apply the revolutionary method of scientific analysis using various tools such as the camera obscura or even running strings from points on an object, to a point in a wooden framework where the observer’s eyes would be.
It is a shame that among the lost folios of Da Vinci, was his treatise on optics. What emerged from the Renaissance study of perspective was the ability to create blueprint type drawings which were a foundation to the emerging machine tool industries of the day, and subsequently, the Industrial Revolution, which really should be called the Industrial Renaissance.