Skip to comments.Using ENCODE Data for Human-Chimp DNA Comparisons
Posted on 01/01/2014 4:00:01 PM PST by lasereye
In 2012, a variety of research papers associated with the ENCODE project (Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements) described how the human genome was pervasively copiedtranscribedinto an amazing array of functional RNA molecules that regulate how genes and the genome function.1
Much of the pervasive transcription is based on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that have the same control features as protein-coding genes but with other functions.2 A large group of lncRNAs stay in the cells nucleus, where some directly regulate how genes are expressed while others help modify chromosome structure. Some lncRNAs are exported into the cells cytoplasm to regulate the production of proteins, and others interact with various proteins to participate in other functions. Still other lncRNAs are exported completely out of the cell and communicate with other cells.
By definition, an lncRNA region of the genome encodes a non-protein-coding RNA transcript longer than 200 bases, yet some actually produce small proteins as well. These lncRNA areas can be found all over the genome, including inside intronsthe non-coding segments within protein-coding genes.
Several major subclasses of lncRNAs are the long and very long intergenic non-coding RNAs that exist outside protein-coding genes, known as lincRNAs and vlincRNAs respectively.1,3 These are decidedly more restricted in their expression, depending on the animal classification in which they are found, compared to protein-coding genes.4 Thus, they make ideal candidates for research in studying genetic discontinuity, particularly between humans and chimpanzees.
A common claim among evolutionists is that human and chimp DNA is between 96 and 98 percent similarbut only carefully selected data were used to arrive at this conclusion. However, evolutionists themselves have reported that only about two-thirds of chimpanzee DNA sequence can be unambiguously aligned, meaning precisely matched, to human DNA.5 This is because the algorithm used in the analysis stops matching the DNA sequence when the human and chimp segments become too dissimilar, which occurs after only a few hundred bases, on average.6
In 2013, I published a research paper in which chimpanzee chromosomes were sequentially sliced into different sets of small pieces so that the algorithm could optimally compare them to human chromosomes. In so doing, I found that the chimpanzee genome was only about 70 percent similar to the human genome overall.7
More research is needed to show specifically how the new wealth of publicly available ENCODE data can be used beyond basic studies of human-chimp DNA similarityincorporating lincRNAs and vlincRNAs to further highlight human uniqueness. Research using three large datasets produced by the ENCODE project is now underway at ICR for the purpose of addressing these questions. In a concurrent study, I am also comparing human protein-coding regions to those in chimpanzees. In combination, these new analyses will provide a much more detailed picture of what makes humans unique and will further demonstrate we are not evolved apes.
* Dr. Tomkins is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph.D. in genetics from Clemson University.
>> In combination, these new analyses will provide a much more detailed picture of what makes humans unique and will further demonstrate we are not evolved apes.<<
He left out “I hope.”
You can never say WILL when looking at a line of investigation.
Once again, self-referential Institute for Creative wRiting replaces science with sophistry.
The alternative theory is?
They’re making another Obama????????????????
The very, very shaky evolution hypothesis is buried deeper by the day. Why so many people cling to the rantings of a drug-addicted, mentally ill lunatic named Darwin is beyond me. There is no scientific evidence that contradicts what the Bible says.
I assume the research has already progressed to a point where he feels confident making that claim. You're a little over anxious to accuse anti-evos of some kind of of non-scientific attitude.
But actually it's not really possible to demonstrate we are not evolved from some other species. That's because someone would have to define some cutoff point in chimp-human DNA convergence below which it would be impossible we are "related", and no one has done so. It's another of those non-falsifiable claims of evolution theory. So he is technically wrong for saying it that way.
In strictly scientific terms there doesn't have to be an alternative theory. In standard science you have a theory and the "null hypothesis", meaning the theory is false. If the null hypothesis is indicated by the evidence then nothing more needs to be shown. Evolution theory and CO2 climate change theory both effectively operate without any "null hypothesis", i.e. they are treated as non-falsifiable.
Sweet. Conflate global warming and evolution. Pure propaganda. Doesn’t affect me but I solute your strategy.
“The very, very shaky evolution hypothesis is buried deeper by the day. Why so many people cling to the rantings of a drug-addicted, mentally ill lunatic named Darwin is beyond me. There is no scientific evidence that contradicts what the Bible says.”
Please, I truly hope you just forgot the sarcasm tag.
There's your missing sarcasm tag.
I was not being sarcastic. I was showing pity for you.
This is a pro-God site. I feel no shame in representing the Christian point of view. Evolution is 100% fiction and Darwin was a troubled person.
“This is a pro-God site. I feel no shame in representing the Christian point of view. Evolution is 100% fiction and Darwin was a troubled person.”
So only your version of Christianity is acceptable? Wow. That’s a lot like the way muslims try to run their religion.
Pity yourself instead. If Darwinism forms the basis of your worldview, you share the philosophical company of totalitarians.