Camels are mentioned as pack animals in the biblical stories of Abraham, Joseph and Jacob, Old Testament stories that historians peg to between 2000 and 1500 BC. But Erez Ben-Yosef and Lidar Sapir-Hen of Tel Aviv University's Department of Archaeology and Near Eastern Cultures say camels werent domesticated in Israel until centuries later, more like 900 BC.I can't imagine how this could be proved with radiocarbon dating.
Josephus, the first-century A.D. Jewish historian, records the words of Manetho who wrote several books on the history of Egypt:
There was a king of ours, whose name was Timaus. Under him it came to pass, I know not how, that God was AVERSE to us, and there came, after a surprising manner, men of ignoble birth OUT OF THE EASTERN PARTS, and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country, and WITH EASE subdued it by force, yet WITHOUT HAZARDING A BATTLE WITH THEM. So when they had gotten those that governed us under their power, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and used all the inhabitants after a most barbarous manner: nay, some they slew, and led their children and their wives into slavery. At length they made one of themselves king, whose name was SALATlS....and as he found in the Saite Nomos [Seth-roite] a city very proper for his purpose, and which lay upon the Bubastic channel [of the Nile], but with regard to a certain theologic notion was called AVARIS [RAMESSES], this he REBUILT, and made very strong by the walls he built about it, and by a most numerous garrison of two hundred and forty thousand armed men whom he put into it to keep it....THIS WHOLE NATION WAS STYLED HYCSOS, that is, SHEPHERD-KINGS....BUT SOME SAY THAT THESE PEOPLE [THE HYKSOS] WERE ARABIANS....” These people, whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants,” as he [Manetho] says, “kept possession of Egypt 511 YEARS.” — Josephus, Against Apion, bk. 1, sec. 14. f.
An ancient tradition, which has been preserved by several Arabian historians of the Middle Ages, further proves the ARAB origin of Manetho’s hated Hyksos kings. This tradition “tells us of a certain Sheddad (the name means ‘a mighty man’), the son of Ad, who made an IRRUPTION INTO EGYPT, conquered the country, and extended his victorious campaign AS FAR AS THE STRAIGHTS OF GILBRALTA. He and his descendants, the FOUNDERS OF THE AMALEKITE DYNASTY, are said to have maintained themselves more than two hundred years in Lower Egypt, where they made the town of AVARIS their royal residence.” (A History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs, by Henry Brugsch Bey. Vol. I. John Murray, London. 1881, p. 266.)
THEY WERE ARABS, WHO CONQUERED A WEAKENED EGYPT AT THE TIME OF THE EXODUS AND THEY BROUGHT THEIR CAMELS WITH THEM.
Absence of evidence isn’t evidence of absence.
Manure piles. Find a few old ones and they can tell a very interesting tale as far as what was being fed and how well, also much easier to date this close to modern times usually.