Skip to comments.Nuclear fusion hits energy milestone
Posted on 02/12/2014 3:43:14 PM PST by Kevmo
Nuclear fusion hits energy milestone Total energy input still far higher than output
For the first time, fuel for a nuclear fusion reaction has generated more energy than put into it a scientific milestone.
Scientists and futurists have long dreamed of harnessing the energy of nuclear fusion, which powers the sun, here on Earth. An enormous amount of energy is released when multiple atoms collide and fuse to form a new, heavier atom such as hydrogen fusing into helium. Hydrogen fuel is plentiful in sources such as seawater and the fusion process generates no radioactive waste, greenhouse gases or other dangerous byproducts.
However, for decades, scientists have been unsuccessful in generating the conditions for making fusion happen on Earth in a controlled manner that would allow it to be used in power plants. Fusion Energy
Deuterium and tritium were coated inside the capsule at the centre of this photo, inside a cylindrical container. Laser beams briefly fired into the cylinder compressed the capsule to create high pressures and temperatures needed to get hydrogen atoms to fuse. (Eddie Dewald, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Associated Press)
Now, researchers at the National Ignition Facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the U.S. announce that they managed to use lasers to compress fuel made from two heavier forms of hydrogen enough to kick off a nuclear fusion reaction. And for the first time, the reaction managed to generate more energy than was absorbed by the fuel from the lasers.
"That's a major turning point in our minds," said Omar Hurricane, lead author of a paper describing the results, published in Nature today.
However, he was quick to point out that because the fuel absorbed only a small amount of the energy from the lasers, there is still far more energy put into the entire process than comes out.
That is partly because the fuel did not reach ignition the point at which the reaction becomes self-sustaining and energy production increases dramatically.
Nevertheless, "this is closer than anyone's gotten before," Hurricane said at a press briefing organized by Nature. 'Significant progress'
Canadian nuclear fusion researchers, who were not involved in the research, said the achievement was a significant step.
"I think this is the first indication that the light is at the end of the tunnel," said Robert Fedosejevs, a nuclear physicist at the University of Alberta who does some of his experiments at Lawrence Livermore.
Blair Bromley, chair of the nuclear fusion division of the Canadian Nuclear Society, called the new results "good news" and "significant progress."
However Bromley, who works at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., noted that the energy yield would have to be increased dramatically to make this approach to nuclear fusion feasible, and even then a lot of engineering work would have to be done to build a practical prototype of a fusion reactor.
Making a nuclear fusion reaction happen isn't easy because the atoms in the fuel, consisting of heavier kinds of hydrogen called deuterium and tritium, are typically repelled by each other, Hurricane said. To overcome that, researchers applied very high temperatures and pressures to force the fuel particles to run towards each other.
In the past, he said, instead of achieving high pressures, the capsule tended to tear itself apart.
The researchers managed to stop that from happening by making subtle changes to the laser pulse. 3 times the density at the centre of the sun
In the recent experiments, a thin layer containing about a millionth of a gram of fuel was coated on the inside of a tiny capsule just two millimetres in diameter. That was dramatically heated and compressed using 192 lasers to almost three times the density at the centre of the sun. Computer control system
All experiments at the National Ignition Facility are controlled and orchestrated by an integrated computer control system. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
The final reaction took place in a tiny "hot spot" about half the width of a human hair over about a ten thousandth of a millionth of a second. It released 17.3 kilojoules almost double the amount absorbed by the fuel.
Bromley said 17.3 kilojoules would power 173 100-watt light bulbs for one second. But it's still far less than the energy put into the laser pulse, which mostly gets reflected or absorbed by the container surrounding the capsule.
Hurricane estimated the pressure needs to be doubled in order for the fuel to achieve ignition. And the energy output would need to increase 100 fold in order to be equivalent to the energy put into the whole system - not just the fuel - by the laser.
He thinks the energy yield in future experiments could be boosted by a process that's already starting to happen called "bootstrapping." That is where the particles produced by the fusion reaction leave behind energy that heats up and speeds up the reaction of the remaining fuel. Not far from ignition
Fedosejevs said that while it looks like the researchers have a long way to go, they're actually quite close to the threshold of ignition, where the process will take off on its own.
"It's like lighting a fuel with a match. If you get the fuel to ignite you get a lot of energy released," he said. "If you don't get the fuel to ignite, you don't get very much of it at all. They're just in that transition regime where you're getting the fuel just to fizzle."
He noted that the researchers have been making very fast progress, boosting their energy yields dramatically since last August, when the Lawrence Livermore researchers first announced record energy yields "significantly greater than the energy deposited in the hot spot."
He doesn't think the new results will directly affect his research, which is looking at breaking up the single laser pulse into smaller, more energy efficient steps in the ignition process.
But he hopes that the closer researcher gets to ignition, the more interest there will be in nuclear fusion.
"The reason that it's not pursued I think, as aggressively as it should, is that people just don't believe it can be done," he said.
He thinks continuing results like this one and an upcoming demonstration from a competing nuclear fusion ignition technology, set to be built in France in 10 years, could change that.
"Both, I think, are within reasonable probability of success."
Total energy input still far higher than output
***Seems like a typo to me.
Fusion power would avoid the need for long-term storage of radioactive waste. And unlike fossil fuels like coal, it would not produce greenhouse gases that cause global warming.
It DOES PRODUCE ENERGY, which is what the envirowhackos and the Population Control crowd REALLY HATE.
The pollution and warming memes are just scare tactics, to hide their true agenda.
The final reaction took place in a tiny “hot spot” about half the width of a human hair over about a ten thousandth of a millionth of a second
***And yet, the science bandwagon joiners will claim that this measurement, at less than a billionth of a second, is reliable. But over at MIT, Hagelstein’s measurement of 80 TIMES MORE ENergy OUT than INPUT, over SEVERAL DAYS, is somehow flawed.
“It DOES PRODUCE ENERGY, which is what the envirowhackos and the Population Control crowd REALLY HATE.”
You nailed it.
And hot fusion actually exists in trillions of stars across the universe.
So, for all the hundreds of $billions we have spent on controlled hot fusion (CHF), the take-home is that we can go outside and look at the sun? We could look at the sun well before those $billions were spent. We got basically nothing.
Today, after 60 years of research, we “might” have overunity for a billionth of a second in CHF. We’re far away from Ignition. But in Cold Fusion, we’ve had overunity for 23 years, and ignition for the same amount of time.
Break even? Hosrefeathers. What was the energy cost of isolating tritium and deuterium?
I agree. You’re right. We got even less than break even for all those $billions spent. CHF is a gigantic scam.
Fusion has been 20 years in the future for the last 60 years.
That’s actually a REALLY good point.
Cold fusion is a lie that can’t even be demonstrated anywhere in the universe.
Stars exist, unicorns don’t.
Cold Fusion was demonstrated 2 weeks ago at MIT by Dr. Hagelstein.
Using stars as an example of CHF is incredibly ignorant. We could look at stars before the experiments started, and we can look at them now. So what was all that money spent on?
Cold fusion is a lie. It doesn’t exist anywhere in the universe aside from the fevered imaginations of the scammers and those duped into believing it.
CHF is a lie. It’s a scam to the tune of hundreds of $billions. CHF corner-turn has been 50 years, and that has been 60 years ongoing; LENR corner-turn has been about 5 years for the last 3-4 years. CHF cost hundreds of $billions in TAX dollars, while LENR has cost something in the tens of $Millions, and it has been almost all private money. CHF IP is worthless; LENR IP sold for $20M a few weeks ago. CHF con artists publish breathless articles about something that took place over 1 billionth of a second; LENR demonstrations have lasted days, weeks, and even months.
Yup. If LENR scientists wanted to learn how to scam, they would take lessons from CHF frauds.
Don’t you know how warm Northern Michigan will be when all the unicorns gallop in?
Well the great lakes are fusing into a solid mass of very cold water.
Nahhh, he just enjoys calling scientists liars. For instance, all those 14,720 replications of the F-P Anomalous Heat Event... all those scientists are liars. What a huge conspiracy! Wider than the one that Hillary Clinton claimed when she coined the phrase “Vast Right Wing Conspiracy”.
Ice bridge for them to gallop across.
It all begins to make sense if you stick with these threads long enough.
|Free Republic 1st Quarter Fundraising Target: $85,000||Receipts & Pledges to-date: $44,535|
|Woo hoo!! And we're now over 52%!! Thank you all very much!!|
Well Thor trashed the rainbow bridge so we hadda do something.
If we had spent those hundreds of $billions on ice bridges rather than the CHF Fraud, at least we would have some kind of ice bridges. Instead we got nuthin. Hundreds of $billions of nuthin.
When I have a look into these clusterfights I begin to understand the etymology of morass.
Here’s the problem with inertial confinement. Even if a pulse hit break even, it will be a while until the system can fire the next pulse. There is a lot of residual heat left in the neodynium glass rods used in the lasers, and that heat has to be dissipated before the next firing. There have also been incidents where a mere speck of dust on a glass rod shatters when the xenon flashtube goes off to excite the glass into lasing. There are also tremendous stresses on the capacitors used to fire the flashtubes, and capacitors have been known to explode (these are big capacitors).
The inertial confinement devices at Lawrence Livermore are more for testing and verifying weapons physics.
BE/A curve says there is energy in them there atoms. Interesting that laser technology appears to be leading the way.
Heres the problem with inertial confinement.
***The problem with such confinement systems is that you’re trying to confine atoms on 6 degrees of movement at one single time.
It would be simpler to attempt confinement of one or 2 degrees of movement rather than all 6. That’s the difference between Cold Fusion, where the hydrogen atoms are already being confined in a metallic cage, and plasma fusion, where there is zero confinement to start with.
Hundreds of $billions of nuthin.
***Hundreds of $billions of fraud.
Let the free market decide. If either method has promise (scientifically and economically) I’m sure one of the oil companies or some other deep-pocketed concern will take notice and either buy or replicate the process. Until then it’s all unicorns.
The problem is that it is TAX dollars that have been sucked down the CHF fraud hole. Cold Fusion is almost entirely private money. That isn’t a free market.
Disclaimer: Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its management. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the exemption for fair use of copyrighted works.