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Astronomy Picture of the Day -- Ash and Lightning above an Icelandic Volcano
NASA ^ | April 20, 2014 | (see photo credit)

Posted on 04/20/2014 3:14:59 PM PDT by SunkenCiv

Explanation: Why did a picturesque 2010 volcanic eruption in Iceland create so much ash? Although the large ash plume was not unparalleled in its abundance, its location was particularly noticeable because it drifted across such well-populated areas. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland began erupting on 2010 March 20, with a second eruption starting under the center of a small glacier on 2010 April 14. Neither eruption was unusually powerful. The second eruption, however, melted a large amount of glacial ice which then cooled and fragmented lava into gritty glass particles that were carried up with the rising volcanic plume. Pictured above during the second eruption, lightning bolts illuminate ash pouring out of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

April 20, 2014

(Excerpt) Read more at 129.164.179.22 ...


TOPICS: Astronomy; Astronomy Picture of the Day; Science
KEYWORDS: apod; astronomy; catastrophism; eyjafjallajokull; fireandice; iceland; science; volcano; volcanoes
[Credit & Copyright: Sigurður Stefnisson]

1 posted on 04/20/2014 3:15:00 PM PDT by SunkenCiv
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To: 75thOVI; agrace; aimhigh; Alice in Wonderland; AndrewC; aragorn; aristotleman; Avoiding_Sulla; ...

2 posted on 04/20/2014 3:16:45 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: brytlea; cripplecreek; decimon; bigheadfred; KoRn; Grammy; steelyourfaith; Mmogamer; dayglored; ...
The big one is linked at this image (as always), but it's the same image anyway.

3 posted on 04/20/2014 3:17:00 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

Ash Alert!


4 posted on 04/20/2014 3:17:13 PM PDT by ClearCase_guy
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To: ClearCase_guy

It’s amazing that it’s still *called* Iceland, eh? :’)


5 posted on 04/20/2014 3:17:59 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv
Just WOW! What a picture.

/johnny

6 posted on 04/20/2014 3:18:29 PM PDT by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: JRandomFreeper; brytlea; cripplecreek; decimon; bigheadfred; KoRn; Grammy; steelyourfaith; ...
Definitely. And, an extra -- today's date in 1535:
...an oil-on-panel painting depicting a halo display, an atmospheric optical phenomenon, observed over Stockholm on April 20, 1535. It is named after the sun dogs...

Vädersolstavlan

7 posted on 04/20/2014 3:22:15 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: ClearCase_guy; SunkenCiv; neverdem; SoothingDave; secret garden

However, when you look at the “clarity index” for 1960 through 2014, there is hardly a blip in actual atmosphere loss since 1964-65 (Guam), 1983, and then Pinatubo in the early 90’s.

Very, very abrupt and distinctive volcano impacts: but from this one!

Apparent Atmospheric Transmission of Solar Radiation at Mauna Loa, Hawaii

See: http://wattsupwiththat.com/reference-pages/solar/

And, from that source, the original from the NOAA Mauna Loa Lab:
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/webdata/grad/mloapt/mlo_transmission.gif


8 posted on 04/20/2014 3:26:53 PM PDT by Robert A. Cook, PE (I can only donate monthly, but socialists' ABBCNNBCBS continue to lie every day!)
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To: SunkenCiv
Volcanic eruptions change climate.
They are nothing to be sneezed at.

This is a fabulous photo. Thanks for posting.

9 posted on 04/20/2014 3:29:37 PM PDT by cloudmountain
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To: SunkenCiv
Stockholm was easier to get around in 1535.

/johnny

10 posted on 04/20/2014 3:33:40 PM PDT by JRandomFreeper (Gone Galt)
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To: cloudmountain

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/3146715/posts?page=8#8


11 posted on 04/20/2014 3:37:46 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Robert A. Cook, PE

Thanks RACPE.


12 posted on 04/20/2014 3:38:04 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: JRandomFreeper

:’)


13 posted on 04/20/2014 3:38:55 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv
Beautiful.

Are We Doomed?

14 posted on 04/20/2014 3:39:32 PM PDT by blam
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To: brytlea; cripplecreek; decimon; bigheadfred; KoRn; Grammy; steelyourfaith; Mmogamer; dayglored; ...

another extra — Halley’s Comet was at perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on this day in 295 AD.

http://infoman16.tripod.com/Articles/halley.htm

[snip] Since then it has been recorded at every perihelion. These occur every 74-80 years, its irregularity due to pertubations by Jupiter and Saturn. It returned in AD 66 (Perihelion: 26 January) and was first sighted by the Chinese on 31 January, later appearing in Capricorn and disappearing around 10 April; 141 (Perihelion: 22 March), when it was described as pale blue by the Chinese, being last seen in Leo; 218 (Perihelion: 17 May), when it was seen between Auriga and Virgo; 295 (Perihelion: 20 April), appearing in Andromeda and being last seen in Leo; 374 (Perihelion: 16 February), first seen in Aquarius on March 6; and 451 (Perihelion: 28 June), appearing in Taurus on 10 June and disappearing from Virgo on 15 August. [/snip]


15 posted on 04/20/2014 3:43:23 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam

My doctor once told me that the mortality rate is still 100 percent. Of course, he’s dead now...


16 posted on 04/20/2014 3:44:12 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

Wow!

Reality proves just how constrained our imaginations are.

Peter Jackson, “Now that’s what I’m talking about! That...that’s destruction of Mordor!”


17 posted on 04/20/2014 3:49:21 PM PDT by Covenantor ("Men are ruled...by liars who refuse them news, and by fools who cannot govern." Chesterton)
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http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/halley_edmond.shtml

In 1705, he published ‘A Synopsis of the Astronomy of Comets’, in which he described the parabolic orbits of 24 comets that had been observed from 1337 to 1698. He showed that the three historic comets of 1531, 1607, and 1682 were so similar in characteristics that they must have been successive returns of the same object - now known as Halley’s Comet - and accurately predicted its return in 1758.


18 posted on 04/20/2014 3:50:29 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: ClearCase_guy

Ash Alert!

_______________________________

Wayback, way way back. Good times...


19 posted on 04/20/2014 3:51:56 PM PDT by Covenantor ("Men are ruled...by liars who refuse them news, and by fools who cannot govern." Chesterton)
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Apollo 16 landed on the Moon on April 20, 1972.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UMOB6bR1QWM

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OuoKxD2W-kg

http://airandspace.si.edu/explore-and-learn/topics/apollo/apollo-program/landing-missions/apollo16.cfm


20 posted on 04/20/2014 3:55:40 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Covenantor

:’)


21 posted on 04/20/2014 3:56:41 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

Calling Al Gore, please get your CO2 meters to Iceland immediately


22 posted on 04/20/2014 3:59:08 PM PDT by Noob1999 (Loose Lips, Sink Ships)
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To: SunkenCiv

I saw that too. Thanks.


23 posted on 04/20/2014 4:15:00 PM PDT by cloudmountain
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To: SunkenCiv

First time I ever saw this phenomenon was when we saw pictures of the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. I never knew that volcanoes sometimes create their own weather systems, during an eruption!


24 posted on 04/20/2014 4:22:32 PM PDT by SuziQ
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To: SunkenCiv

Great picture!


25 posted on 04/20/2014 4:51:16 PM PDT by sauropod (Fat Bottomed Girl: "What difference, at this point, does it make?")
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To: TheOldLady

Now that would make a cool zot pic!


26 posted on 04/20/2014 4:57:42 PM PDT by BuckeyeTexan (There are those that break and bend. I'm the other kind. ~Steve Earle)
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To: SunkenCiv

Here are a couple of things that you may find interesting WRT Earthquakes: (I just received these links by email)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rcs6IStI6kw&feature=player_embedded

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYBto1SF6kQ&feature=player_detailpage


27 posted on 04/20/2014 5:00:45 PM PDT by editor-surveyor (Freepers: Not as smart as I'd hoped they'd be)
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To: TheOldLady; BuckeyeTexan

It sure would!


28 posted on 04/20/2014 5:29:12 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: editor-surveyor

Thanks es.

https://www.youtube.com/user/dutchsinse


29 posted on 04/20/2014 5:30:48 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv

I had that as my wallpaper for a couple of years.


30 posted on 04/20/2014 5:31:41 PM PDT by Starstruck (If my reply offends, you probably don't understand sarcasm or criticism...or do.)
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To: SuziQ; sauropod; cloudmountain; Noob1999

I too really love to see these eruption photos with lightning. I thinkg that phenomenon was reported by Pliny the Younger in his description of the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.


31 posted on 04/20/2014 5:32:29 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (We're at the "takin' names" part. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Starstruck

Thanks, and I should have checked for it.

http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100419.html

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2912556/posts

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2475989/posts
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2495821/posts
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2495963/posts
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2500353/posts
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2501891/posts
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2589890/posts

http://www.freerepublic.com/tag/eyjafjallajokull/index


32 posted on 04/20/2014 5:49:56 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (We're at the "takin' names" part. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: SunkenCiv
Thanks, and I should have checked for it.

No problem. My computer crashed a couple of years ago. I'm glad to have the picture again.

33 posted on 04/20/2014 5:53:46 PM PDT by Starstruck (If my reply offends, you probably don't understand sarcasm or criticism...or do.)
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To: SunkenCiv
I too really love to see these eruption photos with lightning. I thinkg that phenomenon was reported by Pliny the Younger in his description of the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.

YES!!

Mt Vesuvius Eruption 79 AD - John Seach john
by Pliny the Younger (AD 61-113)
My dear Tacitus,

You ask me to write you something about the death of my uncle so that the account you transmit to posterity is as reliable as possible. I am grateful to you, for I see that his death will be remembered forever if you treat it [sc. in your Histories]. He perished in a devastation of the loveliest of lands, in a memorable disaster shared by peoples and cities, but this will be a kind of eternal life for him. Although he wrote a great number of enduring works himself, the imperishable nature of your writings will add a great deal to his survival. Happy are they, in my opinion, to whom it is given either to do something worth writing about, or to write something worth reading; most happy, of course, those who do both. With his own books and yours, my uncle will be counted among the latter. It is therefore with great pleasure that I take up, or rather take upon myself the task you have set me.

He was at Misenum in his capacity as commander of the fleet on the 24th of August [sc. in 79 AD], when between 2 and 3 in the afternoon my mother drew his attention to a cloud of unusual size and appearance. He had had a sunbath, then a cold bath, and was reclining after dinner with his books. He called for his shoes and climbed up to where he could get the best view of the phenomenon. The cloud was rising from a mountain-at such a distance we couldn't tell which, but afterwards learned that it was Vesuvius. I can best describe its shape by likening it to a pine tree. It rose into the sky on a very long "trunk" from which spread some "branches." I imagine it had been raised by a sudden blast, which then weakened, leaving the cloud unsupported so that its own weight caused it to spread sideways. Some of the cloud was white, in other parts there were dark patches of dirt and ash. The sight of it made the scientist in my uncle determined to see it from closer at hand.

He ordered a boat made ready. He offered me the opportunity of going along, but I preferred to study-he himself happened to have set me a writing exercise. As he was leaving the house he was brought a letter from Tascius' wife Rectina, who was terrified by the looming danger. Her villa lay at the foot of Vesuvius, and there was no way out except by boat. She begged him to get her away. He changed his plans. The expedition that started out as a quest for knowledge now called for courage. He launched the quadriremes and embarked himself, a source of aid for more people than just Rectina, for that delightful shore was a populous one. He hurried to a place from which others were fleeing, and held his course directly into danger. Was he afraid? It seems not, as he kept up a continuous observation of the various movements and shapes of that evil cloud, dictating what he saw.

Ash was falling onto the ships now, darker and denser the closer they went. Now it was bits of pumice, and rocks that were blackened and burned and shattered by the fire. Now the sea is shoal; debris from the mountain blocks the shore. He paused for a moment wondering whether to turn back as the helmsman urged him. "Fortune helps the brave," he said, "Head for Pomponianus."

At Stabiae, on the other side of the bay formed by the gradually curving shore, Pomponianus had loaded up his ships even before the danger arrived, though it was visible and indeed extremely close, once it intensified. He planned to put out as soon as the contrary wind let up. That very wind carried my uncle right in, and he embraced the frightened man and gave him comfort and courage. In order to lessen the other's fear by showing his own unconcern he asked to be taken to the baths. He bathed and dined, carefree or at least appearing so (which is equally impressive). Meanwhile, broad sheets of flame were lighting up many parts of Vesuvius; their light and brightness were the more vivid for the darkness of the night. To alleviate people's fears my uncle claimed that the flames came from the deserted homes of farmers who had left in a panic with the hearth fires still alight. Then he rested, and gave every indication of actually sleeping; people who passed by his door heard his snores, which were rather resonant since he was a heavy man. The ground outside his room rose so high with the mixture of ash and stones that if he had spent any more time there escape would have been impossible. He got up and came out, restoring himself to Pomponianus and the others who had been unable to sleep. They discussed what to do, whether to remain under cover or to try the open air. The buildings were being rocked by a series of strong tremors, and appeared to have come loose from their foundations and to be sliding this way and that. Outside, however, there was danger from the rocks that were coming down, light and fire-consumed as these bits of pumice were. Weighing the relative dangers they chose the outdoors; in my uncle's case it was a rational decision, others just chose the alternative that frightened them the least.

They tied pillows on top of their heads as protection against the shower of rock. It was daylight now elsewhere in the world, but there the darkness was darker and thicker than any night. But they had torches and other lights. They decided to go down to the shore, to see from close up if anything was possible by sea. But it remained as rough and uncooperative as before. Resting in the shade of a sail he drank once or twice from the cold water he had asked for. Then came an smell of sulfur, announcing the flames, and the flames themselves, sending others into flight but reviving him. Supported by two small slaves he stood up, and immediately collapsed. As I understand it, his breathing was obstructed by the dust-laden air, and his innards, which were never strong and often blocked or upset, simply shut down. When daylight came again 2 days after he died, his body was found untouched, unharmed, in the clothing that he had had on. He looked more asleep than dead.

Meanwhile at Misenum, my mother and I-but this has nothing to do with history, and you only asked for information about his death. I'll stop here then. But I will say one more thing, namely, that I have written out everything that I did at the time and heard while memories were still fresh. You will use the important bits, for it is one thing to write a letter, another to write history, one thing to write to a friend, another to write for the public.

Farewell.

34 posted on 04/20/2014 6:12:07 PM PDT by cloudmountain
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To: SunkenCiv

Hi, Sunky! The first thing that popped into my mind with the first picture is THOR. The oil painting is just splendid. I really like it... wish I had a copy framed for my living room. Hugs


35 posted on 04/21/2014 3:47:22 AM PDT by momtothree
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