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Scientists Discovered the Egyptian Secret to Moving Huge Pyramid Stones
gizmodo ^ | 4/30/14 | Andrew Tarantola

Posted on 05/04/2014 3:06:03 PM PDT by JoeProBono

The question of just how an ancient civilization—without the help of modern technology—moved the 2.5 ton stones that made up their famed pyramids has long plagued Egyptologists and mechanical engineers alike. But now, a team from the University of Amsterdam believes they've figured it out, even though the solution was staring them in the face all along.

It all comes down to friction. See, the ancient Egyptians would transport their rocky cargo across the desert sands, from quarry to monument site with large sleds. Pretty basic sleds, basically just large slabs with upturned edges. Now, when you try to pull a large slab with upturned edges carrying a 2.5 ton load, it tends to dig into the sand ahead of it, building up a sand berm that must then be regularly cleared before it can become an even bigger obstacle.

Wet sand, however, doesn't do this. In sand with just the right amount of dampness, capillary bridges—essentially microdroplets of water that bind grains of sand to one another through capillary action—form across the grains, which doubles the material's relative stiffness. This prevents the sand from berming in front of the sled and cuts the force required to drag the sled in half. In half.

As a UvA press release explains,

The physicists placed a laboratory version of the Egyptian sledge in a tray of sand. They determined both the required pulling force and the stiffness of the sand as a function of the quantity of water in the sand. To determine the stiffness they used a rheometer, which shows how much force is needed to deform a certain volume of sand.

Experiments revealed that the required pulling force decreased proportional to the stiffness of the sand...A sledge glides far more easily over firm desert sand simply because the sand does not pile up in front of the sledge as it does in the case of dry sand.

These experiments served to confirm what the Egyptians clearly already knew, and what we probably already should have. Artwork within the tomb of Djehutihotep, which was discovered in the Victorian Era, depicts a scene of slaves hauling a colossal statue of the Middle Kingdom ruler and in it, a guy at the front of the sled is shown pouring liquid into the sand. You can see it in the image above, just to the right of the statue's foot.

We can now finally put this scientific snipe hunt to rest and focus on how the hell Stonehenge got that way.


TOPICS: Chit/Chat; History; Science
KEYWORDS: egypt; giza; godsgravesglyphs; greatpyramid; pyramid

Artwork within the tomb of Djehutihotep, which was discovered in the Victorian Era, depicts a scene of slaves hauling a colossal statue of the Middle Kingdom ruler and in it, a guy at the front of the sled is shown pouring liquid into the sand. You can see it in the image above, just to the right of the statue's foot.


1 posted on 05/04/2014 3:06:03 PM PDT by JoeProBono
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To: JoeProBono

“It all comes down to friction.”

A lot of good stuff boils down to “friction!”,,,,, Er,,,,, Never mind!


2 posted on 05/04/2014 3:11:28 PM PDT by Dr. Bogus Pachysandra ( Ya can't pick up a turd by the clean end!)
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To: JoeProBono

Only the smallest blocks are a measley 2.5 tons. The bottom courses of the Great Pyramid are in excess of 200 tons - nice try though. 200 tons is the weight of a locomotive engine - FReegards


3 posted on 05/04/2014 3:18:02 PM PDT by atc23 (The Confederacy was the single greatest conservative resistance to federal authority ever)
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To: JoeProBono

But who built Nan Madol?


4 posted on 05/04/2014 3:19:36 PM PDT by mylife
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To: JoeProBono

Mel Brooks solved this mystery years ago. They used a bunch of Jews and a lot of rope.


5 posted on 05/04/2014 3:22:22 PM PDT by Nachoman (Wisdom is learned, cynicism is earned.)
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To: JoeProBono

This explains why they paid the workers in BEER!


6 posted on 05/04/2014 3:24:30 PM PDT by Red_Devil 232 ((VietVet - USMC All Ready On The Right? All Ready On The Left? All Ready On The Firing Line!))
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To: atc23

Big stones (megaliths), some nicely decorated, were a part of the culture of the island of Nias off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. There were big stone statues, stone seats for the chieftains and stone tables where justice was done. There were also big stones needed to commemorate of important deceased people. When such a stone was erected, a ritual feast was to be given. All this to enable a nobleman to join his godly ancestors in the afterlife. On the photo such a stone is hauled upwards. The story has it that it took 525 people three days to erect this stone in the village of Bawemataloeo. (P. Boomgaard, 2001)


7 posted on 05/04/2014 3:25:34 PM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: JoeProBono

In other words they were showing us how they did it all along?


8 posted on 05/04/2014 3:25:35 PM PDT by GeronL (Vote for Conservatives not for Republicans!)
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To: JoeProBono

Dang.

I’d always pictured Michelle Obama hip-bumping them blocks into place.


9 posted on 05/04/2014 3:25:36 PM PDT by humblegunner
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To: JoeProBono
All they had to do was ask Yochabel. She would have shared the secret.


10 posted on 05/04/2014 3:25:39 PM PDT by ProtectOurFreedom
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To: mylife

Nan Madol


11 posted on 05/04/2014 3:29:36 PM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: JoeProBono

Lovely place.


12 posted on 05/04/2014 3:37:30 PM PDT by mylife
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To: JoeProBono; Revolting cat!; GeronL
Organized labour.


13 posted on 05/04/2014 3:40:29 PM PDT by a fool in paradise (The new witchhunt: "Do you NOW, . . . or have you EVER , . . supported traditional marriage?")
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To: JoeProBono
So Joe, how did they slide them sledges up the sides of the pyramid?

Also thanks for the olde-fashioned pix of the quaint and colorful natives. Nowadays, people like this who should have remained forever enshrined on the pages of National Geographic, are multi-registered Democrats living in Sec. 8 Apts. Near you.

14 posted on 05/04/2014 3:41:01 PM PDT by Kenny Bunk (Hurrah for Jimmy Carter! He ain't the worst anymore.)
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To: atc23

Calculating the weight of monoliths

In the cases of the smaller monoliths it may be possible to weigh them. However in most cases the monoliths were too large or they may have been part of an ancient structure so this method could not be used. The weight of a stone can be calculated by multiplying its volume and density. The density of most stones is between two and three tons per cubic meter. The average weight of granite is about 2.75 metric tons per cubic meter, limestone 2.3 metric tons per cubic meter, sandstone or marble 2.5 tons per cubic meter. Some softer stones may be lighter than 2 tons per cubic meter like volcanic tuff or basalt which weighs about 1.9 tons per cubic meter. Since the density of most of these stones fluctuates it is necessary to know the source for the stone and volume to obtain accurate measurements


15 posted on 05/04/2014 3:42:48 PM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: JoeProBono

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/chat/2387930/posts


16 posted on 05/04/2014 3:45:20 PM PDT by mylife
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To: humblegunner

17 posted on 05/04/2014 3:46:03 PM PDT by nascarnation (Toxic Baraq Syndrome: hopefully infecting a Dem candidate near you)
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To: JoeProBono

Caterpillar tractors.


18 posted on 05/04/2014 3:47:03 PM PDT by SkyDancer (I Believe In The Law Until It Intereferes With Justice. And Pay Your Liberty Tax Citizen.)
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Hear ye, Hear ye!

Please Contribute Today!

19 posted on 05/04/2014 3:53:44 PM PDT by RedMDer (May we always be happy and may our enemies always know it. - Sarah Palin, 10-18-2010)
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To: a fool in paradise

Organized by the guys with whips


20 posted on 05/04/2014 3:54:30 PM PDT by GeronL (Vote for Conservatives not for Republicans!)
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To: JoeProBono

I wonder if the substance was something other than water. Palm oil perhaps?


21 posted on 05/04/2014 3:56:21 PM PDT by taxcontrol
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To: atc23

I think that’s the weight of a locomotive. The engine within such a locomotive is only about 30,000 pounds or 15 tons.


22 posted on 05/04/2014 4:00:44 PM PDT by 9YearLurker
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To: 9YearLurker

I think that’s close to the reverse of it, they’re mostly engine, and then there’s generator, resistor banks, 10-15 tons of fuel slung under it, running gear and body.


23 posted on 05/04/2014 4:28:47 PM PDT by Axenolith (Government blows, and that which governs least, blows least...)
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To: JoeProBono

I thought they used railroads to transport the blocks...


24 posted on 05/04/2014 4:36:25 PM PDT by ExCTCitizen (I'm ExCTCitizen and I approve this reply. If it does offend Libs, I'm NOT sorry...)
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To: JoeProBono

That guy on the block... he looks like Obama...


25 posted on 05/04/2014 4:37:25 PM PDT by ExCTCitizen (I'm ExCTCitizen and I approve this reply. If it does offend Libs, I'm NOT sorry...)
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To: ExCTCitizen
Catapults


26 posted on 05/04/2014 4:41:10 PM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: JoeProBono

Why can’t they move the Costa Concordia? It’s already got a lot of water around it


27 posted on 05/04/2014 5:08:02 PM PDT by Insigne123 (It is the soldier, not the community organizer, who gives us freedom of the press)
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To: Insigne123

28 posted on 05/04/2014 5:14:24 PM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: JoeProBono
I can't believe this took 29 posts... weak...


29 posted on 05/04/2014 5:24:51 PM PDT by Rodamala
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To: Rodamala

30 posted on 05/04/2014 5:42:20 PM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: Rodamala; JoeProBono; Salamander


31 posted on 05/04/2014 8:21:15 PM PDT by shibumi (Cover it with gas and set it on fire.)
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To: JoeProBono
It was aliens


32 posted on 05/04/2014 8:26:26 PM PDT by Daffynition (I stand with the Bundy Family!)
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To: Axenolith

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/diesel-locomotive.htm


33 posted on 05/04/2014 9:54:53 PM PDT by 9YearLurker
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To: Daffynition


34 posted on 05/05/2014 1:17:37 AM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: shibumi


35 posted on 05/05/2014 1:25:23 AM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: shibumi

I swear he *has* to be in on the joke.


36 posted on 05/05/2014 1:40:15 AM PDT by Salamander (Black Ace Dog Handler)
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To: shibumi
If I can find one of these, it shall be mine.


37 posted on 05/05/2014 1:50:59 AM PDT by Salamander (Black Ace Dog Handler)
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To: Rodamala

Yep, 29 posts, I was begining to wonder, Has F.R. no ancient astronaut therorists?


38 posted on 05/05/2014 3:49:45 AM PDT by Graybeard58 (If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema Maranatha. 1 Cor 16: 32)
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To: Salamander

That is such a great shirt! LOL.


39 posted on 05/05/2014 5:35:58 AM PDT by 2001convSVT (Going Galt as fast as I can.)
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To: JoeProBono

40 posted on 05/05/2014 6:21:10 AM PDT by Daffynition (I stand with the Bundy Family!)
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To: JoeProBono


41 posted on 05/05/2014 6:25:02 AM PDT by Lazamataz (Early 2009 to 7/21/2013 - RIP my little girl Cathy. You were the best cat ever. You will be missed.)
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To: Lazamataz


42 posted on 05/05/2014 6:55:25 AM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: JoeProBono

The hell is that?


43 posted on 05/05/2014 7:09:41 AM PDT by Lazamataz (Early 2009 to 7/21/2013 - RIP my little girl Cathy. You were the best cat ever. You will be missed.)
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To: Lazamataz

Um.....alien busters?


44 posted on 05/05/2014 7:34:46 AM PDT by JoeProBono (SOME IMAGES MAY BE DISTURBING VIEWER DISCRETION IS ADVISED;-{)
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To: JoeProBono

Ah.


45 posted on 05/05/2014 8:15:29 AM PDT by Lazamataz (Early 2009 to 7/21/2013 - RIP my little girl Cathy. You were the best cat ever. You will be missed.)
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To: Salamander

46 posted on 05/05/2014 5:04:25 PM PDT by Rodamala
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To: JoeProBono
Thanks JoeProBono, earlier on FR: Solved! How Ancient Egyptians Moved Massive Pyramid Stones.

47 posted on 05/15/2014 9:30:45 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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The internal ramp theory guy has some new stuff:

Jean-Pierre Houdin
https://independent.academia.edu/JeanPierreHoudin


48 posted on 05/15/2014 9:31:35 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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Lexxtex -- the Hidden Secret of the Great Pyramid's Construction Uncovered

Lexxtex -- the Hidden Secret of the Great Pyramid's Construction Uncovered
The Great Pyramid Mystery Solved - National Geographic

The Great Pyramid Mystery Solved - National Geographic
Khufu Reborn - Dassault Systemes

Khufu Reborn - Dassault Systemes

49 posted on 05/25/2014 12:27:01 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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