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Newly Discovered Siberian Craters Signify ....; Mystery of the Siberian crater deepens: .....
wattsupwiththat.com ^ | August 1, 2014 | by Anthony Watts

Posted on 08/03/2014 9:21:49 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach

clip_image002Guest essay by Don Easterbrook

A crater in northern Siberia, spotted by a passing helicopter, has received worldwide attention and continues to be a top news story. Since then, two more mysterious holes have been discovered elsewhere in the region. Now the new holes, smaller in diameter but similar in shape – are posing a fresh challenge for Russian scientists, according to the The Siberian Times. Theories range from meteorites to an explosion of methane due to global warming.

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Figure 1. Yamal ‘mystery crater.’ (Siberian Times)

Anna Kurchatova of the Sub-Arctic Scientific Research Centre said the crater was formed by a mixture of water, salt, and gas igniting an underground explosion as result of global warming. Kurchatova suggests that global warming may have caused an ‘alarming’ melt in the under-soil ice and released gas, causing an effect like the popping of a champagne bottle cork. ‘The version about melting permafrost due to climate change, causing a release of methane gas, which then forces an eruption is the current favorite, though scientists are reluctant to offer a firm conclusion without more study.’

Scientists with the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, which is leading the investigation, suggested that the holes formed when melting permafrost triggered an explosion of methane gas. That theory was bolstered when an icy lake was found at the bottom of the hole. Andrei Plekhanov from Scientific Research Center of the Arctic said the crater appears to be made up of 80 percent ice, which adds to the theory that it was caused by the effects of global warming.

Dr. Plekhanov said: “I’ve never seen anything like this, even though I have been to Yamal many times.”

WHAT IS REALLY GOING ON HERE?

Actually, these craters are not mysterious at all—there are hundreds of them all over the Yamal Peninsula and their origin has been well known for many years.

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Figure 2. Craters of the Yamal Peninsula. The ice cores have completely melted out, leaving lakes. The surrounding ridges are still visible. (Google Earth)

As you can see from the images in Figure 2, there are hundreds of these craters, mostly not as fresh as the recent ones, but showing the same features—a depression surrounded by a ring of raised ground. These are pingos!!

Pingo is an Inuit term for an isolated, dome shaped hill, used to describe large ice-cored mounds found in the permafrost regions of Siberia and various other places in the Arctic. Pingos range in height from a few meters to more than 40 m (130 ft) and from a few meters to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in diameter. Small pingos typically have rounded tops, but larger ones are commonly broken open at the top where melting of the ice core forms a crater resembling a volcanic cone Where they occur in stratified silt or sand, the beds commonly dip outward from the center, much like those adjacent to an intrusive body. The ice in the core of a pingo is typically massive and of segregation/injection origin. Tension fractures are common at the summit of the mound, but expansion of pingo ice is rare and short-lived. Ice up to 7 m (23 ft) thick has been found in pingos of Sweden. As the ice core melts, a small freshwater lake may occupy the summit crater that forms.

Open system pingos

Open system pingos form where groundwater under artesian pressure beneath thin permafrost forces its way upward and freezes as it approaches the surface where it forms an ice core that heaves the surface upward. Although the initial growth of these types of pingos may occur where ice lenses lie above the water table, their continued growth requires a particular combination of hydrostatic pressure and soil permeability. Thin, discontinuous permafrost and artesian water pressure play important roles in the development of open system pingos. The role of artesian pressure is not to force the overlying sediments upwards but rather to provide a slow, regular supply of groundwater to the growing ice core.

Most open-system pingos are oval or oblong in shape and typically occur as isolated mounds or in small groups developed in either soil or bedrock. Rupturing near their top is common. Concentrations of open-system pingos occur in Siberia, the northern interior of the Yukon, Alaska, Spitsbergen, and Norway.

Closed system pingos

When a lake in a permafrost environment is progressively drained and covered by encroachment of vegetation from the margins, the permafrost table progressively rises to the level of the former lake floor. The rising permafrost table expels pore water ahead of the freezing front, and when the pore water pressure exceeds the overburden strength, upward heaving of the frozen ground occurs as the ice core progressively grows. The size and shape of the resulting pingo typically reflects that of the original body of water.

Closed system pingos vary in height from a few meters to over 60 m (~200 ft) and up to 300 m (~1000 ft) in diameter, ranging from symmetrical conical domes to asymmetric and elongate hills. The top of the pingos are commonly ruptured to form small, star like craters that eventually form shallow-rimmed depressions as the ice core melts.

The mechanism of pingo formation in a closed system starts with a deep, ice-covered lake, surrounded by permafrost. The lake inhibits the development of permafrost beneath it, and the ground remains unfrozen. As the lake is slowly drains or is filled with sediment, at some point the lake ice freezes to the bottom, and the bottom sediments begin to freeze. As the layer of ice and permafrost covers former lake floor, a closed system is set up in the still-unfrozen ground beneath because the permafrost cap prevents the escape of groundwater. As permafrost continues inward growth around the unfrozen core, water pressure increases. Pore water is expelled from the unfrozen sediment by the advancing permafrost, and to relieve the pressure, the surface bulges upward. Eventually, all of the water in the enclosed system groundwater mass becomes frozen and the excess water forms a core of clear ice under the bulge.

Growth rate of pingos:

The birth and growth of a small pingo studied by Mackay (1988) is representative of more than 2,000 closed system pingos of the western Canadian Arctic and Alaska. The pingo appeared on the former floor of a lake that drained suddenly about 1900. Small frost mounds began appearing between 1920 and 1930. The pingo grew steadily until 1976, but the growth rate decreased after that. Mackay also monitored the growth of other small pingos in a lake in the Mackenzie Delta region that drained between 1935 and 1950. The pingos grew rapidly in the initial years, commonly 1.5 m/year (5 ft/yr), then decreased. Mackay suggests that about 15 new pingos per century appear in the Mackenzie Delta region, and only about 50 seem to be actively growing. Similar conclusions have been reached by Russian investigators in Siberia.


TOPICS: Science; Weird Stuff
KEYWORDS: bigholeintheground; catastrophism; climatechange; permafrost; pingo; pingos; roadsidetoilets; siberia

1 posted on 08/03/2014 9:21:49 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: SunkenCiv

fyi


2 posted on 08/03/2014 9:23:08 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Who has the pingo ping list?


3 posted on 08/03/2014 9:25:37 PM PDT by null and void (If Bill Clinton was the first black president, why isn't Barack Obama the first woman president?)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Is anything not caused by globull warming these days?

We are all doomed, might as well party on...............

4 posted on 08/03/2014 9:33:41 PM PDT by doorgunner69
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To: null and void
"Who has the pingo ping list?"

Probably some hole 'hole.

5 posted on 08/03/2014 9:33:43 PM PDT by DannyTN (I)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
‘The version about melting permafrost due to climate change, causing a release of methane gas, which then forces an eruption is the current favorite, though scientists are reluctant to offer a firm conclusion without more study.’

The need for more study has never stopped a globull warming scientist from offering a firm conclusion.

6 posted on 08/03/2014 9:41:41 PM PDT by Mastador1 (I'll take a bad dog over a good politician any day!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

I’m fixing a hole,
where the rain gets in,
And keeps my mind from wandering,
where it will go, ohhhhhhhh!
Secretary of State John Frikkin Kerry


7 posted on 08/03/2014 9:42:04 PM PDT by tumblindice (America's founding fathers: all armed conservatives.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

8 posted on 08/03/2014 9:43:06 PM PDT by Jeff Chandler (Conservatism is the political disposition of grown-ups.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Ya, I will say it again, I thought the Russians were smarter than that.

Divide by zero.


9 posted on 08/03/2014 9:44:01 PM PDT by ForYourChildren (Christian Education [ RomanRoadsMedia.com - a Classical Christian Approach to Homeschool])
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To: ForYourChildren

LOL!


10 posted on 08/03/2014 9:48:09 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: null and void; Fred Nerks; NormsRevenge; Marine_Uncle; SierraWasp; Grampa Dave
Not I,...

pingo

is a new term to me,!
11 posted on 08/03/2014 9:51:21 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
 photo Graboid_tongues_zps42e15194.jpg
12 posted on 08/03/2014 9:58:58 PM PDT by SWAMPSNIPER (The Second Amendment, a Matter of Fact, Not a Matter of Opinion)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

These are crater/cave like things on Mars. I haven't seen that NASA is confident they know what these are or how they are made, but now that I have seen a pingo, they do look like pingos.

13 posted on 08/03/2014 10:02:48 PM PDT by Vince Ferrer
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

At last we get to the bottom of this.


14 posted on 08/03/2014 10:05:37 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lost my tagline on Flight MH370. Sorry for the inconvenience.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

BTTT and Thank You for providing such an informative thread.


15 posted on 08/03/2014 10:06:49 PM PDT by UCANSEE2 (Lost my tagline on Flight MH370. Sorry for the inconvenience.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

The warming kooks have to think up something to get warming into this picture. That area could use some warming to get it out of this ice age we are still in.


16 posted on 08/03/2014 10:17:53 PM PDT by pallis
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To: UCANSEE2; SunkenCiv
Well ,...it is a bit wierd...

Mars has these?...

according to the article they need water to form them.

17 posted on 08/03/2014 10:20:48 PM PDT by Ernest_at_the_Beach
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
There was a farmer had a bog,
And Pingo was its name-o.
P-I-N-G-O!
P-I-N-G-O!
P-I-N-G-O!
And Pingo was its name-o!
18 posted on 08/03/2014 10:35:32 PM PDT by TigersEye ("No man left behind" means something different to 0bama.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Anna Kurchatova of the Sub-Arctic Scientific Research Centre said the crater was formed by a mixture of water......................

And everybody thought she could only halfway play tennis a little and look incredibly hot.

Oh, OK, never mind :)

19 posted on 08/03/2014 10:46:25 PM PDT by The Cajun (Ted Cruz, Sarah Palin, Mark Levin, Mike Lee, Louie Gohmert....Nuff said.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
Yet another so called "un-solved mystery" becomes a known,
well defined phenomena found on this planet.
20 posted on 08/03/2014 10:47:38 PM PDT by Marine_Uncle (Galt level is not far away......)
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To: Mastador1

Actually, the “need for more study” and the associated government grants are all these con artists posing as scientists care about. But I’m sure you knew that. /no sarc


21 posted on 08/03/2014 10:56:51 PM PDT by piytar (The predator-class is furious that their prey are shooting back.)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

I was watching the BBC the other night and they showed a documentary on the Martian invasion prior to WW1.

I think the Martians are back......


22 posted on 08/03/2014 11:16:12 PM PDT by minnesota_bound
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

God is preparing for the pits of Hell for the end of age?


23 posted on 08/03/2014 11:43:45 PM PDT by make no mistake
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To: doorgunner69
"Is anything not caused by globull warming these days?"

Scientific and intellectual integrity.
24 posted on 08/04/2014 12:25:24 AM PDT by clearcarbon
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

Without any study at all they are already screaming “GLOBAL WARMING!”

Unbelievable.


25 posted on 08/04/2014 2:11:42 AM PDT by Fear The People (When the government fears the people, you have LIBERTY.)
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To: Mastador1
"The need for more study has never stopped a globull warming scientist from offering a firm conclusion."

Once the billion dollar spigot of federal spending is turned on, there is no end to the need for more study. There is no spigot, anywhere, that can fulfill the thirst.

26 posted on 08/04/2014 3:51:14 AM PDT by norwaypinesavage (The Stone Age didn’t end because we ran out of stones)
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To: Vince Ferrer
These are crater/cave like things on Mars. I haven't seen that NASA is confident they know what these are or how they are made, but now that I have seen a pingo, they do look like pingos.

Darned if that doesn't appear to support Immanuel Velikovsky's theory about Mars' atmosphere having been stripped away and the water mostly evaporated. Some water frozen in the ground would evaporate where exposed at the surface, leaving pingoes.

27 posted on 08/04/2014 8:14:15 AM PDT by JimRed (Excise the cancer before it kills us; feed & water the Tree of Liberty! TERM LIMITS NOW & FOREVER!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach

The Earth expands, cools, contracts, ice pimples pop and melt,, sometimes in a most dramatic fashion..

but, I hear ya,, pingo is a new one on me too.


28 posted on 08/04/2014 8:26:25 AM PDT by NormsRevenge (Semper Fi - Revolution is a'brewin!!!)
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To: norwaypinesavage
Once the billion dollar spigot of federal spending is turned on, there is no end to the need for more study. There is no spigot, anywhere, that can fulfill the thirst.

Of course what you say is true, but my point was that globullists, other than to line their pockets, require no science or study to make and promote their claims.

29 posted on 08/04/2014 8:52:52 AM PDT by Mastador1 (I'll take a bad dog over a good politician any day!)
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"Is freedom anything else than the right to live as we wish?
Nothing else."

~Epictetus




God bless this site, this Free Republic.
Please click the pic


30 posted on 08/04/2014 8:54:32 AM PDT by trisham (Zen is not easy. It takes effort to attain nothingness. And then what do you have? Bupkis.)
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To: Vince Ferrer

We tend to give martians a lot of credit, but if they are also dividing by zero, then they aren’t much smarter than we are.

see post #9


31 posted on 08/04/2014 9:56:17 AM PDT by ForYourChildren (Christian Education [ RomanRoadsMedia.com - a Classical Christian Approach to Homeschool])
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