Skip to comments.Scientists Confirm Earth-Like Planet Orbiting Nearby Star
Posted on 03/31/2002 10:31:00 PM PST by petuniasevan
Scientists Confirm Earth-Like Planet Orbiting Nearby Star
by John C. Snider
Researchers at the University of Toronto announced that they have photographic evidence of an Earth-like planet orbiting Kapteyn's Star, a red dwarf only 12.8 light-years away. The images posted to the UTC website show two views of a deeply cratered, apparently airless world approximately 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) in diameter. (Earth is 7,926 miles in diameter.) Scientists have nicknamed the planet "Mickey," although its official designation for the time being is UTC-27745-3665.
"By 'Earth-like' what we mean is that it's a rocky planet - not a gas giant, which is a first," said Dr. Joel Pelletier, a radio astronomer and statistical theorist who headed the project. "Every other planet we've discovered has been a gas giant, much like Jupiter or Saturn." Prior discoveries of so-called "extra-solar" planets have relied on observing the "wobble" in the parent star, a technique which can only detect massive planets presumed to be gas giants.
|These grainy images were created by the University of Toronto's Advanced Imaging Lab using combined source data from Canadian, American, French and Soviet databases. They show a deeply-cratered terrestrial planet (nicknamed "Mickey") which has a diameter nearly three times that of Earth.|
The images were made possible by a "lethal combination" of supercomputing and advanced software, according to Pelletier. A new generation of supercomputers (jointly designed by Seattle-based Cray Inc. and Canadian start-up AFOY Ltd.) were recently installed at the UTC's Advanced Imaging Lab - computers capable of handling the demands of recently-developed matrix-management software (a technique used to analyze complex data-sets).
The images were created by combining decades of astronomical data collected by Canadian, American, French and Soviet observatories and satellites. "Nearly every wavelength in the electromagnetic spectrum was available to us," said Pelletier. "We had infrared, visible, X-ray - you name it." Using a process called "normalization," Pelletier's team modified the data into a "combinable" format, then adjusted each "image construct" (a process which takes into account the varying positions of the observing craft with respect to Kapteyn's Star itself) to create a single clear image.
"When you have just one image, or create a traditional composite image using hundreds of individual images, there's just not enough detail to make anything out," said Pelletier. "But when you use normalization and image-construct techniques, you can remove the faulty data and viola - there's your planet!" He said they hope to produce a motion picture within a year, which will show Mickey in full rotation.
One of the mysteries of Mickey is its severe cratering. "Usually, the larger a planet is, the less extreme its geological features can become - the planet's gravity has a tendency to flatten things out," explains Pelletier. "For example, Mars, which is much smaller than Earth, has much higher mountains. A planet the size of Mickey should not exhibit such massively deep, yet apparently stable, craters.
Scientists believe the planet rotates on its axis once every 7 days 19 hours, and has an orbital radius of 1.1 astronomical units (AUs). (Earth orbits the Sun at 1.0 AU.)
A formal announcement, including an extended press conference, are expected later this month.
Listen to our complete interview with Dr. Joel Pelletier in streaming audio!
Requires RealPlayer [22 minutes 50 seconds]
UTC's Advanced Imaging Lab - http://www.universityoftoronto.ca/ailab
AFOY, Ltd - http://www.afoy.ca
Cray Inc. - http://www.tera.com
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