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New particle turns up in Japan
Physicsweb ^ | Nov 14, 2003 | Belle Dumé

Posted on 11/15/2003 8:43:52 PM PST by Diddley

The Belle collaboration at the KEK laboratory in Japan has discovered a new sub-atomic particle which it is calling the "X(3872)". The particle does not fit into any known particle scheme and theorists are speculating that it might be a hitherto unseen type of meson that contains four quarks (arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0309032; Phys. Rev. Lett. to be published).

The discovery has been confirmed by the CDF collaboration at Fermilab in the US, where the new particle is being called the "mystery meson". Mesons are particles that contain a quark and an antiquark that are held together by the strong nuclear force.

Since there are six different "flavours" of quark - up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top - it is possible to form a large number of different mesons.

The Belle team measured the decay of B-mesons - mesons that contain a bottom quark - produced in electron-positron collisions at the KEK B-factory in Japan. The team plotted the number of candidate events for B mesons against mass and observed a significant spike in the distribution at 0.775 GeV. This corresponds to a mass of nearly 3872 MeV. The particle decayed almost immediately into other, longer lived particles.

The KEK team says that the mass of this new meson is higher than theoretical predictions. Moreover, the way in which it decays also differs from theory. One possibility is that current models of the strong force need to be modified. Alternatively it could be that X(3872) is the first example of a "molecular state" meson that contains two quarks and two antiquarks.

Until recently particle physicists had only ever detected particles that contain two or three quarks. However, in the past year evidence has emerged for another four-quark particle known as the Ds(2317) and a five-quark particle known as the pentaquark.

Author Belle Dumé is Science Writer at PhysicsWeb


TOPICS: Japan; Technical
KEYWORDS: crevolist; japanparticle; meson; neutrino; neutrinodetector; neutrinos; newpalticurr; physics; quantumparticle; quark; science; stringtheory; subatomicparticle
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1 posted on 11/15/2003 8:43:53 PM PST by Diddley
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To: Diddley; Physicist; PatrickHenry; longshadow; RadioAstronomer
New particle turns up in Japan

Ah, well - that's my fault. I must have left it in my hotel room the last time I went to Japan on business. Sorry about that.

2 posted on 11/15/2003 8:46:34 PM PST by general_re (Me and my vortex, we got a real good thing....)
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To: Diddley
I think I understood 4 of those sentences!
3 posted on 11/15/2003 8:47:24 PM PST by BostonianRightist ("Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness" -Thomas Paine)
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To: Diddley; PatrickHenry; Physicist; Piltdown_Woman; RadioAstronomer
Diddley: Thanks.

PH: Ping the science crew.

4 posted on 11/15/2003 8:48:23 PM PST by Virginia-American
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To: general_re
[2]
I'd put in for a claim if I were you. :-)
5 posted on 11/15/2003 8:49:20 PM PST by Diddley
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To: Diddley
Bump to the Mensa crowd....
6 posted on 11/15/2003 8:49:29 PM PST by demkicker
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To: general_re
It's 'cause you don't eat right.
7 posted on 11/15/2003 8:50:05 PM PST by Paul Atreides (Is it really so difficult to post the entire article?)
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To: Diddley
Eating subatomic particles in sushi may be harmful to your health says CDC.


8 posted on 11/15/2003 8:50:52 PM PST by jwalburg (You're not moderate just because you know leftier leftists than yourself)
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To: general_re
general_re said: "I must have left it in my hotel room the last time I went to Japan on business."

You must be running about a quark low, then.

9 posted on 11/15/2003 8:51:10 PM PST by William Tell
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To: William Tell
Who stranded me in Japan?


10 posted on 11/15/2003 8:52:34 PM PST by Paul Atreides (Is it really so difficult to post the entire article?)
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To: Diddley
They should name it the "Fugu"
11 posted on 11/15/2003 8:52:46 PM PST by WackyKat
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To: Diddley
Yatta?
12 posted on 11/15/2003 8:53:34 PM PST by P.O.E.
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To: All
I find the wit of FReepers to be hilarious. :-)
13 posted on 11/15/2003 8:54:33 PM PST by Diddley
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To: BostonianRightist
HUH??????? What did she say and what thehell is it?
14 posted on 11/15/2003 8:56:54 PM PST by BMC1
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To: Diddley
I think the cleaning lady must have swiped it. I tried calling about it, but the manager said that nobody had returned it to the desk. Now somebody's found my particle, and claimed it for themselves - I'm calling my lawyer first thing on Monday, that's for sure...
15 posted on 11/15/2003 8:58:05 PM PST by general_re (Me and my vortex, we got a real good thing....)
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To: Paul Atreides
It's 'cause you don't eat right.

I think it was the wasabi. Or maybe the sake. I always misplace stuff after having one too many of those...

16 posted on 11/15/2003 8:59:45 PM PST by general_re (Me and my vortex, we got a real good thing....)
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To: general_re
general_re said: "I think the cleaning lady must have swiped it."

If you're feeling energetic, you might check to see if there were any anti-quarks in the area at the time it disappeared.

17 posted on 11/15/2003 9:15:38 PM PST by William Tell
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To: Diddley
In the hunting of this quark, did they hunt it with railway shares and hot buttered toast?
18 posted on 11/15/2003 9:15:59 PM PST by AmericanVictory (Should we be more like them, or they like us?)
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To: AmericanVictory
They looked up, they looked down. They looked at the bottom and the top, but strangely, they were charmed (and they created a mess on it).
19 posted on 11/15/2003 9:21:33 PM PST by Diddley
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To: Diddley
LOST: Particle from Ennis Texas. May wander long distances. Has protons and neutrons. Reward if found and returned safely
20 posted on 11/15/2003 9:28:23 PM PST by GeronL (Visit www.geocities.com/geronl.....and.....www.returnoftheprimitive.com)
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To: William Tell
Poof! and it's gone, eh? No, even after a few glasses of rice wine, I doubt I'd be so careless as to leave it lying around where anti-quarks were known to roam freely. That would just be asking for trouble...
21 posted on 11/15/2003 9:35:25 PM PST by general_re (Me and my vortex, we got a real good thing....)
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To: Diddley
Mesons are particles that contain a quark and an antiquark that are held together by the strong nuclear force. Since there are six different "flavours" of quark - up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top - it is possible to form a large number of different mesons.

Ever get the feeling that we are inventing needlessly complex explanations for some (as yet unseen) simple phenomenon?

22 posted on 11/15/2003 9:39:47 PM PST by Skibane
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To: AmericanVictory; general_re
In the hunting of this quark, did they hunt it with railway shares and hot buttered toast?

If so that might explain why it softly and suddenly vanished away from general_re's hotel room.

23 posted on 11/15/2003 9:41:48 PM PST by Ichneumon
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To: Virginia-American
Wow! Thanks for the ping!
24 posted on 11/15/2003 9:42:42 PM PST by Aracelis
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To: Diddley
He, he, he! Glad to see someone recognized the allusion.
25 posted on 11/15/2003 9:48:02 PM PST by AmericanVictory (Should we be more like them, or they like us?)
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To: Skibane
[22]
Ever get the feeling that we are inventing needlessly complex explanations for some (as yet unseen) simple phenomenon?

Yup

26 posted on 11/15/2003 10:05:14 PM PST by Diddley
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To: Diddley
It's hard enough to walk around the house in the dark with three dogs, now I have to worry about sh*t like this?
27 posted on 11/15/2003 10:22:01 PM PST by Old Professer
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To: Diddley
Ironicaly, this is occurring just as Japan is following America's lead in, er, relinquishing its leading role in particle physics: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1005624/posts
28 posted on 11/15/2003 11:16:55 PM PST by RightWingAtheist
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To: TopQuark; lepton
Say hello to the new family member.
29 posted on 11/15/2003 11:17:34 PM PST by RightWingAtheist
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To: Skibane
"Ever get the feeling that we are inventing needlessly complex explanations for some (as yet unseen) simple phenomenon? "

Yeah, I've been saying for a long time that particle theory needs to be sliced up by Occam's Razor. Unfortunately, there's isn't any other theory to replace it right now.

Maybe the string theory people will have a breakthrough in thirty or forty years and all these particles will be explained in a nice, neat manner.
30 posted on 11/16/2003 12:48:07 AM PST by RatSlayer
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To: general_re; Virginia-American; PatrickHenry; jennyp; All
I have posted some of this before, but thought this was a good thread to repost it on.

This is a compilation of information between Physicist and myself.

1. THE STANDARD MODEL:

The best description of how matter and energy interact (sans gravity) is called “The Standard Model” It describes the organization of all of the particles and how they interact. The elementary particles are divided into two families called quarks and leptons. Each family consists of six particles and three of each of the particles in each group are acted on by a force carrier.

Quarks: Six called, up charm, top, down, strange, and bottom. All six quarks are acted upon by gluons and photons. This is because all of them carry electromagnetic charge (u,c,t have a charge of +2/3 e, while d,s,b have a charge of -1/3 e), and all of them carry a color charge. There are three kinds of color charge, which are commonly written as red, green and blue. Every quark in the universe has one of these charges. Each flavor of quark can have any color charge.

Note: Because there is one kind of EM charge, there is one photon, but since there are three kinds of color charge, there are eight gluons. Gluons themselves carry both a color charge and an anti-color charge, so you'd think that there would be nine gluons, but the combination red-antired + blue-antiblue + green-antigreen is colorless, so if you define a red-antired gluon and a blue-antiblue gluon, a green-antigreen gluon can be described as a superposition of the other two. Only eight gluons are needed to span the color space.

Leptons: Six called: e neutrino, u neutrino, t neutrino, electron, muon, and tau. All quarks and leptons couple to both W and Z bosons. A W, for example, transforms an electron to an electron neutrino, or a t-quark to a b-quark.

Gravity is not included in the standard model, however it is believed that is exchange force is a graviton.

THE FOUR FUNDEMENTAL FORCES OF NATURE:

Strong force
Weak force
Electromagnetism (EM)
Gravity

All of the fundamental forces are considered Exchange Forces. In other words the force involves an exchange of one or more particles.

The exchange particles are as follows:

Strong – The pion (and others)

Note: The pion does mediate the inter-nucleon force. That force isn't fundamental, however. The fundamental force is the inter-quark force that binds the quarks into hadrons (such as protons, neutrons and pions), and that is what we usually mean by the strong force, nowadays. The force between hadrons is a residual color dipole interaction that is analogous to the Van der Waals force in electromagnetism.

Lets explore this a bit further:

First, lets take a look at Van der Waals Forces:

Atom and molecules are attracted to each other by two classes of bonds. The Intramolecular bond and the Intermolecular bond.

The Intermolecular bond is divided into these categories; Van der Waals Forces, Hydrogen Bonds, and molecule-ion attractions.

The Intramolecular bond (which are much stronger than the Intermolecular bond) is divided into these categories; Ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and metallic bonds.

We will only concentrate on the Van der Waals Forces.

Van der Waals Forces arise from the interaction of the electrons and nuclei of electrically neutral atoms and molecules. How is this possible if these are considered electrically neutral I hear you ask. What is going on here is that the electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules (for this description: from here out called particles) are not at rest, but are in a constant motion. Since this is the case, there arises an electrical imbalance (called an instantaneous dipole [another term is a temporary polarity]) in this electrically neutral particle. Two “particles” in this dipole state will attract. Also this dipole action in one particle can cause a dipole in an adjoining (nearby) particle. So the dipole-dipole attraction is what is known as Van der Waals Forces. If these “particles” kinetic energies are low enough (anc close enough together), the repeated actions of the instantaneous dipoles will keep them attracted together.

One of the interesting things about this that the more electrons are in play the greater the Van der Waals Force. This is why the noble gas Krypton liquefies at a higher temperature than the noble gas Neon.

Back to the Standard Model.

A brief background: How does a nucleus stay together when it is packed with positively charged protons? Since “like” charges repel, you would think that the nucleus would fly apart. The force that keeps this from happening is the Strong Force. The binding energy that holds the nucleus together is directly related to the strength of the strong force. "Binding energy" is considered a negative energy.

So just what is this Strong Force anyway? The Strong force has an effect on quarks, anti quarks and gluons. After much research, it was discovered that the protons and neutrons in the nucleus were made up of smaller particles called quarks. It turned out that two types of quarks were needed to “produce” a proton or a neutron. However, there are six types of quarks in normal matter. The strong force binds these quarks together to form a family of particles called hadrons which include both protons and neutrons.

To simplify this discussion, quarks have a “color charge” (red, green, and blue). BTW, this was a convenient way of describing the charge, it is not referring to color as we commonly use it). Like colors repel and unlike colors attract. There are also antiquarks. If it is a quark/antiquark (same color) it is called a meson. If it’s between quarks it is called a baryon (protons and neutrons fall in this category). Here is the rub, baryonic particles can exist if their total color is neutral (colorless); i.e. have a red green and blue charge altogether. Both mesons and baryons are "colorless" with respect to the outside world. In baryons red + blue + green = colorless. In mesons, for example, red + anti-red (or, if you like, red - red) = colorless.

Without getting into too much more detail, quarks can interact, changing color, etc. so long as the total charge is conserved.

Super geek alert (this from Physicist)
Note: The quark interactions are cause by exchanging particles called gluons. There are eight kinds of gluons each having a specific “color” charge. The symmetry group of Quantum Chromodynamics is SU(3). In the minimal representation of SU(3), there are three generators...the color charges. In the non-minimal representation, there are 3²-1 generators...the eight gluons! This was spookily mirrored by Murray Gell-Mann's original (1964) quark theory, which also exploited the SU(3) symmetry. Only this time, the minimal representation was the three light quark flavors (up, down, strange), and the non-minimal representation was Gell-Mann's famous Eightfold Way, which correctly(!) predicted the properties of all the light hadrons, including some that had not yet been discovered.

So back to the original paragraph: Neutral (all three colors) hadrons (which include protons and neutrons) can interact with the strong force similarly to the way atoms an molecules react via the Van der Waals forces.

Electromagnetic (EM) – The photon
Weak – The W and Z
Gravity – The graviton

So to sum this up:

The Strong Force:
It is a force that holds the nucleus together against the repulsion of the Protons. It is not an inverse square force like EM and has a very short range. It is the strongest of the fundamental forces.

The Weak Force:
The weak force is the force that induces beta decay via interaction with neutrinos. A star uses the weak force to “burn” (nuclear fusion). Three processes we observe are proton-to proton fusion, helium fusion, and the carbon cycle. Here is an example of proton-to-proton fusion, which is the process our own sun uses: (two protons fuse -> via neutrino interaction one of the protons transmutes to a neutron to form deuterium -> combines with another proton to form a helium nuclei -> two helium nuclei fuse releasing alpha particles and two protons). The weak force is also necessary for the formation of the elements above iron. Due to the curve of binding energy (iron has the most tightly bound nucleus), nuclear forces within a star cannot form any element above iron in the periodic table. So it is believed that all higher elements were formed in the vast energies of supernovae. In this explosion large fluxes of energetic neutrons are produced which produce the heavier elements by nuclei bombardment. This process could not take place without neutrino involvement and the weak force.

Electromagnetism:
The electromagnetic force is the forces between charges (Coulomb’ Law) and the magnetic force which both are describe within the Lorentz Force Law. Electric and magnetic forces are manifestations of the exchange of photons. A photon is a quantum particle of light (electromagnetic radiation). This particle has a zero rest mass The relativistic mass of a photon is also zero. Gravity couples to energy density, which is typically dominated by mass. But even in Newtonian gravity, massless light particles will bend in a gravitational field (the trajectory of a test particle doesn't depend on mass). The speed of light in a vacuum is a constant and is unobtainable by baryonic matter due to the lorentz transformation. Electromagnetism obeys the “inverse square law”.

Gravity:
Gravity is the weakest of the forces and also obeys the inverse square law. The force is only attractive and is a force between any two masses. Gravity is what holds and forms the large scale structures of the universe such as galaxies

31 posted on 11/16/2003 1:08:24 AM PST by RadioAstronomer
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To: *crevo_list; VadeRetro; jennyp; Junior; longshadow; RadioAstronomer; Scully; LogicWings; ...
Late PING. [This ping list is for the evolution side of evolution threads, and sometimes for other science topics. FReepmail me to be added or dropped.]
32 posted on 11/16/2003 4:46:47 AM PST by PatrickHenry (Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas.)
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To: Diddley
[Singing]:
Ah! sweet mystery of life, at last I've found thee;
Ah! I know at last the secret of it all;
All the longing, striving, seeking, waiting, yearning,
The burning hopes, the joys and idle tears that fall!
Click here for music
33 posted on 11/16/2003 5:08:21 AM PST by Pharmboy (Dems lie 'cause they have to...)
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To: Skibane
Ever get the feeling that we are inventing needlessly complex explanations for some (as yet unseen) simple phenomenon?

Explanations actually get simpler as time goes on. First, chemistry reduced all the infinite varieties of matter to 90 some kinds of atoms, then atoms were reduced to thre kinds of particles, plus a zoo of mysterious sub-atomic particles. the current model has six particles and four forces.

The math gets harder but the number of entities goes down.

34 posted on 11/16/2003 6:30:45 AM PST by js1138
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To: Diddley
Thanks, here are some links:

http://www.kek.jp/press/2003/belle4e.html

a press release with some nice figures.

and here is the article on the particle: http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ex/0309032 (10 pages with 2 pages of researches, science is not as it was for Rutherford)

We report the observation of a narrow charmonium-like state produced in the exclusive decay process B+ -> K+ pi+pi- J/psi. This state, which decays into pi+pi- J/psi, has a mass of 3872.0+-0.6(stat)+-0.5(syst) MeV, a value that is very near the M_D + M_D* mass threshold. The results are based on an analysis of 152M B-Bbar events collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance in the Belle detector at the KEKB collider. The statistical significance of the signal is in excess of 10 sigma.

35 posted on 11/16/2003 6:44:07 AM PST by AdmSmith
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To: Diddley; general_re; dighton; Poohbah
And You-Know-Who shows up shortly after:


36 posted on 11/16/2003 6:47:31 AM PST by Chancellor Palpatine
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To: Diddley
Didn't the Japanese also invent the futon?
37 posted on 11/16/2003 6:53:38 AM PST by Consort
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To: Diddley
Is it the Copenhagen Theory of quantum physics that says if someone expects to find a certain type of subatomic particle, they will create it in the process even if it never existed?.
38 posted on 11/16/2003 6:57:16 AM PST by Consort
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To: general_re
"Who ordered that?" -- Isidor I. Rabi on the discovery of the muon.
39 posted on 11/16/2003 7:03:17 AM PST by VadeRetro
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To: Diddley
When I studied physics in high school there were only three elementary particles – the electron, proton and neutron. There was wild speculation that these might be made of other simpler particles, but many doubted it.
Was it really that long ago?
40 posted on 11/16/2003 7:08:41 AM PST by R. Scott
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To: RadioAstronomer
Thanks – I’ve been looking for a simple easy to read explanation of nearly everything. When a “Theory of Everything” comes out, will you do another post?
41 posted on 11/16/2003 7:14:01 AM PST by R. Scott
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To: R. Scott
Perhaps they only talked about these three particles. The positron was discovered in 1932 by Anderson, http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/1936/index.html but it did not materialize in high school until much later.
42 posted on 11/16/2003 7:22:45 AM PST by AdmSmith
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To: Diddley
With gluon, muon, lepton, is it going to be called the nip-on?
43 posted on 11/16/2003 7:24:48 AM PST by aruanan
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To: Diddley
Headline:

9 Anti-Quarks found in IOWA!
Of the nine found none were of the Charm variety,
while the rest were made up of strange, bottom and down quarks, an illusive "crusty" quark was observed to degass
for an unusually long time.

Several of the 'strange' quarks had unusual properties,
one appeared to come from vietnam and had a sticky reddish coating.
Another had the odor of, oddly enough, maple syrup.

44 posted on 11/16/2003 7:27:36 AM PST by tet68 ( Patrick Henry ......."Who fears the wrath of cowards?")
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To: RadioAstronomer
Thanks for clearing that up.

--------->

Head

45 posted on 11/16/2003 7:28:09 AM PST by Vinnie
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To: sourcery
ping
46 posted on 11/16/2003 7:33:02 AM PST by Libertarianize the GOP (Ideas have consequences)
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To: R. Scott
Thanks for the compliment. :-) However, there are many "smarter" physicists, astrophysicists, mathematicians, and astronomers, here on FR than I am.
47 posted on 11/16/2003 7:35:21 AM PST by RadioAstronomer
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To: RadioAstronomer
Great post!

But don't tell me there'll be a quiz Monday morning!
48 posted on 11/16/2003 7:42:39 AM PST by headsonpikes (Spirit of '76 bttt!)
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To: headsonpikes
But don't tell me there'll be a quiz Monday morning!

Rofl!

Thanks :-) Didn't you get the handout? Quizes will be on Tuesdays from here out.

49 posted on 11/16/2003 8:20:55 AM PST by RadioAstronomer
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To: RadioAstronomer
Where do I report seeing the same particle? The anti-quark was looking at me kinda funny.
50 posted on 11/16/2003 8:30:57 AM PST by ZeitgeistSurfer
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