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Romania and North Korea: Casting off the chains(How Kim Il Sung tyrannized Romania)
Taipei Times ^ | Nov 17, 2003 | James Zumwalt

Posted on 11/24/2003 4:59:25 AM PST by TigerLikesRooster

Romania and North Korea: Casting off the chains

By James Zumwalt

Monday, Nov 17, 2003,Page 9 Last month, Romanian president Ion Iliescu met with President George W. Bush -- the latter representing a people who have enjoyed democracy for more than two centuries; the former a people who have enjoyed it for little more than a decade.

For almost a quarter of the previous century, the Romanian people had been subjected to the brutal reign of Nicolae Ceausescu, which ended abruptly with that dictator's violent overthrow and execution in 1989. Once able to cast off the yoke of Ceausescu's tyranny, the Romanian people have proven themselves very capable of jump-starting a democracy.

Today, Romania stands as a model for what can be achieved by a nation whose people are committed to navigating the difficult course of transitioning from autocracy to democracy.

While there was much to be discussed by the two presidents, one wonders if Iliescu, knowing of Bush's current difficulties in trying to put North Korea's nuclear genie back into the bottle, shared with him the story about how a visit to that country by Ceausescu in 1971 had a devastating impact on the Romanian people and Iliescu's political fortunes.

Initially, Western leaders were encouraged by Ceausescu, who became head of the Romanian Communist Party in 1965 and two years later head of state, for he continued his predecessor's policy of following a path free of Soviet domination. He restricted his country's active participation in the Warsaw Pact and even condemned Moscow's 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. He developed a relatively liberal approach towards freedom of speech.

In 1967, to the further delight of the West and dismay of Moscow, he established diplomatic relations with West Germany and continued relations with Israel following the Six Day War. Ceausescu's independent thinking within the Soviet sphere of influence was rewarded by the US in 1969 when President Richard Nixon visited Romania.

In June 1971, Ceausescu visited North Korea. He was immediately taken in by what he observed there -- the disciplined society Kim Il Sung had created and the idolization the North Korean people appeared to have for their dictator. Ceausescu returned to Romania with a changed vision for his country -- one built around the North Korean model of complete control of its people.

Iliescu, then serving as secretary of the Communist Party's Central Committee, attempted to discourage Ceausescu from doing this, arguing what his leader saw as strength was weakness, as the complete control of the North Korean people was slowly undermining that country's economic soundness. Ceausescu would not heed Iliescu's advice.

For the next several years, as Ceausescu endeavored to impose the North Korean model upon Romania, Iliescu continued to voice his objections. With each objection, Iliescu was demoted, relegated to positions of less and less responsibility in order to isolate him and diminish his influence.

Ceausescu, meanwhile, sought to mimic Kim Il Sung's personality cult by creating his own. The North Korean strongman had dubbed himself the "Great Leader." Not wishing to be outdone, Ceausescu claimed the moniker "the Genius of the Carpathians," among other self-adulating titles. He also began to tighten his grip on his government by placing family members in powerful positions around him in an exercise of "dynastic socialism."

Unsurprisingly, by following the North Korean model, Ceausescu reaped what he sowed and, by 1981, had turned Romania into an economic basket case. Food rationing was reinstated and energy was in short supply. But, unlike North Korea, which received injections of cash from the Soviet Union to help hide the fact its economy was a sinking ship, Ceausescu found the Soviets unwilling (understandably so) to play the role of financial benefactor to one who had refused to tow the Soviet line. Ceausescu was left on his own to sink or swim.

As Iliescu continued his political downward spiral, he never lost hope the Romanian people would eventually win their freedom. His leadership in that fight for democracy and his courage in challenging Ceausescu were recognized soon after the dictator's demise when Iliescu was elected president of Romania in May 1990.

Thirty-two years ago, in the mind of an easily impressed Romanian dictator, North Korea served as an enviable model to be duplicated in his own country. That effort resulted in disaster for the Romanian people and, eventually, for the dictator himself.

We can only hope there is, in North Korea, an intelligentsia who fully comprehends the failure of the Romanian experiment to emulate the North Korean model -- and the current success of the Romanian experience with democracy. Should the North Korean people ever succeed in overthrowing their brutal leadership, sweet would be the irony if the new North Korean leadership then looked to Romania as the democratic model for them to emulate.

Should such a result occur, what a fitting tribute too it would be that the people of these two countries, in the end, were able to cast off the chains of tyranny to join the league of democratic nations, thus forever committing to the dustbin of history two of the world's most oppressive regimes.

James Zumwalt is a retired US Marine lieutenant-colonel and former senior adviser to the assistant secretary of state on human rights and humanitarian affairs under former president George Bush. Since 1994, he has made 10 visits to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in an effort to help bridge the differences between the US and the DPRK. He works as a private consultant to foreign and domestic clients in exploring and accessing investment opportunities in global markets.


TOPICS: Foreign Affairs; Front Page News; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: ceausescu; completecontrol; kimilsung; nkorea; northkorea; personalitycult; romania

1 posted on 11/24/2003 4:59:27 AM PST by TigerLikesRooster
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To: TigerLikesRooster
I remember the day they dragged that Stalinist pig out to that tiny courtyard on a cold Christmas morning. And executed him to the tune of 7.62 millimeters.

Good times, good times.

2 posted on 11/24/2003 5:14:55 AM PST by FierceDraka ("I AM NOT A NUMBER - I AM A FREE MAN!")
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To: FierceDraka
This article is interesting.

However, the FINAL SENTENCE of the piece is what really disturbed me and caused me to sit up and take real notice.

What the hell is that guy doing, cutting financial deals with the North Koreans? Any business granted to them, de-facto, gets 'rolled over' [just like an IRA retirement account] into patent state terror and dictatorship...or at least the furthering of that horrendous regime. The Nazis of East Asia in the 21st Century.

Shame on Zumwalt (unless he or his firm is actually doing non-official cover work).

3 posted on 11/24/2003 5:55:58 AM PST by AmericanInTokyo (NORTH KOREA is a DANGEROUS CANCER in late stages; we still only meditate and take herbal medicines)
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To: OahuBreeze; TigerLikesRooster; yonif; Steel Wolf; Eric in the Ozarks; ALOHA RONNIE
check it out
4 posted on 11/24/2003 5:57:47 AM PST by AmericanInTokyo (NORTH KOREA is a DANGEROUS CANCER in late stages; we still only meditate and take herbal medicines)
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To: TigerLikesRooster
North Korea is far more isolated than Romania ever was. The factors of geography, culture, and history have lead them down a path that has made this horrific dictatorship viable.

Regardless, Kim Jong Il will swing from a good sturdy lamppost soon enough. His death will truly be the end of an era.

5 posted on 11/24/2003 10:02:38 AM PST by Steel Wolf (Fat, drunk and stupid is no way to go through life, Kim)
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