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Big Chill Killed Off The Neanderthals
New Scientist ^ | 1-21-2004 | Douglas Palmer

Posted on 01/21/2004 3:26:51 PM PST by blam

Big chill killed off the Neanderthals

19:00 21 January 04

It is possibly the longest-running murder mystery of them all. What, or even who, killed humankind's nearest relatives, the Neanderthals who once roamed Europe before dying out almost 30,000 years ago?

Suspects have ranged from the climate to humans themselves, and the mystery has deeply divided experts. Now 30 scientists have come together to publish the most definitive answer yet to this enigma.

They say Neanderthals simply did not have the technological know-how to survive the increasingly harsh winters. And intriguingly, rather than being Neanderthal killers, the original human settlers of Europe almost suffered the same fate.

The last ice age

Led by Tjeerd van Andel of the University of Cambridge, a team of archaeologists, anthropologists, geologists and climate modellers have compiled a vast new set of biological, environmental and social evidence on life between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago.

It includes data from sediment cores and 400 or so archaeological sites, and information gleaned from fossil bones and stone tools. To this they have added the most up-to-date climate models, and radiometric dates of human and Neanderthal sites and artefacts.

Seasonal migration

The result is a definitive series of maps covering climate change over time, the appearance of animal and plant populations, and how human and Neanderthal communities migrated with the seasons. The resolution is so good that, for the first time, researchers can reliably trace the movements of both hominid species.

Ice cores recovered from Greenland in the 1970s show that Europe's climate varied hugely during the last ice age, especially in the period between 70,000 and 20,000 years ago. Cold glacial periods were punctuated by warmer times, and the average temperature could rise and fall several degrees within a decade or so.

Studies of permafrost patterns, the remains of small animals and pollen grains, as well as fossil bones, show that such changes had a dramatic effect on the flora and fauna of the time, including Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

The maps show that, facing temperatures that plummeted to -10°C in winter (see map), Neanderthals retreated south from northern Europe 30,000 years ago, a migration which coincided exactly with the southern march of the ice sheets (Neanderthal and Modern Humans in the European Landscape of the Last Glaciation: Archaeological Results of the Stage 3 Project).

It is surprising "the extent to which Neanderthals seem to have been deterred by the cold, and retreated as the going got tough," says archaeologist William Davies, a co-editor of the report based at University of Southampton, UK.

Last refuge

The maps also reveal that the earliest modern humans, the Aurignacian people, who appeared around 40,000 years ago, could not cope with the glacial cold either. They retreated south until 25,000 years ago when they were reduced to a few refuges, such as southwest France and the shores of the Black Sea.

The new maps show that even at the height of the last glacial period, 18,000 to around 22,000 years ago, continental Europe supported extensive grasslands which were fodder for huge numbers of migrant animals such as reindeer and bison.

The archaeological evidence strongly suggests that both hominids coexisted in southern Europe for thousands of years, but competed for ever diminishing resources. And that might have been the end for both Homo sapiens and Neanderthals but for the arrival of the technologically advanced Gravettians.

The Gravettians appeared in eastern Europe 29,000 to 30,000 years ago complete with flash new tools, such as javelin-like throwing spears and fishing nets, which allowed them to catch a greater range of prey.

They also had clothing to keep the cold out, such as sewn furs and woven textiles, and possibly more specialised social structures. Their ability to tough out the colder climes dominating Europe 18,000 to 25,000 years ago revitalised the human population.

Adapt to survive

The Neanderthals, however, without either new blood or new technology, found it impossible to survive and died out, probably around 28,000 years ago.

For Neanderthal expert Paul Pettitt of the University of Sheffield, UK, the evidence that climate adversely affected the Aurignacian people as much as the Neanderthals is fascinating. When the going got tough in northern Europe, says Pettitt, both adopted a "get out of the kitchen strategy".

In contrast, Gravettians used their technological prowess "to reorganise the way the kitchen was used". Pettitt says that step was just as revolutionary as becoming modern Homo sapiens in the first place.

Douglas Palmer


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: americas; anthropology; archaeology; bering; big; chill; climatechange; clovis; dillehay; economic; extinction; ggg; glaciation; godsgravesglyphs; history; iceage; killed; multiregionalism; neandertal; neandertals; neanderthal; neanderthals; paleontology; pleistocene; preclovis; science; siberia
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I believe that Neanderthals were assimilated with modern humans. We are Neanderthals.

The Neanderthals were around for 250,000 years, I think they could handle the cold.

1 posted on 01/21/2004 3:26:51 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
Big chill killed off the Neanderthals

Then who was that guy screaming at the Iowa caucus?

2 posted on 01/21/2004 3:28:18 PM PST by 11th Earl of Mar
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To: farmfriend
Interesting read here:

The Neanderthal Theory

3 posted on 01/21/2004 3:28:52 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
I don't believe that for a moment, but I am hoping that whatever climate change is in vogue now will lead to the extinction of liberals.
4 posted on 01/21/2004 3:29:14 PM PST by anniegetyourgun
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To: blam; SunkenCiv
Perhaps they suffered a fashion/grooming trend and began trimming away the excess body hair... Oh, the vanity!
5 posted on 01/21/2004 3:29:49 PM PST by ValerieUSA
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To: anniegetyourgun
RedHeads 'Are Neanderthals' (Amber Gene)
6 posted on 01/21/2004 3:30:51 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
We are NOT!
7 posted on 01/21/2004 3:32:17 PM PST by ValerieUSA
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To: blam
It is surprising "the extent to which Neanderthals seem to have been deterred by the cold, and retreated as the going got tough," says archaeologist William Davies, a co-editor of the report based at University of Southampton, UK.

And this genius scientist would have stayed there. Makes more sense to me to follow the food as it moved south.
8 posted on 01/21/2004 3:33:12 PM PST by PeterPrinciple
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To: blam
"Big chill killed off the Neanderthals"

Yep, if you do it right it does every time. hehe

9 posted on 01/21/2004 3:33:26 PM PST by Darlin' ("I will not forget this wound to my country." President George W Bush, 20 Sept 2001)
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To: blam
Didn't they find neanderthal remains in the Middle East?
10 posted on 01/21/2004 3:33:43 PM PST by RightWhale (Repeal the Law of the Excluded Middle)
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To: blam; *Gods, Graves, Glyphs; A.J.Armitage; abner; Alas Babylon!; ameribbean expat; Andyman; ...
Gods, Graves, Glyphs
List for articles regarding early civilizations , life of all forms, - dinosaurs - etc.

Let me know if you wish to be added or removed from this ping list.

11 posted on 01/21/2004 3:33:55 PM PST by farmfriend ( Isaiah 55:10,11)
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To: blam
?


12 posted on 01/21/2004 3:34:53 PM PST by GunRunner
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To: blam
Well, I'm just glad they stopped blaming Bush for this.
13 posted on 01/21/2004 3:36:00 PM PST by Kirkwood ("When the s*** hits the fan, there is enough for everyone.")
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To: 11th Earl of Mar
lol
14 posted on 01/21/2004 3:36:50 PM PST by miltonim
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To: blam
Cold glacial periods were punctuated by warmer times, and the average temperature could rise and fall several degrees within a decade or so.

So. Warming is a normal deal, then? Too bad those 'thallers didn't have the good old U. S. of A. to send the bill to back then, like they do now. If having a thick head is a sign of Neanderthalism, then I know where they are hanging out these days -- there is no one more thickheaded than a liberal, and especially those who waste our time and money trying to stop the warming that ended the ice age.

15 posted on 01/21/2004 3:38:15 PM PST by Migraine (my grain is pretty straight today)
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To: blam
Interesting. Al-Douri is a redhead.
16 posted on 01/21/2004 3:39:22 PM PST by colorado tanker ("There are but two parties now, Traitors and Patriots")
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To: farmfriend
Could you add me to your ping list? Thanks! :)
17 posted on 01/21/2004 3:42:08 PM PST by CathyRyan (I thought I was nuts until I met Dean ;))
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To: CathyRyan
Consider yourself added. If you ever change your mind, or I get you on the wrong list, just let me know.
18 posted on 01/21/2004 3:44:33 PM PST by farmfriend ( Isaiah 55:10,11)
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To: Kirkwood
Well, I'm just glad they stopped blaming Bush for this.

In this forum, it was Clinton's fault.

19 posted on 01/21/2004 3:46:40 PM PST by Doe Eyes
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To: blam

20 posted on 01/21/2004 3:47:25 PM PST by EggsAckley (...................Repeal the Fourteenth Amendment.......................)
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To: blam
I agree,wholeheartedly !

I've seen people -Arnold Schwartzneger is one - with the anthopoid physical characteristics one might associate with the Neanderthal variety of humans.
21 posted on 01/21/2004 3:50:59 PM PST by genefromjersey (So little time - so many FLAMES to light !!)
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To: blam
From the RedHeads thread: the ancestors of modern man, arrived from Africa about 40,000 years ago.

That settles it! We ALL get reparations!

22 posted on 01/21/2004 3:51:35 PM PST by NonValueAdded ("America will never seek a permission slip to defend the security of our people." GWB 1/20/04)
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To: blam
The Neandrthals aren't extinct. ther are acutally quite a few of them left. They mingle among humans and generally live in the larger human cities. I've seen them' most people probably have and just didn't realize it. They usually live in the slums of the large cities, stay out of sight most of the time during the day, are found lurking in the back alleys and decayed areas of the largest cities. Next time you're out for a walk in these one of areas, especially after dark (best time is on the warmer, foggy nights), look closely: They're there, you'll see them.
23 posted on 01/21/2004 3:56:07 PM PST by templar
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To: blam
Would that be "global chillin"?
24 posted on 01/21/2004 4:01:15 PM PST by dc-zoo
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To: blam
I don't believe this. My reason: On the average the Neanderthal had a LARGER brain that H. Sapien did (and does). In short, they had enough smarts.
25 posted on 01/21/2004 4:03:44 PM PST by Citizen Tom Paine (The past is an unknown land.)
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To: RightWhale
"Didn't they find neanderthal remains in the Middle East?"

Yes, some of the oldest.

26 posted on 01/21/2004 4:04:02 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
There you are. Hey, caldera-dude, come check this out Is California Heating up?
27 posted on 01/21/2004 4:04:03 PM PST by txhurl
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To: dead
Or maybe I'm thinking of dead.
28 posted on 01/21/2004 4:04:54 PM PST by txhurl
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To: EggsAckley
I don't know why, but that picture scares me every time someone posts it. If I have nightmares tonight, it's your fault.
29 posted on 01/21/2004 4:05:48 PM PST by DallasMike (Democrats are toast)
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To: RightWhale
"Didn't they find neanderthal remains in the Middle East?"

Did Humans And Neanderthals Battle For Control Of The Middle East?

30 posted on 01/21/2004 4:07:15 PM PST by blam
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To: DallasMike
have some warm milk, works every time.
~</;o)
31 posted on 01/21/2004 4:08:06 PM PST by EggsAckley (...................Repeal the Fourteenth Amendment.......................)
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Comment #32 Removed by Moderator

To: blam
This article ignores the Neanderthals living side by side with Moderns in Isreal for thousands of years. If they made it there, it seems they escaped the cold.
33 posted on 01/21/2004 4:09:38 PM PST by bert (Have you offended a liberal today?)
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To: EggsAckley
That's a nice picture of Chelsea Clinton.
34 posted on 01/21/2004 4:13:12 PM PST by Free ThinkerNY (((Live Free or Die!)))
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To: Free ThinkerNY
"That's a nice picture of Chelsea Clinton."

That's a reconstructed face of a 'Hybrid' Human-Neanderthal child found in Spain.

35 posted on 01/21/2004 4:20:34 PM PST by blam
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To: 11th Earl of Mar
Then who was that guy screaming at the Iowa caucus?

LOL....when I saw the title, I thought it had something to do with Dean, and Iowa!

36 posted on 01/21/2004 4:20:48 PM PST by backtobasics
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To: blam
YEC INTREP
37 posted on 01/21/2004 4:22:28 PM PST by LiteKeeper
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To: blam
 
Sometimes, I just cannot help myself.

38 posted on 01/21/2004 4:23:30 PM PST by Radix (.It is Wednesday, it is Pancakes, and it is only 11 days until Super Bowl XXXVIII.)
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To: EggsAckley
20 posted on 01/21/2004 3:47:25 PM PST by EggsAckley (...................Repeal the Fourteenth Amendment.......................)

______________________________________________

Sure thing 'Egg', -- who cares if our rights to life, liberty & property are violated?

39 posted on 01/21/2004 4:34:37 PM PST by tpaine (I'm trying to be 'Mr Nice Guy', but the U.S. Constitution defines a conservative. (writer 33)
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To: blam
I believe that Neanderthals were assimilated with modern humans. We are Neanderthals.

Geneticists describe the neanderthal as a separate species from us and as an evolutionary dead end. DNA test showed them to be enough different from us that crossbreeding would not have even been possible. I would guess that our ancestors got tired of looking at them and killed them all.

40 posted on 01/21/2004 4:36:55 PM PST by greenwolf
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To: tpaine
The 14th is the one that makes babies born here automatic citizens. It is a holdover from the end of slavery. Due to the illegal immigrants, it needs to be changed.
41 posted on 01/21/2004 4:41:33 PM PST by EggsAckley (...................Repeal the Fourteenth Amendment.......................)
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To: EggsAckley
It does not need to be repealed. Liberal judges have twisted it. It says all persons born in the U.S. AND SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION THEREOF become citizens.
42 posted on 01/21/2004 5:04:15 PM PST by Ahban
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To: blam
I think the deluge of Noah got them.
43 posted on 01/21/2004 5:06:08 PM PST by Ahban
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To: ValerieUSA
Neandosexuals?
44 posted on 01/21/2004 5:13:50 PM PST by gcruse (http://gcruse.typepad.com/)
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To: blam
"Did Humans And Neanderthals Battle For Control Of The Middle East?"

Yes. The Neanderthals won, and assimilated into the tribe of "Arabs!"

45 posted on 01/21/2004 5:21:02 PM PST by Destructor
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To: greenwolf
It's misleading to say those mtDNA studies prove we aren't related to Neanderthals. They don't.
46 posted on 01/21/2004 5:26:38 PM PST by VadeRetro
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To: EggsAckley
I getcha.. Repeal and we can with-hold citizenship from those pesky neanderthal types.. Great idea..
47 posted on 01/21/2004 5:36:41 PM PST by tpaine (I'm trying to be 'Mr Nice Guy', but the U.S. Constitution defines a conservative. (writer 33)
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To: VadeRetro
Let's pick a male. He marries a Cro-magnon female. His kids get half his nuclear genes. How much of his mtDNA do they have? Not one of them has any.

Let's pick a female neandethal who marries a Cro-magnon male. Again, her kids each get half of their nuclear DNA from her. How much of their mtDNA do they have? All of them have all of it. "Now we're cooking!" you say.

But let's be real and say half of her brood is male. None of her granchildren from them will have neanderthal mtDNA. It's only her direct female line that will carry the mtDNA. She's only one woman in a village with maybe ten women in it, and the Cro-magnons think she's butt-ugly.

Marriage? Into another species? Isn't that sort of like you marrying a dog or a cat?

Would you let your daughter marry a dog or a cat?

48 posted on 01/21/2004 6:17:33 PM PST by greenwolf
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To: greenwolf
You're begging the question. What we don't really know is whether we could interbreed with them or if we did. Well, there's some ambiguous evidence that some interbreeding might have happened in the Near East earlier. Then there's the Lagar Velho child from 26K years ago in Portugal, another maybe.
49 posted on 01/21/2004 6:22:22 PM PST by VadeRetro
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To: blam
"That's a nice picture of Chelsea Clinton."

That's a reconstructed face of a 'Hybrid' Human-Neanderthal child found in Spain.
=======================================
So which Clinton is the human and which is the Neanderthal? And how did Chelsea get to Spain?

50 posted on 01/21/2004 6:23:50 PM PST by night reader
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