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Scientists Explore Lakefront Property, in the Sahara
The New York Times ^ | January 27, 2004 | BRENDA FOWLER

Posted on 02/01/2004 1:36:28 PM PST by sarcasm

The paleontologists were driving across the scorched and trackless Ténéré Desert of Niger, following a low ridge of rock bearing dinosaur fossils. Suddenly, someone on the team, led by Dr. Paul Sereno of the University of Chicago, spotted something dark against the tawny dunes.

Getting out of their vehicles, they stepped into sand littered with the fossilized bones of modern crocodiles, hippos, camels and birds — interesting creatures, to be sure, but not exactly the quarry of these paleontologists. "But then things got really strange," recalls Gabrielle Lyon, a member of the expedition who is Dr. Sereno's wife and the director of Project Exploration, a science education group.

As members of the group stood around their vehicles comparing finds, Mike Hettwer, the expedition photographer, came loping up with news of human skeletons and stone tools eroding from a hillside.

In search of pieces of the 110-million-year-old Cretaceous puzzle, Dr. Sereno's team had found what archaeologists in Niger say is a large Neolithic, or Stone Age, burial and settlement site tentatively dated at 5,000 years old.

"It's a very important site," says Dr. Abdoulaye Maga, an archaeologist with the Institute of Research in the Human Sciences in Niamey, Niger, who visited it in 2000, shortly after the discovery. "It's the largest site that has been found and not pillaged." Though he has discovered and excavated a few dozen new species of African dinosaurs, Dr. Sereno has no experience with prehistoric human sites like this. He said his team counted 130 skeletons, including one with the remains of a stone bead necklace and innumerable stone and bone tools. He suspects, he says, that much more lies buried.

"I'm not afraid of any kind of dinosaur, the uglier the better," he said. "But here for the first time I got goose bumps because I was looking at my own skeleton, a modern human."

Dr. Diane Gifford-Gonzalez, an archaeologist at the University of California at Santa Cruz who has discussed the site with Dr. Sereno, said the discovery was a "big deal" and merited "serious, serious work."

Fearing the site would be looted and ruined, Dr. Sereno initially told only Dr. Maga and his colleagues about its location. Because financing for archaeological work in Niger is scarce, no excavation was begun.

When Dr. Sereno returned to the site in November, he saw it had deteriorated so he and his team spent two days in their two-month expedition mapping it and then applying a polymer to the surface artifacts to protect them from further erosion. He is now trying to find financing and other archaeologists to assist Dr. Maga with the excavation.

No radiocarbon dating has been done yet; Dr. Maga based his dating on the presence of a thin, discoid knife made of green jasper that is characteristic of a little-known population, traditionally called the Ténérian culture, that lived in the area some 5,000 years ago.

Today the Ténéré Desert, a California-size part of the Sahara that blankets much of Niger and is famous for its 100-mile-long sand dunes, is one of the driest places on earth and practically uninhabited.

But five millennia ago the environment there was much wetter, and Dr. Sereno thinks the sediments suggest that the settlement may have been on the shore of a lake.

"I found some catfish skulls, a bunch of them, and there was a little tail, and I'm blowing the sand off and then I run into the edge of a ceramic bowl that was around them," Dr. Sereno said. "I was looking at a bowl of fossilized catfish. Someone in the middle of a meal abandoned this bowl, and it got fossilized."

Dr. Sereno's team identified five distinct areas at the site, including two large burial places of more than 100 yards in diameter. Besides the skeletons and the jasper knife, they found several large grinding stones, harpoons and fishhooks made of bone, fingernail-size arrowheads in many colors, and jewelry, including a round pendant made of the fluted tooth of the hippopotamus and a necklace made of ostrich egg shell and stone beads.

Scattered across the site were fish and animal bones, including those of domesticated cattle. With the exception of a few items they plucked off the surface and have brought back to show archaeologists, the team did not disturb anything.

While the history of the powerful Egyptian civilization of the same era has been widely studied, the culture of the vast interior of central Africa has begun to attract attention only in the last few decades.

"There was a very rich and fascinating cultural manifestation around what is now the Ténéré desert but then was grassland and marshes," said Dr. Gifford-Gonzalez. "We're not thinking one culture. We're thinking a network of people who interacted from the Sudanese Nile all the way across the Sahara."

Indeed, the greenish stone used in some of the arrowheads is probably amazonite, which comes from several hundred miles away in the Tibesti Mountains of northeastern Chad, said Dr. Augustin F. C. Holl, an archaeologist at the University of Michigan and curator of West African archaeology at the Museum of Anthropology there.

The people who made these tools maintained herds of domesticated cattle, goats and sheep. But they did not grow crops; they harvested the abundant wild grains that grew along lakes and streams.

Dr. Holl said the vastness of the cemeteries suggests they may have been used over many centuries, and perhaps only during the dry months, when small groups gathered at seasonal lakes. In the rainy season, they would have taken their herds into the highlands, such as the Aïr Mountains of Central Niger, where many rock carvings have been found.

But Dr. Maga in Niger and Dr. Susan McIntosh, an archaeologist at Rice University in Houston who works in Mali, believe the settlement was probably permanent.

"They were clearly fishing part of the time, they had their cattle, they had their cereals, so this is looking like a pretty comprehensive economy," Dr. McIntosh said.


TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: africa; climate; drought; globalwarminghoax; godsgravesglyphs; paleontology; sahara; saharaforest
 
A knife made of green jasper, top,
and a human burial site were
accidentally found in Niger at a
burial and settlement site estimated at 5,000 years old.

1 posted on 02/01/2004 1:36:29 PM PST by sarcasm
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To: sarcasm
The knife is beautiful.

Too bad the locals started driving SUVs and ruined the climate.

2 posted on 02/01/2004 1:50:21 PM PST by Mike Darancette (Proud member - Neoconservative Power Vortex)
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To: sarcasm
Boy..aint that just the way it is....you come home after a few millenia and the old place just aint the same anymore...
3 posted on 02/01/2004 1:56:05 PM PST by joesnuffy (Moderate Islam Is For Dilettantes)
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To: sarcasm; blam
fyi
4 posted on 02/01/2004 1:59:11 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (The terrorists and their supporters declared war on the United States - and war is what they got!!!!)
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To: sarcasm
Absent carbon-dating this could just as easily be the remains of an archaeologist from 100 years ago who got caught in a violent snowstorm.
5 posted on 02/01/2004 2:02:31 PM PST by Old Professer
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To: Old Professer; sarcasm

6 posted on 02/01/2004 2:09:58 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (The terrorists and their supporters declared war on the United States - and war is what they got!!!!)
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To: All
Link to interactive Map:

Niger

7 posted on 02/01/2004 2:16:07 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (The terrorists and their supporters declared war on the United States - and war is what they got!!!!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach
What are you, a real estate salesman?
8 posted on 02/01/2004 2:31:19 PM PST by Old Professer
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To: sarcasm
A New York Times article that didn't blame Bush.

Has got to be a first

9 posted on 02/01/2004 2:44:17 PM PST by JZoback
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To: Old Professer
LOL!!!

I just like to know where things are on the globe!

10 posted on 02/01/2004 3:05:11 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (The terrorists and their supporters declared war on the United States - and war is what they got!!!!)
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To: Old Professer
The Headline did say Lakefront!!!!!
11 posted on 02/01/2004 3:06:11 PM PST by Ernest_at_the_Beach (The terrorists and their supporters declared war on the United States - and war is what they got!!!!)
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To: Mike Darancette
Too bad the locals started driving SUVs and ruined the climate.

^^
LOL
12 posted on 02/01/2004 3:21:53 PM PST by Bigg Red (Never again trust Democrats with national security!)
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To: Ernest_at_the_Beach; sarcasm
Thanks for the article. Good maps Ernest...I love maps.
13 posted on 02/01/2004 3:32:58 PM PST by blam
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To: Old Professer; farmfriend
"Absent carbon-dating this could just as easily be the remains of an archaeologist from 100 years ago who got caught in a violent snowstorm."

...who just happened to have a Green Jasper knife in his pocket when he died.

14 posted on 02/01/2004 3:34:53 PM PST by blam
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To: Old Professer
Carbon Dating should narrow it down to between 5000 and 50,000,382 years with a large degree of certainty.
15 posted on 02/01/2004 5:00:48 PM PST by gscc
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To: sarcasm
Great post! Thanks
16 posted on 02/01/2004 5:12:58 PM PST by expat_panama
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To: sarcasm; *Gods, Graves, Glyphs; A.J.Armitage; abner; adam_az; AdmSmith; Alas Babylon!; ...
Gods, Graves, Glyphs
List for articles regarding early civilizations , life of all forms, - dinosaurs - etc.

Let me know if you wish to be added or removed from this ping list.

17 posted on 02/02/2004 1:05:17 AM PST by farmfriend ( Isaiah 55:10,11)
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To: sarcasm; VadeRetro
"I was looking at a bowl of fossilized catfish. Someone in the middle of a meal abandoned this bowl, and it got fossilized."

I wonder what could cause a bowl of catfish to fossilize in tact, say around 4,000 to 5,000 years ago?

18 posted on 02/02/2004 7:51:56 AM PST by bondserv (Alignment is critical.)
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To: sarcasm
Niger? They were probably uranium merchants.
19 posted on 02/02/2004 9:51:04 AM PST by colorado tanker ("There are but two parties now, Traitors and Patriots")
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To: sarcasm; Old_Professor
It is so annoying when one of your buried bone collections gets discovered...but at least they found Muttly's Cub Scout knife.

Is that a Pith Helmet behind that skull...?....
20 posted on 02/02/2004 10:56:47 AM PST by PoorMuttly ("Hello, my name is Muttly...and I am a Recovering Human")
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To: bondserv
I wonder what could cause a bowl of catfish to fossilize in tact, say around 4,000 to 5,000 years ago?

I was wondering that too. Am kind of curious as to what the current theory on fossilization says about the amount of time it takes to create a fossil.

21 posted on 02/02/2004 3:20:05 PM PST by yhwhsman ("Never give in--never, never, never, never, in nothing great or small..." -Sir Winston Churchill)
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To: bondserv
I was thinking the same thing, especially in what the article called a marshland?
22 posted on 02/02/2004 3:28:54 PM PST by Eva
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To: yhwhsman
Check my profile page. (Click on bondserv to forward to my profile page).
23 posted on 02/02/2004 5:14:03 PM PST by bondserv (Alignment is critical.)
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To: Eva
Check my profile page. (Click on bondserv to forward to my profile page).
24 posted on 02/02/2004 5:14:23 PM PST by bondserv (Alignment is critical.)
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Just updating the GGG information, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
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25 posted on 07/22/2006 9:21:02 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Wednesday, June 21, 2006. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
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Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
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26 posted on 09/15/2008 9:55:52 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_______Profile hasn't been updated since Friday, May 30, 2008)
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