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Library of Alexandria discovered
BBC News ^ | Wednesday, 12 May, 2004 | Dr David Whitehouse

Posted on 05/17/2004 10:10:51 AM PDT by presidio9

Archaeologists have found what they believe to be the site of the Library of Alexandria, often described as the world's first major seat of learning. A Polish-Egyptian team has excavated parts of the Bruchion region of the Mediterranean city and discovered what look like lecture halls or auditoria.

Two thousand years ago, the library housed works by the greatest thinkers and writers of the ancient world.

Works by Plato and Socrates and many others were later destroyed in a fire.

Oldest University

Announcing their discovery at a conference being held at the University of California, Zahi Hawass, president of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, said that the 13 lecture halls uncovered could house as many as 5,000 students in total.

A conspicuous feature of the rooms, he said, was a central elevated podium for the lecturer to stand on.

"It is the first time ever that such a complex of lecture halls has been uncovered on any Greco-Roman site in the whole Mediterranean area," he added.

"It is perhaps the oldest university in the world."

Professor Wileke Wendrich, of the University of California, told BBC News Online that the discovery was incredibly impressive.

Alexandria was a major seat of learning in ancient times and regarded by some as the birthplace of western science.

Birthplace of geometry

It was a tiny fishing village on the Nile delta called Rhakotis when Alexander the Great chose it as the site of the new capital of his empire.

It was made Egypt's capital in 320 BC and soon became the most powerful and influential city in the region.

Its rulers built a massive lighthouse at Pharos, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the famed Library of Alexandria.

It was at the library that Archimedes invented the screw-shaped water pump that is still in use today.

At Alexandria Eratosthenes measured the diameter of the Earth, and Euclid discovered the rules of geometry.

Ptolemy wrote the Almagest at Alexandria. It was the most influential scientific book about the nature of the Universe for 1,500 years.

The library was later destroyed, possibly by Julius Caesar who had it burned as part of his campaign to conquer the city.


TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News; Foreign Affairs; Miscellaneous; News/Current Events; Philosophy
KEYWORDS: alexanderthegreat; alexandria; archaeology; cantstandsya; classicalgreek; economic; epigraphyandlanguage; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; library; libraryofalexandria; tropicofcancer
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To: presidio9
Charles E. Beatley, Jr. Central Library

5005 Duke Street

Alexandria, VA 22304-2903

51 posted on 05/17/2004 12:46:10 PM PDT by xsrdx (Diligentia, Vis, Celeritas)
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To: Destro
It was not the only fire - and what ever was left of the library was done in by the Arabs - they used the books to heat their baths for months.

Arabs used to take baths?!? Wow. Who knew?!
Must have been the non-Muslim Arabs.

52 posted on 05/17/2004 12:46:27 PM PDT by Ignatz (Rent this space! Daily and weekly rates available!)
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To: PatrickHenry
...Socrates left no writings....

yes, but many of his lectures and sayings were written down by his students and thus preserved for posterity. Among the most famous were his last words:

"I drank what?"

53 posted on 05/17/2004 12:47:48 PM PDT by Phsstpok (often wrong, but never in doubt)
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To: nopardons

Don't blame me. I voted for Julius Caesor.


54 posted on 05/17/2004 12:49:05 PM PDT by JusPasenThru (Aw screw the Democrats.)
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To: Doctor Stochastic

bttt


55 posted on 05/17/2004 12:54:17 PM PDT by RadioAstronomer
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To: presidio9
Yeah. But real science didn't some along until Charles Darwin emerged.
56 posted on 05/17/2004 12:54:42 PM PDT by Fester Chugabrew
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To: JusPasenThru
I hope you spelled his name right,back then. LOL

You would have had to vote for him for Senator,though, because ONLY the Senators could have made him a Proconsul.Pompeii was one of the triumpherate and it was in the battle AGAINST Pompeii,that the Alexandrian library caught fire.

57 posted on 05/17/2004 12:55:16 PM PDT by nopardons
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To: VadeRetro

Right you are.


58 posted on 05/17/2004 12:56:50 PM PDT by nopardons
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To: jpsb

Correct!


59 posted on 05/17/2004 12:57:31 PM PDT by nopardons
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To: pete anderson
I have always wondered how much more scientific, medical and technological information the world would now posses if it had not been for the Alexandria Fire.

Interesting conjecture, what did survive was enough to develop the calculas (at least integral calculas) but the Arabs who translated it did not understand what they had. It took until the enlightenment and Issac Newton to realize and "rediscover" it. But I am astonisned that othes before him did not realize from the proofs of Archimedes what was already done.

60 posted on 05/17/2004 1:04:01 PM PDT by KC_for_Freedom (Sailing the highways of America, and loving it.)
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To: presidio9; blam
"Its rulers built a massive lighthouse at Pharos, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the famed Library of Alexandria."

The Library, the lighthouse, and the Great Pyramid(s).

3 ancient wonders all built within mere miles of each other. The rest of the ancient world combined only managed to cobble together 4 more comparable wonders.

61 posted on 05/17/2004 1:06:53 PM PDT by Southack (Media Bias means that Castro won't be punished for Cuban war crimes against Black Angolans in Africa)
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To: presidio9
The library was also an un-named source for this -celebrated & unmentionable Necronomicon of the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred! It seems that this shocking blasphemy was produced by a native of Sanaa, in Yemen, who flourished about 700 A. D. & made many mysterious pilgrimages to Babylon's ruins, Memphis's catacombs, & the devil- hunted & untrodden wastes of the great southern deserts of Arabia- the Raba el Khaliyeh, where he claimed to have found records of things older than mankind, & to have learnt the worship of Yog-Sothoth & Cthulhu.
62 posted on 05/17/2004 1:11:43 PM PDT by muleskinner (Oh, when the Krauts go marching in....)
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To: presidio9

Likeness of an Alexandrian Library Cop...
You don't want him after you for an overdue scroll!

63 posted on 05/17/2004 1:45:31 PM PDT by theDentist (John Kerry never saw a TAX he wouldn't HIKE !!!)
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To: Southack

Ahhh... you don't think maybe the guy who compiled the list of the 7 wonders just liked his Egyptian honeymoon, do you?


64 posted on 05/17/2004 1:52:11 PM PDT by dangus
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To: Southack
"The rest of the ancient world combined only managed to cobble together 4 more comparable wonders."

You're forgetting Sundaland that went underwater at the end of the last Ice Age...and, a number of people believe it was these refugees who inspired these structures through-out the world.

See: Eden In The East, by Dr Stephen Oppenheimer and Voyages Of The Pyramid Builders by Dr Robert Schoch.

65 posted on 05/17/2004 2:07:54 PM PDT by blam
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To: Southack

BTW, the oldest bronze making site every discovered is in Thailand.


66 posted on 05/17/2004 2:09:24 PM PDT by blam
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To: Southack
The Library wasn't one of the Seven Wonders.
67 posted on 05/17/2004 2:32:36 PM PDT by Doctor Stochastic (Vegetabilisch = chaotisch is der Charakter der Modernen. - Friedrich Schlegel)
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To: muleskinner
From "The Conflict Between Religion and Science". Vol XII by John Draper, published 1890.

"The true, the most glorious monument of the Macedonian kings of Egypt is the Museum. Its influences will last when even the pyramids have passed away."

"The Alexandrian Museum was commenced by Ptolemy Soter, and was completed by his son Ptolemy Philadelphus. It was situated in the Bruchion, the aristocratic quarter of the city, adjoining the king's palace. Built of marble, it was surrounded with a piazza, in which the residents might walk and converse togethr. Its sculptured apartments contained the Philadelphian library, and were crowded with the choicest statues and pictures. This library eventually comprised four hundred thousand volumes. In the course of time, probably on account of inadequate accommodation for so many books, an additional library was established in the adjacent quarter Rhacotis, and placed in the Serapion or temple of Serapis. The number of volumes in this library, which was called the Daughter of that in the Museum, was eventually three hundred thousand volumes in these royal collections."

"For the perpetuation of knowldge: Orders were given to the chief librarian to buy at the king's expense whatever books he could. A body of transcribers was maintained in the Museum, whose duty it was to make correct copies of such works as their owners were not disposed to sell. .....

"One of the chief objects of the Museum was that of serving as the home of a body of men who devoted themselves to study, and were lodged and maintained at the king's expense......in connection with the Museum were a botanical and a zoological garden...for the purpose of facilitating the study of plants and animals. There was also an astronomical observatory ....

"The library in the Museum was burnt during the siege of Alexandria by Julius Caesar."

After a siege of fourteen months, and a loss of twenty-three thousand men, the Saracens captured the city. In his dispatch to the khalif, Amrou enumerated the splendors of the great city of the West." (no date given)

Another interesting tidbit: " His (Cyril, Bishop at Alexandria)hold upon the audiences of the giddy city was, however, much weakened by Hypatia, the daughter of Theon, the mathematician, who not only distinguished herself by her expositions of the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle, but also by her comments on the writings of Apollonius and other geometers. Each day before her academy stood a long train of chariots; her lecture-room was crowded with the wealth and fashion of Alexandria. They came to listen to her discourses on those questions which man in all ages has asked, but which never yet have been answered; "What am I? Where am I? What can I know?"

(Cyril, promted by jealousy) "As Hypatia repaired to her academy, she was assaulted by Cyril's mob...a mob of many monks. Stripped naked in the street, she was dragged into a church, and there killed by the club of Peter the Reader. The corpse was cut to pieces, the flesh was scraped from the bones with shells, and the remnants cast into a fire. For this frightful crime Cyril was never called to account. It seemed to be admitted that the end sanctified the means."

"So ended Greek philosophy in Alexandria, so came to an untimely close the learning that the Ptolemies had done so much to promote. The "Daughter Library," that of the Serapion, had been dispersed. The fate of Hypatia was a warning to all who would cultivate profane knowledge." (A.D.414)

This book is part of my colletion of old books and has some fascinating things in it.

68 posted on 05/17/2004 2:41:55 PM PDT by WVNan (Be faithful in little things, for in them our strength lies. (Mother Teresa))
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To: Doctor Stochastic
There was no vote for the 7 wonders; it's just one guy's opinion versus another's.

Your list wants to place the pyramids, the hanging gardens, the statue of Zeus, the building of Artemis, the mausoleum, the colossus, and the lighthouse as the 7 greatest ancient achievements...

...but I would list the pyramids, the hanging gardens, the Great Wall of China, the Library of Alexandria, the Colossus (or perhaps the Colosseum because it survived), the Taj Mahjal, and the Lighthouse of Alexandria as the 7 greatest ancient wonders.

69 posted on 05/17/2004 2:44:42 PM PDT by Southack (Media Bias means that Castro won't be punished for Cuban war crimes against Black Angolans in Africa)
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To: katana; MarkL
This was the source of Europe's exposure to Plato's and Aristotle's writings during the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

That is false. The West was exposed to the classics via the refugee scholars from Constantinople when that city fell to the Turks.

70 posted on 05/17/2004 4:50:05 PM PDT by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting www.johnathangaltfilms.com)
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To: Destro
they used the books to heat their baths for months.

Six months. And do you know how fast parchment burns? Excuse me, I am going to go cry now.

71 posted on 05/17/2004 4:53:43 PM PDT by Harmless Teddy Bear (Stalin's grave is just another communist plot.)
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To: Bon mots
So it took 2000 years to find a library, and we knew what city it was in. But they expect Bush to find WMDs in a place where they were deliberately hidden, and we don't know where?

Yeah, but Gore made it easier for Bush, since Gore invented the internet tool for Bush to do searches. (Did Gore say he invented libaries, too?)

72 posted on 05/17/2004 5:03:35 PM PDT by roadcat
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To: nopardons

Ceser? Ceezor? Caeser? Coesoh?

Aw crap, I'm from Florida. I bet I screwed up the voting machine.

AND Mr. Wisenheimer, I was a member of the Senate when I voted for him.


73 posted on 05/17/2004 5:04:48 PM PDT by JusPasenThru (Aw screw the Democrats.)
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To: JusPasenThru
It's CAESER and I didn't know that you were THAT old. hehehehehehehe

And it's MRS. Wisenhiemer.:-)

74 posted on 05/17/2004 5:14:38 PM PDT by nopardons
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To: Kerberos
The area Should be VERY CAREFULLY EXAMINED.

ANY "Remnants of Scrolls" should be Considered "Great TREASURES!!"

If, in fact, "Alexandria" has been Discovered, ANY & ALL "Finds" are Prescious Beyond Calculation!!

Doc

75 posted on 05/17/2004 5:16:26 PM PDT by Doc On The Bay
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To: Kerberos; presidio9
"The library was later destroyed, possibly by Julius Caesar who had it burned as part of his campaign to conquer the city."

I understood that it happened when Cesar was in Egypt, making time with Cleopatra, and there was an uprising within his legions. Caesar burned his fleet to prevent the insurgents from capturing them, and therefore being able to use them against Cesar, and unfortunately much of the library also caught on fire.

However I am not positive if that was the only fire that ever occurred at the Alexandria library.



The museum and library survived for many centuries but were destroyed in the civil war that occurred under the Roman emperor Aurelian in the late 3rd century AD; the daughter library was destroyed by Christians in AD 391.

The Alexandrian library and museum were founded and maintained by the long succession of Ptolemies in Egypt from the beginning of the 3rd century BC. The library's initial organization was the work of Demetrius of Phaleron, who was familiar with the achievements of the library at Athens. Both the museum and the library were organized in faculties, with a president-priest at the head and the salaries of the staff paid by the Egyptian king. A subsidiary “daughter library” was established about 235 BC by Ptolemy III (Euergetes) in the Temple of Sarapis, the main museum and library being located in the palace precincts, in the district known as the Brucheium.
--The Encyclopedia Britannica
76 posted on 05/17/2004 5:26:18 PM PDT by aruanan
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To: presidio9

I think the blame for the fire belongs to the snippy librarians. How can you yell FIRE when all you get is SHHHHHHHH.


77 posted on 05/17/2004 5:30:03 PM PDT by small voice in the wilderness (Quick, act casual. If they sense scorn and ridicule, they'll flee..)
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To: presidio9
It was a tiny fishing village on the Nile delta called Rhakotis when Alexander the Great chose it as the site of the new capital of his empire.

Alexander never intended Alexandria to be the capital of his empire. That honor eventually went to Babylon.

Alexandria did eventually become the capital of the Ptolemaic successor state to the empire centered in Rgypt.

78 posted on 05/17/2004 5:36:00 PM PDT by The Iguana
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To: presidio9; *Gods, Graves, Glyphs
Just adding this to the GGG homepage, not sending a general distribution.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the "Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list --
Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.

79 posted on 07/21/2004 7:38:27 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (Unlike some people, I have a profile. Okay, maybe it's a little large...)
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To: presidio9

Small detail in the article is incorrect: Socrates never published.


80 posted on 07/21/2004 7:41:03 AM PDT by Unknowing (Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.)
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To: Harmless Teddy Bear

If you get the chance read the book "Treasure" by Clive Cussler. It's a book about the library director smuggeling most of the books and artworks out and hiding them before the library was destroyed. The story is about it's discovery 2000 years later in an unlikely place.It's an action adventure book with other subplots to it.It's a great read!


81 posted on 07/21/2004 8:05:37 AM PDT by painter
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Fascinating history of the library. Notes that the library was *not* burned by Julius Caesar, and in fact was around during Roman times, and was finally consigned to the flames by the Moslems:

The Vanished Library The Vanished Library
by Luciano Canfora
tr by Martin Ryle


82 posted on 04/21/2006 8:37:13 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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Fascinating history of the library. Notes that the library was *not* burned by Julius Caesar, and in fact was around during Roman times, and was finally consigned to the flames by the Moslems:

The Vanished Library The Vanished Library
by Luciano Canfora
tr by Martin Ryle


83 posted on 04/21/2006 8:39:39 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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The Vanished Library The Vanished Library
by Luciano Canfora
tr by Martin Ryle

Just updating the GGG information, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list. Thanks.
Please FREEPMAIL me if you want on or off the
"Gods, Graves, Glyphs" PING list or GGG weekly digest
-- Archaeology/Anthropology/Ancient Cultures/Artifacts/Antiquities, etc.
Gods, Graves, Glyphs (alpha order)

84 posted on 06/22/2006 6:56:26 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (updated my FR profile on Wednesday, June 21, 2006.)
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· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic · subscribe ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

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85 posted on 10/27/2009 8:10:12 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/__Since Jan 3, 2004__Profile updated Monday, January 12, 2009)
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To: dangus

Great words: auditoria, gymnasia, natatoria, symposia, Pennsylvania.


86 posted on 10/27/2009 8:13:56 PM PDT by ladyjane
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To: MarkL
I seem to remember the Library was burned more than once. The fire of Caesar's time (48 B.C.) was the first and the most destructive.

(yay! found my photocopy)

The Library originally had two parts: the biblion (main library), for scholars, and the museion (mus-e-um?), which also had a library. And an Annex was built later, called the Serapeion (Serapeum?).

Caracalla sacked Alexandria in the 3rd century AD. The Museum's library was apparently looted/damaged then. The Serapeion's collection was burned or looted in 391 AD, with some involvement of Theophilus (Patriarch of Alexandria) and the Emperor Theodosius I. And the mobs of Alexandria. Apparently, Alexandria was famous for its mobs (who over the years lynched Roman officials, sundry foreigners, and Hypatia, for example).

The Emir Amrou Ibn el-As captured Alexandria in 641 AD and, traditionally, was said to have used what books remained (except for Aristotle's stuff) to the feed stoves at the public baths.

87 posted on 10/27/2009 8:46:34 PM PDT by Poe White Trash (Wake up!)
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To: Destro

My understanding was that once the Italian and other scholars got their hands on the original Greek manuscipts brought by — or bought from! — the fleeing Byzantines, they realized how *awful* the Arabic-language translations were. The Arabic manuscripts were afterwards ignored, and Greek editions of the Greek classics were published forthwith.


88 posted on 10/27/2009 8:56:57 PM PDT by Poe White Trash (Wake up!)
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To: presidio9

Libraries and fire. Many years ago, when I received a library card for Oxford’s Bodleian Library I was required to read out loud from a card a curious and ancient declaration that, among other things, required me to affirm that I would not “bring into the Library, or kindle therein, any fire or flame.” The declaration seemed quaint and superfluous at the time, but in retrospect I realized that it likely had its genesis in some hugely costly and unfortunate event in an era when books were very rare.


89 posted on 10/27/2009 9:13:28 PM PDT by behzinlea
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To: behzinlea

Given what happened with Julius Caesar, did you have to promise that you were not a Roman Legionnaire, too?


90 posted on 10/27/2009 9:30:08 PM PDT by Poe White Trash (Wake up!)
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To: ladyjane

The library is right on Duke St and Holmes Run. Kinda hard to miss almost. Really nice, but I wish they had a better DVD collection.


91 posted on 10/28/2009 3:58:57 AM PDT by dangus (Nah, I'm not really Jim Thompson, but I play him on FR.)
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To: presidio9

>> The library was later destroyed, possibly by Julius Caesar who had it burned as part of his campaign to conquer the city. <<

WTF? The news report has to cower to their Muslim masters? Caesar accidentally burned many books while he conquered Alexandria, but the library probably wasn’t even at its peak influence yet. Christian Emperor Theodosius ordered the destruction of pagan temples, some of which constitutes part of the library. But it was the Muslims who destroyed the library.

“Several historians told varying accounts of an Arab army led by Amr ibn al ‘Aas sacking the city in 642 after the Byzantine army was defeated at the Battle of Heliopolis. Some historians, including Alfred J. Butler, argue that, when the commander Amr ibn al-Aas asked the Caliph Umar on what to do with the library he gave the famous answer: “They will either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, in which case they are superfluous.” It is said that the Arabs subsequently burned the books to heat bathwater for the soldiers.[21][22] Burning and destruction of the Library of Alexandria was reported to be the first act of sacking after Amr ibn al ‘Aas forces entered the city.[1] It was also said that the Library’s collection was still substantial enough at this late date to provide six months’ worth of fuel for the baths.”


92 posted on 10/28/2009 4:06:38 AM PDT by dangus (Nah, I'm not really Jim Thompson, but I play him on FR.)
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To: ladyjane

Yes, very few are aware that Pennsylvania is the plural form of Pennsylvanium. You must have studied Latin!


93 posted on 10/28/2009 4:10:59 AM PDT by Fresh Wind ("Prosperity is just around the corner." Herbert Hoover, 1932)
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To: dangus
“Several historians told varying accounts of an Arab army led by Amr ibn al ‘Aas sacking the city in 642 after the Byzantine army was defeated at the Battle of Heliopolis. Some historians, including Alfred J. Butler, argue that, when the commander Amr ibn al-Aas asked the Caliph Umar on what to do with the library he gave the famous answer: “They will either contradict the Koran, in which case they are heresy, or they will agree with it, in which case they are superfluous.” It is said that the Arabs subsequently burned the books to heat bathwater for the soldiers.[21][22] Burning and destruction of the Library of Alexandria was reported to be the first act of sacking after Amr ibn al ‘Aas forces entered the city.[1] It was also said that the Library’s collection was still substantial enough at this late date to provide six months’ worth of fuel for the baths.”

Any thoughtful person who knows history and religion would be anti-Islam. Along with Communism, Naziism, and the Black Death, Islam has been responsible for more death and destruction on the face of the planet than just about anything else since the last asteroid impact. Islam was started by predators. It has spread by predation. It has lived off the decaying corpses of the civilizations it has destroyed. It is a vast, ancient sea of corruption, oppression, fanaticism, and ignorance lapping up against the shores of the present, kept alive by the fortuitous accident of living above huge reserves of petroleum.
94 posted on 10/28/2009 4:12:23 AM PDT by aruanan
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To: KellyAdmirer

Guess what? You’re right. Caesar didn’t destory it; the Muslims did.


95 posted on 10/28/2009 4:12:31 AM PDT by dangus (Nah, I'm not really Jim Thompson, but I play him on FR.)
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To: KellyAdmirer

Guess what? You’re right. Caesar didn’t destory it; the Muslims did.


96 posted on 10/28/2009 4:12:32 AM PDT by dangus (Nah, I'm not really Jim Thompson, but I play him on FR.)
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To: dangus

How uncanny that the BBC made no mention of Muslim morons destroying the Alexandria library. It’s even in Wikipedia-—>>>

However, this version of events is not confirmed in contemporary accounts of Caesar’s visit. In fact, it has been reasonably established that segments of its collection were partially destroyed on several occasions before and after the first century BC. In any case the contents of the library were substantial up until the time of the Muslim sacking of Alexandria in 642.[1]


97 posted on 10/28/2009 4:16:59 AM PDT by dennisw (Obama -- our very own loopy, leftist god-thing.)
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To: presidio9

"You got that right, buster. And another thing, there's been on greater loss in the history of man than when those commie thug Muslims or playboy Romans burned the Library at Alexandria'.
98 posted on 10/28/2009 4:19:53 AM PDT by Rebelbase (This is the time of year when ACORNS fall.)
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To: behzinlea
You may be interested in this from Wikipedia (Cotton Library entry):

The Cotton or Cottonian library was the library compiled by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton (1571–1631), an antiquarian and bibliophile. Cotton's library included his collection of books, manuscripts, coins and medallions in his personal estate. The materials comprised the books and artifacts retrieved after the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII. Consequently, his collection is the single greatest known resource of literature in Old English and Middle English. Several well known works such as Beowulf, the poem Pearl, and the Lindisfarne Gospels exist today because of Cotton's library.

The leading scholars of the era, including Francis Bacon, Walter Raleigh, and James Ussher, came to use Cotton's works. Richard James acted as his librarian. Upon the foundation of the Bodleian Library, he made a substantial contribution.

The Cotton library is now part of the British Library.

The Cotton Library suffered a very serious fire in 1731. A number of irreplacebale manuscripts were lost -- we nearly lost Beowulf!!

99 posted on 10/28/2009 4:21:59 AM PDT by ClearCase_guy (Play the Race Card -- lose the game.)
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To: aruanan

Not just “along with Black Death.” Black Death in Europe was the result of Islamic germ warfare (although, of course, it might have eventually spread there anyway). Islamic practice in its wars against the (Byzantine) Roman Empire was to fling diseased corpses into cities.


100 posted on 10/28/2009 6:23:58 AM PDT by dangus (Nah, I'm not really Jim Thompson, but I play him on FR.)
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