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Antibiotics linked to huge rise in allergies
New Scientist ^ | 5/27/2004 | James Randerson

Posted on 05/27/2004 10:23:47 AM PDT by Born Conservative

The increasing use of antibiotics to treat disease may be responsible for the rising rates of asthma and allergies. By upsetting the body's normal balance of gut microbes, antibiotics may prevent our immune system from distinguishing between harmless chemicals and real attacks.

"The microbial gut flora is an arm of the immune system," says Gary Huffnagle at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbour. His research group has provided the first experimental evidence in mice that upsetting the gut flora can provoke an allergic response.

Asthma has increased by around 160 per cent globally in the last 20 years. Currently about a quarter of schoolchildren in the US and a third of those in the UK have the condition, but pinning down the causes of the rise has proved difficult. Some researchers have blamed modern dust-free homes, while others have pointed to diet.

Antibiotics have been implicated by some epidemiological studies. For example, the rise in allergies and asthma has tracked widespread antibiotic use. Furthermore, research in Berlin, Germany, has found that both antibiotic treatment and asthma were low in the east compared to the west when the wall came down.

As antibiotic use has increased in the east though, so has asthma. This study is particularly valuable because the politically divided populations were genetically very similar and enjoyed much the same menu.

Fungal spores

Now Huffnagle has presented experimental evidence to back up the case. His team gave mice a course of antibiotics before feeding some of them with a yeast which is commonly found on human skin.

With the natural gut bacteria suppressed by the drugs, the yeast became established in the mouse, with no side effects. Over the course of the following two weeks, the researchers treated all the mice with spores from a common fungus. Again, this does not cause disease, but fungal spores can trigger allergies in people.

The mice whose gut flora had been manipulated, experienced a much higher immune response to the spores, suggesting that changes to the collection of microbes in people's guts following antibiotic treatment might also make us more susceptible to allergies. "Suddenly, your ability to ignore a mould spore has gone," Huffnagle told New Scientist.

The team has repeated the experiments with a second strain of mice to show that the effect is not dependent on a particular set of mouse genes. They have also used a different molecule to produce the allergic response - an egg protein from chickens called ovalbumin that is commonly used in allergy research.

In this case, when the team looked at the animals' lung linings under a microscope the effect of the over-active immune response was striking. "Their lungs are shredded, absolutely shredded. I'm sure they can't breath," says Huffnagle.

Training regime

He speculates that our gut bacteria are somehow involved in training the immune system to ignore harmless molecules that wind up in our stomach. Precisely how they do this is a mystery though.

"He's on to a very special track," says Juneann Murphy an expert in stomach bacteria at the University of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City. "No one else has been able to make the connections before."

She says the findings reinforce the message that antibiotics should be used only when absolutely necessary. She also suggests that patients who have just finished antibiotic treatment should also receive "probiotic" tablets containing "good" gut bacteria.

Eating foods such as raw fruit and vegetables also helps to restore the natural balance in our guts. "Once you are done with the antibiotics you are not finished," adds Huffnagle. "You need to recover from the treatment itself."

The research was presented at the American Society for Microbiology general meeting in New Orleans on Wednesday

TOPICS: Culture/Society; Extended News
KEYWORDS: allergies; allergy; antibiotics; asthma; health; healthcare

1 posted on 05/27/2004 10:23:48 AM PDT by Born Conservative
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To: neverdem


2 posted on 05/27/2004 10:24:19 AM PDT by Born Conservative (It really sucks when your 15 minutes of fame comes AFTER you're gone...)
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To: Born Conservative

"Some researchers have blamed modern dust-free homes...."

This is not a problem I have in my house.

3 posted on 05/27/2004 10:28:07 AM PDT by Bahbah
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To: Born Conservative

I've been saying this for years but nobody would listen to Me.

I don't have a PHD, but I did stay at a Holiday Inn Express last night.

4 posted on 05/27/2004 10:28:46 AM PDT by ChefKeith (NASCAR...everything else is just a game!)
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To: ChefKeith

I've been saying the same things. My children, who were allowed to play outside in the dirt, have always been healthy. My s-i-l's children, who are not allowed out of the house without hardhats, are sick all the time.

5 posted on 05/27/2004 10:30:46 AM PDT by CFW
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To: CFW; NotJustAnotherPrettyFace

RE:My children, who were allowed to play outside in the dirt, have always been healthy.

I used to EAT dirt when I was a kid, and I have no allergies!

6 posted on 05/27/2004 10:36:05 AM PDT by Lady Composer
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To: Born Conservative
This is nothing to sneeze at.
7 posted on 05/27/2004 11:07:17 AM PDT by Use It Or Lose It (Al Gore: The real voice of the Democrat Party.)
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To: Born Conservative
Linking antibiotics to asthma is a pretty safe hypothesis to make. Ultimately, useless. Lots of links can be made, but what meaning are the links? Television, Christmas trees, plastic toys--betcha could find links there, too, but they'd mean nothing.

Why is asthma so prevalent among the otherwise healthy and affluent populations of the US--and also so prevalent among the least healthy and most impoverished populations in other countries?

Follow the money--and grant$ to research foundations, before you take this sort of thing too seriously.

8 posted on 05/27/2004 11:48:01 AM PDT by Mamzelle (for a post-neo conservatism)
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To: Born Conservative

Check any product in your house that says "anti bacterial" and you will read prescription antibiotics in the list of ingredients. Most common products are soaps and sprays.

9 posted on 05/27/2004 12:23:43 PM PDT by Deguello
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To: Born Conservative

Provocative and interesting hypothesis, especially when you think about all the cases of pharyngitis(sore throat) and acute otitis media(middle ear infections) caused by viral infections, which are the great majority. Add to that all the antibiotics mixed into animal feed. Thanks for the ping.

10 posted on 05/27/2004 2:55:01 PM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi min oi)
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To: djreece


11 posted on 05/27/2004 3:16:37 PM PDT by djreece (Psalm 34)
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To: Born Conservative

Bump for later read.

12 posted on 05/27/2004 3:19:28 PM PDT by Springman
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To: Mamzelle
In the U.S. the most striking increase in prevalence is amongst minorities.

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1: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002 Dec;89(6 Suppl 1):69-74. Related Articles,Links

Inner-city asthma and the hygiene hypothesis.

Matricardi PM, Bouygue GR, Tripodi S.

Institute of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, Italian National Research Council, Rome, Italy.

OBJECTIVE: Our goals were to analyze some of the similarities and differences in the increase in asthma, hay fever, and atopic sensitization between Europe and the United States and attempt to explain "inner-city asthma" within the framework of the hygiene hypothesis. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed historical descriptions of hay fever and asthma as well as the currently available related literature. STUDY SELECTION: The authors' judgment was used in the selection of historical and epidemiologic evidence. RESULTS: Analyses of patterns of risk factors for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in Europe led to a causal theory of the epidemic: the hygiene hypothesis. This theory claims that hygiene removed a protective influence against atopy and asthma that was once provided by exposure to infections in early life. This hypothesis has been questioned in the United States, where allergic asthma since the 1970s has increased among minorities living in poverty and with suboptimal hygienic conditions (inner-city asthma). When seen from a historical perspective, the recent increasing trend in respiratory allergies among the less advantaged in the United States may be explained as the consequence of several epiphenomena linked to westernization (including declining exposure to foodborne and orofecal infections) that first affected the richest socioeconomic strata during the 19th century, expanded among the middle classes during the first half of the 20th century, and eventually cascaded down to affect the least-advantaged Americans. CONCLUSION: Inner-city asthma may be the final stage of a class-driven urbanization and westernization that began 2 centuries ago in the United States and that is now coming full circle.

Publication Types:
  • Review
  • Review, Tutorial

PMID: 12487209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


13 posted on 05/27/2004 3:26:47 PM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi min oi)
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To: Deguello
Check any product in your house that says "anti bacterial" and you will read prescription antibiotics in the list of ingredients. Most common products are soaps and sprays.

In "Fabulous", a kitchen cleaner that claims to be an "antibacterial", I find quaternary ammonium salts and 99.916% inert ingredients, most likely water. (Scroll down the screen to #5, quaternary ammonium compounds.) What antibiotics do doctors prescribe that are quaternary ammonium salts? I'm curious.

14 posted on 05/27/2004 4:04:53 PM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi min oi)
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When my kids were itty-bitty I had a very sanitized house. They had terrible asthma. When they got older I would send them to my mom's farm for a few weeks every year. Odd thing; she smoked, warmed her house with a wood stove, had TONS of animals (in and out of the house), had a hay mound that the kids played in for hours and pollen out the ying-yang. The kids were healthy as horses until they would come home to my clean house then, after a week or two, the allergies and asthma would start up again. Well, I started smoking, got two cats and a dog and stopped vacuuming and dusting every day. They haven't been sick since.

Put Hygiene Hypothesis in your search engine. It's a disgusting theory, but interesting.

15 posted on 05/28/2004 12:00:08 AM PDT by Marie (My head hurts from smacking it on the desk.)
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To: neverdem

Look for active ingredients: Triclosen and other types of antibiotics. Check your various soaps that you have on hand and any spray air fresheners.

16 posted on 05/28/2004 6:31:45 AM PDT by Deguello
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To: Deguello
Some info on triclosan

The vast number of entries spell it using a, not e. While it works in a fashion similar to penicillins and cephalosporins interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis it is not a prescription antibiotic such as amoxicillin or ceftriaxone in this country, USA.

17 posted on 05/28/2004 3:37:44 PM PDT by neverdem (Xin loi min oi)
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I used to dig deep and get the "good dirt" when I was a kid and eat it. I rarely get sick(at least physically)

18 posted on 05/29/2004 11:10:51 PM PDT by ChefKeith (NASCAR...everything else is just a game!(Except War))
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