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U.S. Said to Remove Its Nukes From Greece
sfgate.com ^ | Wednesday, February 9, 2005 | ROBERT BURNS

Posted on 02/10/2005 9:05:45 AM PST by Destro

U.S. Said to Remove Its Nukes From Greece

By ROBERT BURNS, AP Military Writer

Wednesday, February 9, 2005

(02-09) 14:07 PST WASHINGTON, (AP) --

The United States quietly removed the last of its nuclear bombs from Greece early in President Bush's first term, making Greece the first NATO ally where nuclear weapons have been completely withdrawn, according to a new study by private defense experts.

The change, which the Pentagon has not publicly confirmed, was disclosed in a book published last month _ "Code Names," by William Arkin. The Natural Resources Defense Council, a private group that advocates arms control, described the change in detail in a study released Wednesday.

Arkin said he believes the withdrawal from Greece could lead to an unraveling of NATO's long-standing policy of "burden sharing" in the hosting of U.S. nuclear weapons, which are meant to deter an attack on Europe but are highly unpopular among segments of the European population.

Enormous political battles were fought in Germany and other European NATO countries over the early 1980s deployment of new U.S. ground-launched missiles capable of striking the former Soviet Union. Those weapons were withdrawn in the early 1990s, but air-launched bombs remained.

The NATO countries that still host U.S. nuclear weapons are Belgium, Britain, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey. Reports on the number of these weapons vary. The study released Wednesday said the total is as high as 480, but others believe it is about 200.

"It is a bit of a mystery," Arkin said, about whether the correct total is 480 or something lower. He said it is possible that 480 is the authorized maximum but the actual number deployed is in the 150-200 range.

A Pentagon spokesman, Bryan Whitman, said Wednesday that as a matter of policy the U.S. government does not discuss the numbers, capabilities or locations of its nuclear weapons abroad. The only nuclear weapons deployed beyond U.S. borders are in Europe and aboard ballistic missile submarines.

"Nuclear weapons support the general deterrence goals of the NATO alliance," Whitman said.

The defense council study said 20 U.S. nuclear bombs were airlifted out of Araxos air base in southern Greece in the spring of 2001. President Bill Clinton authorized the removal of the bombs in a top-secret document dated Nov. 29, 2000, according to a person who has seen the document.

U.S. nuclear weapons also were removed from two air bases in Turkey in 1991 and one air base in Italy in 1993, the study said, but other nuclear bombs are still stored elsewhere in those countries.

"The trend seems clear: Nuclear burden-sharing in NATO, in as far as host country nuclear strike missions are concerned, is on a slow but steady decline toward ending altogether," the study said.

The United States has stationed nuclear weapons in Europe since 1954.

The weapons that were at Greece's Araxos air base were intended for use by the Greek air force, in coordination with the United States. But when Greece scrapped its older A-7E warplanes as certified to carry nuclear bombs in the late 1990s, it did not replace them with a new certified nuclear-capable aircraft, thus prompting removal of the weapons, Arkin said in an interview from his home in Vermont.

Arkin, a former Army intelligence officer, has written numerous books on nuclear weapons and other military topics. In "Code Names," he discloses the classified code name _ Flaming Arrow _ of the U.S.-only UHF communications network that is installed at all main operating bases and munitions support squadrons in Europe where nuclear warheads are stored.

The high-frequency nuclear weapons radio communications system that would be used to transmit a U.S. presidential authority for the launch of nuclear weapons in Europe is code-named Regency, Arkin wrote.

Those two code names are still being used today. Arkin justifies revealing them by saying his information was gathered from documents in the public domain or through interviews with government officials.

___

On the Net:

National Resources Defense Council study:

Defense Department:

www.nrdc.org/nuclear/euro/contents.asp

www.defense.gov


TOPICS: Extended News; Foreign Affairs; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: greece; nato; nukes

1 posted on 02/10/2005 9:05:46 AM PST by Destro
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To: Destro

On a completely different note... There was a FLAMING ARROW found in the street of IRAN today... ;-)


2 posted on 02/10/2005 9:10:32 AM PST by KansasConservative1
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To: Destro

Our sucidal, unilateral disarmament continues unabated.


3 posted on 02/10/2005 9:26:19 AM PST by GOP_1900AD (Stomping on "PC," destroying the Left, and smoking out faux "conservatives" - Take Back The GOP!)
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To: GOP_1900AD

Your kidding right? We still have about 400 nukes left in Europe.


4 posted on 02/10/2005 9:29:28 AM PST by bahblahbah
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To: Destro

Those goofy Greeks are on their own, now. Careful what you ask for. The place will become a petri dish for all the Middle East disaffected losers. Asta la bye bye, guys!


5 posted on 02/10/2005 9:32:20 AM PST by SMARTY ("Stay together, pay the soldiers and forget everything else." Lucius Septimus Severus to his sons)
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To: Destro

What's your opinion, Destro?


6 posted on 02/10/2005 9:35:43 AM PST by Mi-kha-el ((There is no Pravda in Izvestiya and no Izvestiya in Pravda.))
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To: SMARTY
Nothing to do withGreece being on their own - A) The Cold War is over - who will invade them? Russia?

Secondly, almost all nuclear arms are being removed from Europe. Greece was the first because she scrapped her aged nuke bomb carring planes and decided not to replace them in favor of spending their budget on conventional air fighters.

So removing the nukes has zero to do with your dumb assertions.

7 posted on 02/10/2005 9:39:20 AM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: Destro
Its time to get out of EU-NATO's forthcoming 'Greek' (ongoing BALKINS) war programs.....

....Go Turkey?

/sarcasm

8 posted on 02/10/2005 9:39:24 AM PST by maestro
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To: Mi-kha-el
The Cold War is over - who will invade them? Russia? Secondly, almost all nuclear arms are being removed from Europe. Greece was the first because she scrapped her aged nuke bomb carring planes and decided not to replace them in favor of spending their budget on conventional air fighters.

As NATO member airforces modernize they will eliminate their old nuke bomb carrying aircraft in favor of conventional role fighters.

9 posted on 02/10/2005 9:42:04 AM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: maestro

Turkey will lose them soon too - its a drawing down program initiated by the Pentagon as NATO's mission ends or shifts.


10 posted on 02/10/2005 9:43:45 AM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: Destro
........The Cold War is over - who will invade them? ISLAM?

naw

/sarcasm's.... '1984'

11 posted on 02/10/2005 9:49:10 AM PST by maestro
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To: Destro
Thanks. Nice to meet you, too.

Just remember, in warfare and diplomacy like reproduction, anything can happen. In a reconfigured 'Europe' and Middle East, anything can and IS likely to occur. Like cockroaches, the terrorist murderers will go wherever the environment, political or military, favors them.... Try reading with your eyes open.
12 posted on 02/10/2005 9:51:25 AM PST by SMARTY ("Stay together, pay the soldiers and forget everything else." Lucius Septimus Severus to his sons)
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To: maestro

What Muslim army (not sponsored by America like Albanians and Turkey) will invade Greece?


13 posted on 02/10/2005 10:12:27 AM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: SMARTY

You wanted to make a point that the facts did not supprt - the removal had zero to do with anti-Americanisim.


14 posted on 02/10/2005 10:13:14 AM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: Destro

I really wonder if this is true or just means they were moved to more mobile platforms.

No mention of the listening posts on the islands.


15 posted on 02/10/2005 10:14:44 AM PST by longtermmemmory (VOTE!)
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To: SMARTY

Iraklion Airbase is still in Crete. What you say makes no sense.


16 posted on 02/10/2005 10:21:37 AM PST by longtermmemmory (VOTE!)
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To: longtermmemmory
No mention of the listening posts on the islands.

"Gentlemen don't read other gentlemen's mail"
Henry Stimson

17 posted on 02/10/2005 10:22:51 AM PST by ASA Vet (FR needs a Science Forum.)
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To: Destro
The only nuclear weapons deployed beyond U.S. borders are in Europe and aboard ballistic missile submarines.

I guess that depends on how you define "U.S. borders".

18 posted on 02/10/2005 11:05:13 AM PST by PAR35
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To: piasa; windchime
William Arkin ping:

The change, which the Pentagon has not publicly confirmed, was disclosed in a book published last month _ "Code Names," by William Arkin. The Natural Resources Defense Council, a private group that advocates arms control, described the change in detail in a study released Wednesday.

19 posted on 02/10/2005 11:48:05 AM PST by Fedora
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To: piasa
Interesting cast of characters--Leonardo DiCaprio on the Board of Trustees?--ROFL!

National Resources Defense Council: About Us

When NRDC's staff members entered a federal courtroom last June to block the U.S. Navy from endangering whales with its low frequency active sonar system, they encountered a phalanx of Bush administration lawyers and a parade of the government's top scientific experts. But that formidable array of government talent-all paid for by your tax dollars-could not withstand NRDC's legal firepower. The judge ruled in favor of NRDC, finding that the Bush administration had violated multiple environmental laws when it rubber-stamped the Navy's use of this hazardous system.

National Resources Defense Council: About Us: Staff

President
John H. Adams
Executive Director
Frances Beinecke
Deputy Director
Patricia F. Sullivan

National Resources Defense Council: About Us: Board of Trustees

Frederick A.O. Schwarz, Jr., Esq.; Chair
Senior Counsel, Cravath, Swaine & Moore

Adrian W. DeWind, Esq.; Chair Emeritus
Of Counsel, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison

Adam Albright; Vice Chair
Private investor; Environmentalist

Patricia Bauman; Vice Chair
Co-Director, Bauman Foundation

Robert J. Fisher; Vice Chair
Board member, Sun Microsystems; Chair, GAP Inc.

Alan Horn; Vice Chair
President and COO, Warner Brothers

Daniel R. Tishman; Vice Chair
Chair and CEO, Tishman Construction Corp. of New York

Henry R. Breck; Treasurer
Chair, Ark Asset Management Co., Inc.

Richard E. Ayres, Esq.
The Ayres Law Group

Joy Covey
President, Beagle Foundation

Laurie David
Producer; Activist

Leonardo DiCaprio
Actor; Environmentalist

John E. Echohawk, Esq.
Executive Director, Native American Rights Fund

Bob Epstein
Co-Founder, Sybase, Inc., Colorado Microdisplay, and Britton-Lee

Michael C. Finnegan
Managing Director, J.P. Morgan Securities

Michel Gelobter, Ph.D.
Executive Director, Redefining Progress

Jill Tate Higgins
Private investor; General Partner, Lakeside Enterprises, L.P.

Charles E. Koob, Esq.
Partner, Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett

Philip B. Korsant
Member, Ziff Brothers Investments

Ruben Kraiem, Esq.
Partner, Covington and Burling

Jonathan Z. Larsen
Journalist

Nicole Lederer
Co-Founder, Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2)

Maya Lin
Artist/designer

Shelly B. Malkin
Landscape painter; Conservationist

Josephine A. Merck
Founder, Ocean View Foundation

Peter A. Morton
Chair/founder, Hard Rock Hotel, Inc.

Daniel Pauly
Director, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia

Frederica Perera, Ph.D.
Professor, Columbia University School of Public Health

Robert Redford
Actor; Director; Conservationist

Cruz Reynoso, Esq.
Professor of Law, University of California at Davis

Laurance Rockefeller, Esq.
Conservationist

Jonathan F.P. Rose
President, Jonathan Rose and Companies, Affordable Housing Development Corporation

Thomas W. Roush, M.D.
Physician

Christine H. Russell, Ph.D.
Environmentalist; Foundation director

James Gustave Speth, Esq.
Dean, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

James Taylor
Singer; Songwriter

Frederick A. Terry, Jr., Esq.
Senior Counsel, Sullivan & Cromwell

Elizabeth R. Wiatt
Environmentalist; Co-founder, LA Action Forum

George M. Woodwell, Ph.D.
Director, Woods Hole Research Center

HONORARY TRUSTEES

Dean E. Abrahamson, Ph.D., M.D.
Professor Emeritus, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota

Boris Bittker, Esq.
Sterling Professor of Law Emeritus, Yale University

Robert O. Blake
Senior Fellow, World Resources Institute; U.S. Ambassador (retired)

Joan K. Davidson
Former Parks Commissioner, NY State; President Emeritus, The J.M. Kaplan Fund

Sylvia Earle, Ph.D.
President, Deep Ocean Exploration and Research, Inc.

James B. Frankel, Esq.
Attorney; Conservationist

Francis W. Hatch
Chair, John Merck Fund

Hamilton F. Kean, Esq.
Attorney; Conservationist

Burks B. Lapham
Chair, Concern, Inc.

Michael A. McIntosh, Sr.
President, The McIntosh Foundation

Carol Noyes
Board member, Planned Parenthood of NYC, Rocky Mountain Institute, Woods Hole Research Center

Franklin E. Parker, Esq.
Advisor (retired), The NJ Field Office of the Trust for Public Land

Nathaniel P. Reed
Businessman; Conservationist

John R. Robinson, Esq.
Attorney

John Sheehan
United Steelworkers of America (retired)

David Sive, Esq.
Partner (retired), Sive, Paget & Riesel, P.C.

Thomas B. Stoel, Esq.
Stoel Rives (retired)

Thomas A. Troyer, Esq.
Member, Caplin & Drysdale

Kirby Walker
Independent film/video producer

20 posted on 02/10/2005 12:01:11 PM PST by Fedora
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To: Fedora

Arkin again. Thanks!


21 posted on 02/10/2005 12:50:38 PM PST by windchime (Hillary: "I've always been a preying person")
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To: Destro

It might be beneficial if Japan would let us post them their aimed at N. Korea along with some missiles. Put the squeeze on that mad dictator over there


22 posted on 02/10/2005 1:22:14 PM PST by democrats_nightmare
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To: Destro
"What Muslim army (not sponsored by America like Albanians and Turkey) will invade Greece?"

None, if Greece is with them all.
23 posted on 02/10/2005 1:25:33 PM PST by familyop ("If you disrespect women you are not allowed to wear a mohawk" (Feminist Creed).)
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To: familyop

If Islam invades Greece it will be with the aid of NATO. See Bosnia and Kosovo.


24 posted on 02/10/2005 1:28:11 PM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: TapTheSource

Ping. Or "how to find out what's in a Macedonia nut."

Oh...macadamia nut, but that's a different kind of nut.


25 posted on 02/10/2005 1:35:19 PM PST by familyop ("If you disrespect women you are not allowed to wear a mohawk" (Feminist Creed).)
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To: Destro
"If Islam invades Greece it will be with the aid of NATO."

Now that's a likelyhood, except that by then, the USA will be out of the UN altogether, and NATO will be called the EU Army or something like that.
26 posted on 02/10/2005 1:37:45 PM PST by familyop ("If you disrespect women you are not allowed to wear a mohawk" (Feminist Creed).)
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To: familyop

very possible.


27 posted on 02/10/2005 1:39:49 PM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: SMARTY

So if the US still had nuclear weapons there, no arabs would come? ...because they would fear that the US would explode the weapon?


28 posted on 02/10/2005 1:43:44 PM PST by freedom moose (has de cultivar el que sembres)
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To: Destro

Others around here seem to have forgotten the very bloody independence war Greece fought with the Ottoman Empire.

That was much more of a religious war than the current WOT.

Did you not post an article a while back which identified the Greek Military as one of the largest, if not the largest, in Europe? Around the same time I remember seeing a documentary about the size of the Greek Navy because of the thousands of island they have a responsibility to patrol.

I wonder why this is being leaked now. Russia is said to be upgrading their nukes a few weeks back, yesterday the USA is reported as upgrading their nukes, today N.Korea publicly admits they have nukes, and the response is that the USA QUIETLY removed nukes from a mediteranian position? Not exactly the tactical response you would expect.


29 posted on 02/10/2005 1:50:37 PM PST by longtermmemmory (VOTE!)
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To: longtermmemmory

Largest per capita spender, yes. One of Europe's best armies though not the largest.


30 posted on 02/10/2005 1:52:50 PM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: Fedora

Interesting. Peacenicks say something that is secret which the military can neither confirm nor deny, is not there any more. I wonder if these are the same people who said the USSR is not cheating and that Saddam was a big fuzzy teady bear.


31 posted on 02/10/2005 1:54:33 PM PST by longtermmemmory (VOTE!)
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To: GOP_1900AD

"Our sucidal, unilateral disarmament continues unabated."

One of the main goals of the continuing Soviets says Golitsyn. They are doing just what he said they would do (on virtually every level). Either Golitsyn is lucky or we have a huge problem on our hands--TTS


32 posted on 02/10/2005 2:30:44 PM PST by TapTheSource
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To: TapTheSource; GOP_1900AD

Actually the Greeks disarmed - these 20 nukes were under Greek command.


33 posted on 02/10/2005 4:04:41 PM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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To: longtermmemmory
Looks like the same people to me--notably, linked to the Tides Foundation:

SourceWatch: Natural Resources Defense Council

Natural Resources Defense Council

From SourceWatch

A former project of the Tides Foundation, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) calls itself "the nation's most effective environmental action organization. We use law, science and the support of more than 1 million members and online activists to protect the planet's wildlife and wild places and to ensure a safe and healthy environment for all living things. Worth Magazine has named NRDC one of America's 100 best charities, and Charity Navigator has given NRDC four stars (out of a possible four)." [1] (http://www.nrdc.org/about)

The Natural Resources Defense Council (formerly a "project" of the Tides Foundation) ...

The NRDC has been vigorously attacked by the Center for Consumer Freedom, a corporate-funded industry front group. CCF calls it "the utility infielder of nanny groups. Because its name implies a wide-ranging universe of issues, the group can be counted on to inject itself into just about any debate where there's an environmental argument to be made. Washington PR firm Fenton Communications has made use of the NRDC in a variety of public campaigns, the most famous example of which was the 1989 Alar-on-apples food scare." [2] (http://www.consumerfreedom.com/activistcash/org_detail.cfm?ORG_ID=19) For the other side of the story see [here (http://www.SourceWatch.org/wiki.phtml?title=NRDC_and_Alar)].

Table of contents

Officers

Contact

Natural Resources Defense Council
40 West 20th Street
New York, NY 10011
Phone 212-727-2700
Fax 212-727-1773
Email: nrdcinfo@nrdc.org
Websites:
http://www.nrdc.org
http://www.Accord21.org
http://www.AmicusJournal.org
http://www.EarthSmartCars.org
http://www.LeedBuilding.org
http://www.NaturesVoice.org

Other Related SourceWatch Resources

External Links


34 posted on 02/10/2005 4:15:14 PM PST by Fedora
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To: freedom moose
Nope. Just one more step in shoving the US into the 'odd man out' role which the French and German lynch mob put into motion when this President tried to enlist them in the fight against terrorists. It's a psychological victory in the fight for hearts and minds against the policy of terrorist murder.
35 posted on 02/11/2005 4:54:47 AM PST by SMARTY ("Stay together, pay the soldiers and forget everything else." Lucius Septimus Severus to his sons)
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To: Destro

Still a dumb move. I wouldn't have if I were them.


36 posted on 02/11/2005 3:35:24 PM PST by GOP_1900AD (Stomping on "PC," destroying the Left, and smoking out faux "conservatives" - Take Back The GOP!)
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To: GOP_1900AD
because......?

These were to have been authorized for use by the Greek airforce by the President of the USA as a last resort as the Warsaw pact started streaming across the border as WW3 started.

What possible reason would exist for Greece to buy about 20 new fighters capable of serving as missile platforms for these nukes now that the Warsaw pact is gone?

Get over your fetish for having weapons just for the sake of having weapons.

37 posted on 02/12/2005 8:52:26 AM PST by Destro (Know your enemy! Help fight Islamic terrorism by visiting johnathangaltfilms.com and jihadwatch.org)
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