Skip to comments.Alpine Iceman (Oetzi) Reveals Stone Age Secrets
Posted on 02/17/2005 11:46:50 AM PST by blam
February 17, 2005 4:30 AM
Alpine iceman reveals Stone Age secrets
By Sophie Hardach
BOLZANO, Italy (Reuters) - Some 5,300 years after his violent death, a Stone Age man found frozen in the Alps is slowly revealing his secrets to a global team of scientists.
But despite more than a decade of high-tech efforts by geneticists, botanists and engineers many questions about his life and death remain unsolved.
And rumours of a deadly curse on those who found him continue to swirl.
German amateur mountaineer Helmut Simon and his wife spotted Oetzi, as he became known, in the mountains between Italy and Austria, near the Oetztal valley, in 1991.
At first glance, they thought it was the body of an unfortunate hiker.
Forensic medics and assistants also failed to recognise the significance of the find at first inspection: Documentary footage shows one assistant using a piece of wood, later identified as part of the mummy's ancient equipment, to unearth the frozen body.
Only recently have new methods such as DNA and tooth enamel analysis produced a clearer picture of his life.
"Looking at the iceman, we can see how science has developed over the past years," said Angelika Fleckinger, co-ordinator of the Museum of Archaeology in the South Tyrolean city of Bolzano, where Oetzi is kept. "There are always new discoveries."
In the latest project, genetic researchers in Oxford and Bolzano are testing his DNA for clues about ethnicity.
Scientists expect the first results within months. The outcome could stir controversy in a region controversially claimed by Italians, German-speakers and members of the ancient Ladin culture.
"So far, we only know that he's a middle-European from earlier DNA tests," said Peter Pramstaller, leader of the team investigating the mummy's origins at Bolzano's Institute for Genetic Medicine.
"Through our new methods, we could learn more about his origin," he added.
Data from tooth enamel, soil and water samples has already shown that Oetzi probably grew up in the Pustertal region south of the Alps and left his home valley when he was 20-30 years old.
Archaeologists believe he may have been a shaman. He used medicinal mushrooms, and his tattoos -- a series of short, dark, parallel lines -- had been placed to treat his arthritis as an early form of acupuncture.
But even the best scientists have been unable to explain the exact circumstances of his death.
In 2001, with the help of digital x-ray images, doctors detected an arrowhead in the iceman's shoulder blade.
DNA tests also revealed traces of blood from four different people on Oetzi's clothes, and a deep cut between his index finger and thumb, possibly from a fight.
The results have prompted a theory by Professor Walter Leitner at the University of Innsbruck, who has spent years studying the iceman, that Oetzi was probably victim of a political plot and assassinated by his own tribe.
Common criminals or members of an enemy tribe would have taken his extremely valuable possessions, such as a copper axe, generally carried by tribal leaders.
Oetzi was old for his time -- at 45 -- and this could mean that he was toppled by younger rivals, Leitner's theory goes.
"Of course, no one knows what it was really like," he said.
Science has also been unable to explain a series of sinister accidents since the iceman was discovered.
Forensic medic Rainer Henn, one of the first to touch the mummy, died in a car crash on his way to a lecture about Oetzi. A mountain guide who helped with the find plunged to his death, and a journalist who filmed the excavation died from cancer.
Last October, Helmut Simon fell to his death in the Alps after a sudden onset of bad weather near the spot where he had discovered Oetzi.
Walter Leitner was close to the scene the night Simon died.
At the time, he was explaining his iceman theory to a team of U.S. American journalists when they too were suddenly engulfed by the storm and had to be rescued by helicopter.
"At that moment I thought of my survival rather than the curse; of my family; my daughter's birthday the next day, and how I would maybe not be there," Leitner said.
"The next day, when I arrived at the institute, people were saying, 'have you heard, Helmut Simon went missing in the mountains', and that's when I started feeling a bit queasy."
The archaeologist explained Simon had been profoundly moved by his discovery, seeing it as a religious signal to convert to Christianity.
BTW, the copper axe found with Oetzi pushed the date of the 'copper-age' back by 1,000 years and his acupuncture marks are making anthropologist rethink the origins of that custom. It was previously believed to have been an Asian custom.
This report was published today...Nothing new from the last report as I see it. I've posted for the benefit of the occasional GGG browser.
"Science has also been unable to explain a series of sinister accidents since the iceman was discovered."
Mysteriously every one Oetzi knew during is lifetime is also dead. People die - get over it - your'e right - the curse angle is just a cheap Hardcopy trick!
The only curse I can imagine in this would have been 'Damn!' when Simon fell.
On the copper axe: Didn't they find natural alloying process that made the copper harder (than it's natural soft elemental state?).
If I recall, the conventional smelting process at the time would have been simply to heat the copper-bearing rocks in a Very hot fire and let the copper run out. (?)
Sounds like Simon was "toppled by younger rivlals".
More speculation presented as fact.
Was he found in Fort Marcy Park? I'm not buyin' that arrowhead story......
Actually it was his UPC symbol so the aliens who placed him there could check him out of their inventory.
Did they find his tinfoil hat?
"pushed the date of the 'copper-age' back by 1,000 years"
Even after they found "Made In Taiwan" stamped on the back??
They explained away his stash of pyote from his previous trip to west Texas...
That his jailhouse tat's are not his record of kills,
That where he was 25-35 years previous somehow must be his home, though no old lady is going to own him,
That incident at the bar, where as he was showing off his axe throwing skills is not reallly how he cut his hand (thanks alot O. J.)
Yet they cannot figure out how/why he died on a cold mountain, freezing his a** off trying to out run that irate husband that caught him messing with his wife.
I watch every program on the iceman-I seem to remember in one on Discovery Channel a scientist saying he was probably a metal worker because there were traces of something in his hair associated with smelting.
I wondered why he needed acupuncture until I saw that he had an arrowhead buried in his shoulder-blade!
Maybe but, I don't recall that part.
Yup but, I thought it was in his lungs...could be wrong though.
Now I get it...Michael Jackson's ultimate goal is to look like the Iceman!
"In 2001, with the help of digital x-ray images, doctors detected an arrowhead in the iceman's shoulder blade"
Highly unlikely it was self-inflicted.
Now there's a classic non sequitur.
"I watch every program on the iceman-I seem to remember in one on Discovery Channel a scientist saying he was probably a metal worker because there were traces of something in his hair associated with smelting."
There were traces of arsenic aND COPPER IN THE HAIR ROOTS
I'm sure Oetzi is a registered Democrat, votes in Cook County,IL and has known Ted Kennedy since he was a kid.
This was thoroughly explained in a third year episode of "The X-Files."
"Highly unlikely it was self-inflicted"
Maybe he had an accidental discharge!!! lol
the Celts had tattoos, but i think that a resurgence of tattooing came about when Captain Cook's crew returned.
i think it was alot of arsenic if i remember that one.
3000 years B.C.....must be an Art Bell thing...
"Maybe he had an accidental discharge!!!"
The first of the Clinton lineage?
Thank you! It has been a couple of years since I saw that program, so I couldn't remember what the substance was-there have been so many interesting things found with the iceman-things that showed that we were not nearly so ignorant or unable to trade with people from great distances away as believed for so many years.
Thank you, too for refreshing my memory.
Maybe the arrowhead in his shoulder was a form of acupuncture to lesson the pain from getting his tattoo.
LOL! Very good.
Was he carrying an inordinate amount of Sudafed?
Yes, I'm sure it was merely a coincidence that the tattoos happened to overlay the accupuncture points associated with the ailments he suffered from.
But not likely.
Might be closer to the truth then you know.
Murder is either done for gain, for power or for revenge.
If it wasn't gain then revenge would be a likely motive.
These 4,000 year old Caucasian mummies found in China had tattoos, male and female. The one named Cherchen/Charchan Man had spirals on both sides of his face.
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Thia whole story is extraordinary and I love hearing about it. It's easy to think he was primitive, but he was the Donald Trump of stone age, he had flints, medicines, all sorts of artifacts.
And his hair and blood analysis show he was by occupation a copper smelter, quite an advanced skill for the time.
So it makes me wonder WHY he was exploring, was he exploring or being persued, I think we can conclude from what he had with him that he wasn't just out for a nice early afternoon hike.
Cool story .. I wonder if the curse extends to everyone who reads these reports?
We're ALL gonna die!
What bugs me so much about modern day archaeologists, is how much they underestimate the people of the past.
bookmark. (damn showings....)
Nonsense, he may have been older than the average lifespan but he would have been the same biological age as any of us had he not been suffering a chronic ailment or constitutional malnutrition.
Since no evidence has been published to support that he was infirm at the time of death it is a leap of faith to assume that he was felled because he was an easy prey.
If no other remnants of weapons or fragments of clothing were found in situ with his discovery it is reasonable to assume that he did not die at the scene of a battle and perhaps was simply overtaken during a hasty journey into terrible weather by the elements of nature and burrrowed in where he became entombed by a chance set of topological and meteorological conditions.
Even modern mountain climbers often perish and are not recovered for months or even years when their locations at the time of disappearance is unknown.
The researchers here are probably running low on funds while the pressure for answers and conclusions are concurrently high and it is "publish or perish" time.
I'm still waiting for them to dig his Harley out of the ice.
red hair, hmm reminds me of Celts!!!! i got red hair and tattoos, maybe a relative of mine :D