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Churchill Art Piece Called Into Question
News4 Colorado ^ | 2/24/05 | Raj Chohan

Posted on 02/24/2005 10:19:19 PM PST by Fizzie

Churchill Art Piece Called Into Question

by CBS4 News reporter Raj Chohan

Feb 24, 2005 8:03 pm US/Mountain BOULDER, Colo. (CBS4) Boulder County resident Duke Prentup has been a fan of native American art for as long as he can remember. That love of art took him to the home of Ward Churchill in the early 1980's, where Prentup bought several pieces of Churchill's art, including a serigraph titled "Winter Attack."

"I have enjoyed them ever since immensely, they're obviously up inside my house," Prentup said.

Last month came a stunning revelation, though, as as Prentup flipped through a 1972 book called The Mystic Warriors of the Plains written and illustrated by the late artist Thomas E. Mails. He found a sketch that was strikingly similar to the Churchill piece.

(Excerpt) See the rest of the article, and photo comparisons of the 2 pieces of art here:

(Excerpt) Read more at ...

TOPICS: Crime/Corruption; Culture/Society; Extended News; Front Page News; Miscellaneous; News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: 90largewasted; art; artwork; campusradicals; churchill; churchillphony; churchillplagiarism; cigarstoreindian; commiefake; commieliar; cu; disownedbyindians; fakeartist; fakeindian; fakepowwow; flyerfoundit; forgery; forkeddung; fraud; hateamericafilth; hatingamerica; indian; plaigerist; professor; redbutnoindian; sittingbullshit; thief; traitor; ucdisgrace; wardchurchill
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To: Fizzie


561 posted on 02/25/2005 9:05:01 PM PST by woofie
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To: Fizzie

Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990
Public Law 101-644

Federal Register: October 21, 1996 (Volume 61, Number 204)
Rules and Regulations
Page 54551-54556


Indian Arts and Crafts Board

25 CFR Part 309

RIN 1090-AA45

Protection for Products of Indian Art and Craftsmanship

AGENCY: Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB), DOI.

ACTION: Final rule.

SUMMARY: This rule adopts regulations to carry out Public Law 101-644, the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990. The regulations define the nature and Indian origin of products that the law covers and specify procedures for carrying out the law. The trademark provisions of the Act are not included in this rulemaking and will be treated at a later time.

EFFECTIVE DATES: November 20, 1996.

Meridith Z. Stanton or Geoffrey E. Stamm, Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Room 4004-MIB, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1849 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20240, telephone 202-208-3773 (not a toll-free call).



The Act of August 27, 1935 (49 Stat. 891; 25 U.S.C. 305 et seq.; 18 U.S.C. 1158-59), created the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. The Board is responsible for promoting the development of American Indian and Alaska Native arts and crafts, improving the economic status of members of Federally-recognized tribes, and helping to develop and expand marketing opportunities for arts and crafts produced by American Indians and Alaska Natives.

The 1935 Act adopted criminal penalties for selling goods with misrepresentations that they were Indian produced. This provision, currently located in section 1159 of title 18, United States Code, set fines not to exceed $500 or imprisonment not to exceed six months, or both. Although this law was in effect for many years, it provided no meaningful deterrent to those who misrepresent imitation arts and crafts as Indian produced. In addition, it required ``willful'' intent to prove a violation, and very little enforcement took place.

In response to growing sales in the billion dollar U.S. Indian arts and crafts market of products misrepresented or erroneously represented as produced by Indians, the Congress passed the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990. This Act is essentially a truth-in-advertising law designed to prevent marketing products as ``Indian made'' when the products are not, in fact, made by Indians as defined by the Act.

Public Participation

The Indian Arts and Crafts Board published the proposed rulemaking for the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990 on October 13, 1994. 59 FR 51908-51911. As the Federal Register omitted several key lines from the Enforcement section 309.3, the Federal Register published a correction on October 18, 1994. 59 FR 52588.

In addition to publication, several thousand copies of the proposed rulemaking were distributed to interested parties, including every Federally-recognized Indian tribe.

The Board received 36 public comments on the proposed rulemaking, and each was carefully reviewed, analyzed, and considered. These comments are grouped by issues and Board responses in the following summary.

Summary and Analysis of Public Comments

A broad range of respondents expressed their support of the proposed regulations. These comments emphasized the crucial contribution of art and craft work production and sales to the economic development of Indian individuals and tribes throughout the nation.

Overall Comments

Several comments raised the issue of what is a reasonable boundary between marketing statements that are simply truthful and statements that are clearly misleading. One respondent expressed concern that the Act and proposed regulations prohibit an artist who is not a member of an Indian tribe from truthfully describing his or her Indian heritage as part of the discussion of his or her art work. The regulations do not prohibit any statements about a person's Indian heritage that are truthful and not misleading in the marketing of that individual's work.

One comment asked whether an individual, who is neither enrolled nor certified as an Indian artisan, is permitted under the Act to use the term ``Non-Government Enrolled Descendant'' or its abbreviation, ``NGED,'' in conjunction with the name of an Indian tribe to market his or her work. Considered as a whole, this phrase and its abbreviation are misleading. The capitalization implies some sort of official standing, and the word ``enrolled'' is positive. However, the truth is exactly the opposite: the individual is not officially recognized by, and is not enrolled in, the tribe named.

One comment questioned the treatment of persons of various degrees of Indian ancestry who are active in the art market, but are not members of tribes. As described in section 309.3 of the Section-by- Section Comments, Congress in the Act addressed this situation by leaving it to the tribes to decide whether to certify as Indian artisans for purposes of the Act individuals who have some degree of ancestry of that tribe but are not tribal members. This tribal certification method also is discussed in section 309.4 of the regulations. A person is permitted under the regulations to make a truthful statement, in connection with marketing of an art or craft product, that he or she is of Indian ``descent'' or particular tribal ``descent''.

Several respondents questioned the absence of regulations implementing the Act's trademark provisions and recommended that a supplementary rule be proposed for comment, to carry out the trademark section, before final publication of the regulations. This recommendation has not been adopted. The Indian Arts and Crafts Board is not prepared to carry out the trademark section of the Act at this time. Although the trademark provisions may be desirable in their own right, they are not necessary to the protections covered by these regulations. As stated previously, the trademark provisions of the Act will be treated at a later time.

One comment recommended and advocated changes in both the proposed regulations and the Act on the grounds that they are unconstitutional. Another comment asked for a repeal of the Act and proposed regulations, as they are a violation of the freedom of speech of all ``Indian Americans.'' These comments have not been adopted either. While regulations can interpret and clarify the Act, regulations cannot change the Act. Furthermore, the regulations do not prohibit any individual, marketing enterprise, or other vendor from truthfully representing the art or craft products that they offer or display for sale or sell. The regulations define the nature and Indian origin of products protected by the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, a truth- in marketing law, from false representations. They also specify how the Indian Arts and Crafts Board will interpret certain conduct for enforcement purposes.

Finally, several comments recommended that the regulations be reissued in proposed form for further comment before final publication of the regulations to carry out the Act. A broad range of comments was received and carefully considered. Appropriate revisions and refinements have been adopted without fundamental change to the approach of the proposed regulations. Accordingly reissuance in proposed form is not warranted.

Section-by-Section Comments

Section 309.1 How Do These Regulations Carry Out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

One response asked how the legislation affects arts and crafts sold in business establishments. Another stated that the ``middle man'' should be held accountable for how the product is marketed.

Section 309.1 of the regulations covers these concerns. It states that the Act regulates products offered or displayed for sale, or sold as Indian produced, an Indian product, or the product of a particular Indian, or Indian tribe, or Indian arts and crafts organization within the United States. This section does not limit the marketing vehicles covered by the regulations. The Act applies to any offer for sale or display for sale, or actual sale by any person in the United States. In light of this broad application, section 309.1 is appropriately drafted.

Section 309.2 What Are the Key Definitions for Purposes of the Act?

Definition of Indian, Section 309.2(a)

One respondent asked that the regulations specifically name Native Hawaiians to protect them under the Act. Another wanted individuals who have Certificates of Indian Blood, yet are neither on tribal rolls nor certified as Indian artisans, to be included under the definition of Indian.

The final regulations do not adopt these suggestions. The Act specifically defines who is an Indian protected by the Act. The regulations can interpret and clarify the Act but cannot change the statutory terms of the Act.

One respondent expressed concern about state incorporated non- profit ``Indian'' organizations and their members who are not enrolled with state or Federally-recognized tribes, yet present themselves as Indian at crafts shows. In addition, adoption was an issue for two respondents. One expressed concern that non-Indians, ``adopted by Indian spiritual leaders,'' may be permitted to sell their work as Indian. Another stated that ``not until the seventh generation'' should an adopted tribal member or family have the right to offer their handcrafts for sale as Indian.

The definition of Indian already satisfies these concerns. State incorporated non-profit ``Indian'' organizations do not meet the definition of Indian tribe under the Act and in section 309.2(e)(1) and (2) of the regulations. Membership in a non-profit ``Indian'' organization does not meet the definition of Indian under the Act and in section 309.2 of the regulations. Furthermore, if an ``Indian spiritual leader'' or tribal member adopts an individual, this action does not mean that the adopted individual is a member of a state or Federally-recognized tribe or is certified as an Indian artisan by a state or Federally-recognized tribe.

Definition of Indian Artisan, Section 309.2(b)

Several respondents suggested that the definition of Indian artisan should be clarified to read ``an individual who is certified by an Indian tribe as its non-member artisan.'' This clarification has been adopted with a minor modification.

More at:

562 posted on 02/25/2005 9:09:21 PM PST by woofie
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To: woofie

yeah,...there were 2 days left for the auction,...reserve price hadn't been broken yet,...but I'm sure some collectors would've seen the value as historical/contrversial item

563 posted on 02/25/2005 9:09:27 PM PST by Dad yer funny
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To: Dad yer funny

I know an art lawyer in Santa Fe ...just sent this article to her.

564 posted on 02/25/2005 9:17:29 PM PST by woofie
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To: woofie

hey,...back at # 57,...thanks to Howlin'

565 posted on 02/25/2005 9:28:31 PM PST by Dad yer funny
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To: Thommas

Actually, it was documented that the british gave blankets that were used by smallpox victims to a group of indians as a group, hoping they would get the disease and thus be wiped out...

However, what churchill was refering to was an entirely different smallpox epidemic that hit the Mandans sometime in the 1800s...

No, Churchill used an older account as the basis for his anti-american hit piece, plain and simple.

THIS is the problem with people like Churchill - actual real live events are thought false, because they make up lies...

566 posted on 02/25/2005 9:30:00 PM PST by Chad Fairbanks (Celibacy is a hands-on job.)
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To: Thommas

And just as an aside, the letters written by Amherst, and others, during that period are available in the library of congress - interesting readin, if one has the time. It lays it all out in detail...

Maybe Churchill should have actually spent more time actually researching, and less time pontificating... :)

567 posted on 02/25/2005 9:37:18 PM PST by Chad Fairbanks (Celibacy is a hands-on job.)
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To: Dad yer funny; hoosiermama

I sent the seller an email last night, telling them they better read that article at the top of this thread.

568 posted on 02/25/2005 9:42:21 PM PST by Howlin (Free the Eason Jordan Tape!!!)
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To: Howlin

see #562...I assume he called himself an Indian artist....not good

569 posted on 02/25/2005 9:44:25 PM PST by woofie
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To: Howlin

yeah,...I recall you post the reply,correct? Last night was intense and comical,when I went to bed I kept having muffled laughter and chuckles,my wife said I woke her up!

570 posted on 02/25/2005 9:50:48 PM PST by Dad yer funny
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To: Dad yer funny

Me, too. I couldn't wait to show it to my husband this morning!

571 posted on 02/25/2005 9:52:40 PM PST by Howlin (Free the Eason Jordan Tape!!!)
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To: Howlin

yeah,...ol' Ward never learned that very important one,about when you realize you're......STOP DIGGIN'

572 posted on 02/25/2005 9:56:19 PM PST by Dad yer funny
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To: ajolympian2004
So, Churchill's not an artist, an indian, a combat vet, or a truthful man, but he is a criminal? Great story, thanks for sharing.


======================= Transcript for Part IV:

Churchill on getting revenge for speeding tickets: …And I’m not really comfortable with, since I’m presenting no public hazard ever when I’m ticketed, can attest to that, we can take that further at some point tonight if you’d like to, if you’d like to challenge it, but I’m presenting no public hazard, I’m simply being asked to ante up to pay for my own repression.

Not being comfortable with that, I have a rule of thumb: I smile very politely to the cop, take the ticket, look to see how much the fine is going to be, and before I leave that state, I make sure I cause at least that much property damage in state material before I go, so it’s a wash, boys and girls (laughter and applause).

573 posted on 02/25/2005 9:57:30 PM PST by GOPJ (Liberals haven't had a new idea in 40 years.)
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To: Howlin

He plagiarized his girlfriend's work.

574 posted on 02/25/2005 10:00:25 PM PST by SerpentDove
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To: itsahoot
Not much justice...:

Want to hear a funny one? Willard Stone was a full blood Cherokee, and one of the most famous Indian artist's. His son is an artist too, but cannot sell his art as "Indian Art" because his dad did not have a roll number. Is this a great country or what?

Willard Stone lived and died in Locust Grove, OK. I knew him.

575 posted on 02/25/2005 10:00:54 PM PST by GOPJ (Liberals haven't had a new idea in 40 years.)
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what a vile SOB,...Mr. Cautionary Tale

576 posted on 02/25/2005 10:01:19 PM PST by Dad yer funny
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To: purpleland
Whether or not artist John Doe had a copyright, this is the ethical thing to do.

Certainly it would generally seem ethical, but I've seen plenty of works that were obviously derived from da Vinci or other artists with no overt credit given. Further, in things like movie scores, it's quite common to hear snippets of public domain tunes with no credit given to them (sometimes public domain works are credited, but not always).

To be sure, one must invest a certain level of creativity in a work derived from a public domain work before one can copyright it. I would guess some of Churchill's serigraphs probably meet this criterion as general works of arts, though art prints have some special rules if they are to qualify for certain special copyright protections.

BTW, another thing I was curious about: suppose I buy at an estate sale a camera positive (reversal film) movie made after 1948. What would the copyright status of the film be? I would think that, in the absense of any documentation to the contrary, buying the original film would give me the copyright to it. But what are the actual rules?

577 posted on 02/25/2005 10:17:07 PM PST by supercat (For Florida officials to be free of the Albatross, they should let it fly away.)
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To: Miss Marple

"Paintings and drawings by Ward Churchill are at the Arlene Hirschfelder Collection at (ta-da) the University of Arkansas at Little Rock!"


Hirschfelder is an authority on Indian arts and crafts, and she authors nonfiction books about Indians for children. She just can't spot a fake Indian and his plagiarized art - she collects it and probably cites it!

It seems there are a hell of non-Indians who are (academic) authorities on Indian tribal cultures and art, and exploit Indian *issues.* Evidently, she's a colleague of Churchill's. In a bibliography of (recommended) Amer.Indian writers, she cites Churchill's essays, his TRIBAL indentity.(!)


Arlene Hirschfelder
Author, Children of Native America Today

Arlene Hirschfelder is the author of award-winning nonfiction books, as well as activity guides and bibliographies concerning Native Americans. She has devoted the last thirty-five years to teaching and writing about Native American histories, cultures, and contemporary issues. Children of Native America Today is Ms. Hirschfelder’s seventh children’s book.

578 posted on 02/25/2005 10:22:36 PM PST by purpleland (The price of freedom is vigilance.)
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To: MarineBrat
The time has come for this turd (aka Ward Churchill) to be flushed... he/she/it brought it upon him/her/it-self.


579 posted on 02/25/2005 10:26:32 PM PST by Trajan88 (
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To: supercat

Of course, the fact that Big Chief Phoneybaloney concealed the origins of his plagiarism proves what we already knew anyway: he's nothing but a fraud and a liar.

580 posted on 02/25/2005 10:32:26 PM PST by SerpentDove
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