Skip to comments.Charles Krauthammer's Ignorant Essay on Design
Posted on 11/22/2005 7:58:24 PM PST by truthfinder9
Charles Krauthammer's syndicated essay against intelligent design ran opposite mine in today's Seattle Times. The piece is full of problems, which Tom Gilson and Lawrence Seldon explore in loving detail here and here.
Now I would have framed a couple of points in their otherwise fine analysis a little differently. In one place, Gilson describes agnostic David Berlinski as an ID proponent. It would be more precise to call Berlinski a Darwin skeptic and friendly critic of design theory. Also, Seldon writes that Krauthammer "rants about Dover and Kansas ... writing out of ignorance and knocking down a straw man." To be generous, I would have said that Krauthammer "writes calmly and authoritatively out of ignorance, knocking down a straw man."
I'm rooting for Krauthammer to do his homework and, like British philosopher Antony Flew, change his mind.
[...Secularist societies have killed more people than all the religious societies put together...]
Excellent Smithers. The beginning of the decline of Western civilization may have its marker in the Scopes decision.
And if I might add. . .
Doesn't it take a lot more faith to believe that this was all an accident of (what is the current guesstimate) 25 million years than it takes to have faith in a Creator?
Uh... and how old is the sun?
Yes, but you don't want to trust a weak BS theory over what God clearly says.
I'm starting to wonder how conservative Krauthammer truly is.
And the best they can do is say that the fossil record supports the ToE.
This is a lie, and you *know* it's a lie -- you've been shown links to the vast amount of data from multiple independently cross-confirming other lines of evidence as well, such as the overwhelming molecular data (DNA and otherwise). The fossil record is just the *tip* of the huge iceberg of evidence for evolution.
Please explain why you're purposely lying like that.
We've been told time and again that you can't "prove" anything in science, (see I've been listening)
...but not understanding...
so they can't really tell us it's a fact
Yes we can.
or that Creation didn't happen because they don't KNOW that God DIDN'T create the universe and use evolution.
Where do you hallucinate that we ever did make such a claim?
Come back when you're able to *honestly* discuss our position.
Does the BIBLE? if not, to content absolutely that creation days were 24 hours long is not Biblically sound ... Hebrew calendar is not the Bible it a tradition of men...
Even 6 24 hours day is creation not SUDDENLY..."Beginning and finish of creation in the same moment... 6 24 hours day is still a lenght of time
The Bible is the true word of God ... tradition of men is is not...
My daughter is a genetic anomaly. She cannot procreate because the genetic code is mutated. She is a 45 XO or a Turner.
I'm sorry to hear that, but this does nothing to invalidate evolutionary biology. The fact that there are certain kinds of mutations which can prevent fertility (or cause early death, etc.) in no way demonstrates what you're tyring to imply -- that *all* mutations are dead ends. That is simply not the case, and has been well known for centuries.
A mule is also sterile because the dna code is broken.
No, sorry, that's not why mules are sterile.
Nature takes care of mutations.
Nature takes care of *harmful* mutations. On the other hand, nature *enhances* the reproduction of beneficial mutations.
They stop at once.
Only the severely harmful ones. Please don't make blanket claims about biology when you clearly don't have any kind of background in it.
A cat makes another cat. Period.
Evolutionary change is a reality. Period.
A bird cannot make a reptile.
No one claimed that they would. In fact, birds came from reptiles, not vice versa.
The deviancy in the genetic code won't allow it.
This is quite simply incorrect.
For material which addresses the several fallacies you've made in your argument, see:
However that is what many are taught...
Really? Where? Be specific.
In fact I do believe the book is called "Origin of Species" not Differencing of Species...
Wow, hairsplitting word quibbles as a cheap attempt to "prove" that the author was saying something different than what he really wrote -- how lame.
The first life would be the first "Species" therefore Origin of Species would imply Origin of life...
No, it wouldn't, except in that goofy word-lawyering way you're trying to use to twist what Darwin actually clearly wrote about...
Why don't you try to make your case, if you can, on the *actual* content of the book instead of how you can dance around the words of the title by misapplying definitions?
evolution theory does not allow for any non-evolution creation of any Species/Life ...does it?
Of course it does. Just how ignorant are you?
Hint: The *majority* of American evolutionists are Christians.
Hint #2: Here's a passage from the conclusion of Darwin's book:
It is interesting to contemplate an entangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us. These laws, taken in the largest sense, being Growth with Reproduction; inheritance which is almost implied by reproduction; Variability from the indirect and direct action of the external conditions of life, and from use and disuse; a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms. Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.Darwin *quite* clearly differentiated the processes of his own theory, versus whatever it was that "breathed" life into the first living things, which he did *not* speculate or theorize about. Nor is Darwinian evolution in any way dependent upon the origins of life itself -- evolution occurs whenever life is present, *wherever* it may have originated from.
...because if it did then ID is back in the mix to create the very first life that is designed to survive and improve itself...I.E "evolution" is designed in to it's program
That's one possible hypothesis, of course. Feel free to present any evidence you think you may have for it.
But don't misrepresent evolutionary biology.
That is infinitesmally small.From http://expertpages.com/news/dna.htm: All the human chromosomes taken together contain about 3 billion base pairs from an alphabet of the 2 bases of or : 2 ^ (3 * 10^9) = 10 ^ (3 * 10^9 / Log2(10)) = 10 ^ (3 * 10^9 / 3.3) = 10 ^ (0.9 * 10^9) So there are about "ten to the .9 billion" different DNA combinations possible, with DNA the size of a humans. From http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=342: Mass of Universe: 3 x 10^55 gram, Large subatomic particles (Neutrons and protons) per gram: 6.022 x 10^23 (Avogadro's Constant) The number of large subatomic particles (protons and neutrons) in the universe (if all mass in the universe were such particles) is approximately 3 x 10^55 x 6.022 x 10^23, or 1.8 ^ 10^79. A chromosome is a few nanometers across -- let's say one nanometer. Light travels at 3 * 10^8 meters per second. There are about 1/32 billion seconds in a year, and the universe is perhaps 15 billion years old. So a computer fast enough to have one cycle in the time it took like to travel across the width of a single chromosome, running continuously for the life of the universe would execute the following number of cycles: 1/32 * 10^9 * 15 * 10^9 * 3 * 10^8 * 10^9 = 1.4 * 10^35 cycles. So replacing every large subatomic particle with a computer capable of computing, composing and testing the viability of some random combination of human DNA in the time it took light to travel across a gene, that ran for the life of the known universe, would result in testing about 1.4 * 10^35 * 1.8 * 10^79 = 2.52 * 10^114 = 10^114.4 different DNA combinations being tried. There are 10 ^ (0.9 * 10^9) combinations to try. So we would need to have 10 ^ (0.9 * 10^9 - 114.4) = 10 ^ 899999885 Universes before such a universe of ultra fast computers tried all DNA combinations. That's a billion billion billion ... billion (repeated 100 million times) universes, each containing a billion billion ... billion (repeated 9 times) computers, each fast enough to calculate a billion billion cycles per second (about a billion times faster than your PC), running for the entire 15 billion year life of a typical Universe, computing and testing for viability an entire DNA sequence once each cycle, to find your DNA and recognize its viability as a human.
Yeah. Right. Sure.
If we deny that we are created beings (a creation must have a Creator), we have no accountability and an excuse to behave badly.
This is complete and utter nonsense. Even absent a creator, we still have accountability to others in our society. Behave badly, and pretty soon you're going to get the crap kicked out of you (literally or figuratively) -- and excuses about "it's in my nature" aren't going to fly.
If kin to apes, our primal desires to murder and breed are then instinctual.
...and so are our "primal desires" for cooperation, family and community bonds, love, caring for and protecting our children, defending our peers, etc. etc.
You really haven't thought this through at all, have you?
We are without guilt and free to roam and do as we please.
Horse manure. Even *apes* feel guilt, and fail to act as hedonistically and unrestrained as you ignorantly assume they "should". Get a clue.
Even apes understand that that sort of behavior is a recipe for disaster. And humans have even more of an ability to use their minds to understand why short-term selfish gains are *not* worthwhile or desirable strategies in the long run. Instead, cooperation, mutual altruism, "golden rule" ethics, and so on are vastly more effective ways to enhance even your *own* net benefits in a society, as well as the welfare of others. It's a win-win situation.
Duh. Even *apes* figure this out pretty fast as they grow up. What's *your* excuse?
Promiscuous sex, unwanted pregnancy, abortion (murder). The decline of the family... the decline of civilization.
Uh huh. Whatever you say.
Tell me, if it were somehow proven tomorrow that there wasn't a creator after all, would *you* suddenly start raping, killing, and pillaging? Yes or no? If Yes, shame on you, and you'd better have "fun" quick before you get shot or thrown in jail. If No, then realize you're not the only one with an actual brain and a conscience.
You do realize, I hope, the pointless of your 'calculations'? Or shall I spell it out for you?
Dr. K should stick to politics
Well, it's "math" all right, but it models a really stupid scenario which has no resemblance at all to actual biological processes.
That is infinitesmally small.
Yes, and also infinitismally valid as a meaningful model of reality.
On top of *that*, it makes the common ad hoc probability fallacy. Here's an example just like yours about a more familiar process, in order to show how idiotic your math is:
There are 52! (52 factorial, or 52x51x50...x1) possible arrangements to a single deck of cards. Take a deck, shuffle it thoroughly, and spread the deck face up on the table. See that arrangement of cards you ended up with? The odds of getting that exact arrangement are an astronomically small 1 out of 80658175170943878571660636856403766975289505440883277824000000000000 -- it's a miracle!!!Nice try.
Sorry, son, but all your "math" has demonstrated is that it you were randomly shuffling DNA like a deck of cards, the odds of producing someone's specific genome from scratch (and which one? Not counting identical twins, everyone's DNA is *different*) are astronomically low. But so freaking what? No one ever suggested that human life came about by *shuffling*. That's highly idiotic.
Instead, human life has come about via evolutionary processes, which are *not* as pointless and unfocussed as shuffling. And for a taste of just how *much* evolution can speed up things over purely random processes like the one you *incorrectly* try to use as an analogy for evolutionary processes, here's an older post of mine:
For further discussion of the many ways in which your analysis is flawed, see:
Or are you one of those who insist that a room full of monkeys with keyboards can write the complete works of Shakespeare?
In theory? Yes they can, if you're willing to wait long enough (where "enough" is an amount of time that boggles the imagination). In practice (by simple random output)? No they can't.
But they can do it pretty quickly and easily if a replication and selection process is involved.
You wanted to see a calculation, so let's do one.
Consider the Shakespeare phrase, "If you can look into the seeds of time, and say which grain will grow and which will not, speak then unto me." That's 109 characters (including spaces and punctuation). Upper and lower case letters, plus digits and puntuaction, make up a pool of about 70 different characters. This means that the odds of producing the Shakespeare phrase in one random trial is 1 out of 70109, or 1 in 1,305,227,939,201,292,014, 528,313,176,276,968,928,001, 249,110,077,400,839,115,038, 451,821,150,802,274,449,576, 205,527,736,070,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000.
Needless to say, that's a big number. It's so huge that if every atom in the universe (about 1080 of them) were a computer capable of making a billion (1,000,000,000) random trials per second, the expected time required to produce the above line from Shakespeare would be 2,585,011,097,170,911,314,802,759,827,024,569,612,393, 783,728,161,759,843,736,212,615,624,189,581,658,716,078, 309,043,891,309 times the expected lifespan of the universe. That's close enough to "never" in my book.
But that's for *purely* random production process. How much do you think an evolutionary process could cut down that figure? Knock a few zeros off the end, maybe?
Well let's try it. Using an evolutionary process, which couples random variation with replication and selection and *nothing* else, the above Shakespeare phrase can be produced on a *single* computer (mine), using a breeding population of 1024 character strings in a whopping... 15 seconds (using this applet):Generation: 0Hmm, 15 seconds is a hell of a lot faster than zillions of times the lifespan of the universe, isn't it? Evolution sped things up (compared to a purely random process) by a factor of more than 10195 -- that's a "1" followed by a hundred and ninety-five zeros, or: 1, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000.
Tries <= 1024
Best Critter: "xSeOSEpc3Lm6rnRWnpFYL?QEDY7a67XlfRoJ0e8Len'X'1u'BhdrNqSNaXr7kVjondNozkf2CH9d96SaI?'f43M.CUGJ5XHbqfeR.UJP'tgNP"
Score (0 is best) 101
Tries <= 26624
Best Critter: "vf,ioV c3RKlooioifBFQXh, PeHTskof!oJ0e,Lrn'X'1u BhkchESNaXr kVjo dNozpanSI div1Qwi8h taQ,jswMkk,us1S'ugYtmm7."
Score (0 is best) 72
Tries <= 286464
Best Critter: "If you can look into the seeds of time, and say which grain will grow and which will not, speak then unto me."
Score (0 is best) 0
Checked 286464 critters in 15 seconds == 19097 tries/sec.
Lesson: Even simple evolutionary processes are *incredibly* more efficient and effective than simple randomness alone. Evolution can *easily* accomplish things which would be *impossibly* improbable by purely random means.
I just spelled it out for him in my prior post.
Funny, that's just what these folks were saying -- and they were dead wrong:
"And if Your Reverence would read not only the Fathers but also the commentaries of modern writers on Genesis, Psalms, Ecclesiastes and Josue, you would find that all agree in explaining literally (ad litteram) that the sun is in the heavens and moves swiftly around the earth, and that the earth is far from the heavens and stands immobile in the center of the universe. [...] I add that the words 'the sun also riseth and the sun goeth down, and hasteneth to the place where he ariseth, etc.' were those of Solomon, who not only spoke by divine inspiration but was a man wise above all others and most learned in human sciences and in the knowledge of all created things, and his wisdom was from God."And:
-- Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, April 12, 1615 letter to Foscarini concerning Galileo's "heresy".
"Whereas you, Galileo, son of the late Vaincenzo Galilei, Florentine, aged seventy years, were in the year 1615 denounced to this Holy Office for holding as true the false doctrine taught by some that the Sun is the center of the world and immovable and that the Earth moves, and also with a diurnal motion; for having disciples to whom you taught the same doctrine; for holding correspondence with certain mathematicians of Germany concerning the same; for having printed certain letters, entitled "On the Sunspots," wherein you developed the same doctrine as true; and for replying to the objections from the Holy Scriptures, which from time to time were urged against it [i.e. for disagreeing with Bible-based criticisms - Ich.] [...] This Holy Tribunal being therefore of intention to proceed against the disorder and mischief thence resulting, which went on increasing to the prejudice of the Holy Faith, [...] The proposition that the Sun is the center of the world and does not move from its place is absurd and false philosophically and formally heretical, because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scripture. [...] Furthermore, in order to completely eliminate such a pernicious doctrine, and not let it creep any further to the great detriment of Catholic truth, the Holy Congregation of the Index issued a decree which prohibited books which treat of this and declaring the doctrine itself to be false and wholly contrary to the divine and Holy Scripture. [...] We say, pronounce, sentence and declare that you, Galileo, by reason of these things which have been detailed in the trial and which you have confessed already, have rendered yourself according to this Holy Office vehemently suspect of heresy, namely of having held and believed a doctrine that is false and contrary to the divine and Holy Scripture: namely that Sun is the center of the world and does not move from east to west, and that one may hold and defend as probable an opinion after it has been declared and defined contrary to Holy Scripture. [...] Consequently, you have incurred all the censures and penalties enjoined and promulgated by the sacred Canons and all particular and general laws against such delinquents.If the Vatican get get Scripture so freaking wrong when they read it, I have even less confidence in the textual interpretations of amateurs.
-- Papal Condemnation (Sentence) of Galileo (June 22, 1633)
Here, ponder this:
"The doctrine of the movements of the earth and the fixity of the sun is condemned [by Biblical literalists] on the ground that the Scriptures speak in many places of the sun moving and the earth standing still I think that in the discussion of natural problems we ought to begin not with the Scriptures, but with experiments and demonstrations." -- Galileo GalileiPop quiz: Who was right -- Galileo, learning from observation and evidence, or the Pope and his entire Church, relying on their reading of the text of the Bible?
Does the Sun actually revolve around the fixed Earth, as the Church was convinced the Bible clearly said?
No, it doesn't. It doesn't take any "faith" at all -- it takes evidence, research, knowledge, and understanding of the relevant processes.
Here, read this: Do You Believe In Evolution?
Though misread my intent, you did a nice job of taking my position one step further, and explaining how some more sensible form of evolution than just random shuffling can make dramatic improvements in the rate of advancement.
Yes I fully realize how pointless they are. That was my point ;).
Sure we do -- have you bothered to actually *look* at the science journals before saying something like this?
So "we" don't know how to explain the origins of the eyeball, as an evolutionary scenario? Oooookay. Pull the other leg now:
ARENDT, D. and WITTBRODT, J. (2001). Reconstructing the eyes of Urbilateria. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356: 1545-63.Perhaps creationists "don't know" how the eye evolved, but if so it's because they're not bothering to read the science journals before they make their pronouncements. Biologists actually know a great deal about how the eye evolved, in what stages, in what lineages, at what points in time, via what genetic and molecular changes, etc. etc. There's still a lot to discover yet, of course, but the usual creationist canard of "you guys don't know nothin' and have no evidence, it's all just guesswork" is a gigantic misrepresentation.
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However the argument that "We don't know how it happened, so someone must have designed it" answers nothing for me. It just regresses the magic.
Bingo! Creationists like to offer "a designer did it" as an "explanation", but it actually *explains* nothing. An actual explanation would involve details as to processes, methods, materials, etc.
My great grandmother who lived to the ripe old age of 102 always called it "Divine Design".
We all knew what she meant. We all agreed.
We also knew it is based on Faith, not on pseudo-science.
Science does not conflict with Faith. There are just some things that are "broader than the measure of the mind."
Your links misrepresent Flew's "conversion", and "forget" to inform the reader that Flew has since retreated from his primary reasons for pondering the existence of a "designer". And Flew has never believed in anything resembling the Christian or Muslim god, as many creationist accounts like to imply.
For a more honest and complete (and more up to date) overview of Flew's position, see: Antony Flew Considers God...Sort Of
Excellant reply. Thanks.
Charles is off the reservation on this one.
So you're saying ID proponents won't "do" science the way that all the other researchers in the world do? That's the gist I get from you analogy.
Scientologists Creationists really believe this" pace South Park's John Smith
The Kraut is the man. Calling him ignorant displays ignorance.
19th Century authors favoured long titles with short words
Hence "On the Origin of Species" instead of "Speciation"
Correction: "Evolutionary change" is a redundancy.
Well, maybe filling in about 4.5 billion years of our history for a start.
[But the total publications from ID: ZERO]
Good Darwin Fundie Talking Point, but it's a lie. ID supporters have pusblished lists of their peer reviewed works. But you wouldn't know that, being a Darwin Fundamentalist.
Roughly the age of the Earth. Are you saying that evolution accounts for history even before the Earth was habitable?
I agree with you whole-heartedly.
We know that God is the Author and Creator of the Universe, but we really don't know technicaly how he did it. Did he simply say the magic words and poof, everything appeared? Even Genesis doesn't support that, it supports that God did different things on different days. Why would God need to do this? God doesn't measure time is days, He is not bound by time.
Days are a human concept and the creation story is written in terms that men (and women) can understand. I believe that the first observations of God occur in observing His creation. "The heavens declare the glory of God..." Science is not the antithesis of religion, it is its first cousin. Christians who seek to reject science for religious reasons are just as short-sighted as scientists who attempt to prove that life began without a creator.
The key is not the number of publications, but the number of citations
ID supporters can publish their works, peer review them to their hearts desire. But unless scientists think the content is useful enough to mention in their own papers, the IDeologues are just blowing smoke.
So, Krauthammer writes
on Intelligent Design . . .
I guess, Real Soon Now,
we'll have Ann Coulter
and Pat Buchanan weigh in.
Those will be good reads . . .
Sorry - I pulled a common ploy. When too lazy to look something up, state an outrageous claim to the contrary and let someone else have the fun of showing how wrong you were.
And I used another common rhetorical ploy. When you want to focus the readers attention on one of a couple of reasons they are wrong (the regressed magic, in this case) willingly grant without qualification the other points so as not to defocus the reader.
Correction: The Genesis day is 24 hours. I misspoke to have said Hebrew Calendar. Please forgive. The Bible IS the true word of God. I am human, therefore I err.
Ichneumon... Me thinks thou dost protest too much.
No matter how much of that evolutionary nonsense you throw at the wall, it still won't stick. You cannot ignore design. Look in the mirror, design is staring you in the face. Evolution does not work, no matter how many zero's you add to the age of the earth.
Further, we DO run amock. We ARE uncivilized. Why do you think we must have laws? The jungle order works because the jungle is full of animals. But, WE are human and without excuse.
No, sport, I would not know that because it is not on any of the standard publications databases. I do know where to find references in physics publications: the American Physical Society, I know where to find references on nuclear safeguards and NDA: the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management, I know where to find references on nuclear fusion, at Nuclear Fusion, and I know where to find references in Medicine and Biology, it is the National Institutes of Health PubMed database. Pretty much everyone knows that.
The simple, unarguable fact is that ID is missing from that database. Look for yourself.
So, if the IDers have published in recognized, peer-reviewed journals, instead of calling people liars, prove it by providing a reference. Post a list of publications. Give me search criteria at PubMed that will provide a list. Post the link to the search criteria at PubMed.
Now, just in anticipation of the quality of ID research, let me make a couple of restrictions. A paper authored by a Discovery Institute "scientist", peer reviewed by other Discovery Institute "scientists", and published in a journal that is published by the Discovery Institute does not count. That is not peer review and it is not a scientific publication. Moreover, when listing credentials, I am not interested in "Ph.D's" who received their degree from a mail order house. I am not interested in Ph.D's who received their degree as an honorary degree from the Discovery Institute. Moreover, I am not interested in papers that the Discovery Institute claims "imply" intelligent design, as their web site argues. Finally, I am not interested in papers on entirely different subjects than ID, but were published by people who subscribe to ID. The original issue was peer reviewed, published papers that support the ID thesis.
So, if you are really telling the truth, provide a list or provide a link to a list of real, peer reviewed papers published in support of ID. Given the demonstrated integrity of the Discovery Institute members, and the quality of intellect demonstrated by the 4 "essays" in your post, I won't hold my breath. (But I will enjoy reminding you on every subsequent post of yours I find).
bookmark for later
Remind me never, ever, ever to get into an argument with you!!!!
Fantastic post, as always.
But the earth revolving around the sun is observable. And all evidence found in the earth points to special Creation (although I'm sure you disagree). :)
It is? When and how, exactly, did you directly observe it doing that?
And all evidence found in the earth points to special Creation
In what way? How, for example, does the pattern of endogenous retroviruses across the vertebrate lineages point to special Creation? And how does it *not* actually indicate evolutionary origins via common descent, as the overwhelming majority of biologists (including the Christian ones) have concluded? Where is their mistake concerning that evidence, exactly?
Repeat the same questions for the SINE and LINE and Alu-repeat evidences. Then apply those questions to the evidence from synonymous SNPs, and to the evidence from synonymous protein substituions?
I'll wait for your answers to those before I ask more.
(although I'm sure you disagree). :)
I'm always open to new evidence which can be validated/falsified by the testing of the predictions it makes. What have you got?
Having faced death more than most folks...here is my take....not a bad notion because you only have to do it once.......
Do you know where Ann stands on the debate? I've never heard her say.
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