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Late Pleostocene Human Population Bottlenecks. . . (Toba)
The Bradshaw Foundation ^ | 1998 | Stanley H. Ambrose

Posted on 12/16/2005 11:33:44 AM PST by blam

Professor Stanley H. Ambrose Department of Anthropology, University Of Illinois, Urbana, USA

Extract from "Journey of Human Evolution" [1998] 34, 623-651

The last glacial period was preceded by 1000 years of the coldest temperatures of the Late Pleistocene, apparently caused by the eruption of the Mount Toba volcano. The six year long volcanic winter and 1000-year-long instant Ice Age that followed Mount Toba's eruption may have decimated Modern Man's entire population. Genetic evidence suggests that Human population size fell to about 10,000 adults between 50 and 100 thousand years ago. The survivors from this global catastrophy would have found refuge in isolated tropical pockets, mainly in Equatorial Africa. Populations living in Europe and northern China would have been completely eliminated by the reduction of the summer temperatures by as much as 12 degrees centigrade.

Volcanic winter and instant Ice Age may help resolve the central but unstated paradox of the recent African origin of Humankind: if we are all so recently "Out of Africa", why do we not all look more African?

Because the volcanic winter and instant Ice Age would have reduced populations levels low enough for founder effects, genetic drift and local adaptations to produce rapid changes in the surviving populations, causing the peoples of the world to look so different today. In other words, Toba may have caused Modern Races to differentiate abruptly only 70,000 years ago, rather than gradually over one million years.

Volcanic Winter

The Mount Toba eruption is dated to approximately 71,000 years ago. Volcanic ash from Mount Toba can be traced north-west across India, where a widespread terrestrial marker bed exists of primary and reworked airfall ash, in beds that are commonly 1 to 3, and occasionally 6 meters [18 feet] thick.

Tambora, the largest known historic eruption, displaced 20 cubic kilometres of ash. Mount Toba produced 800 cubic kilometres.* It was therefore forty times larger than the largest eruption of the last two centuries and apparently the second largest known explosive eruption over the last 450 million years.

*Mount St Helens produced a tiny 0.2 cubic kilometres.

Volcanic Winter, and Differentiation of Modern Humans

Mount Toba's eruption is marked by a 6 year period during which the largest amount of volcanic sulphur was deposited in the past 110,000 years. This dramatic event was followed by 1000 years of the lowest ice core oxygen isotope ratios of the last glacial period. In other words, for 1000 years immediately following the eruption, the earth witnessed temperatures colder than during the Last Glacial Maximum at 18-21,000 years ago.

For the volcanic aerosols to be effectively distributed around the earth, the plume from the volcanic eruptions must reach the stratosphere, a height greater than 17 kilometres. Mount Toba's plume probably reached twice this height. Most solar energy falls at low latitudes between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, so eruptions that happen near the Equator cause much more substantial cooling due to the reflection of solar energy. Toba lies 2 degrees north of the Equator, on the Island Sumatra.

The reduction in atmospheric visibility due to volcanic ash and dust particles is relatively short-lived, about three to six months. Longer-term global climatic cooling is caused by the highly reflective sulphuric acid haze, which stays suspended in the upper atmosphere for several years.

Ice core evidence implicates Mount Toba as the cause of coldest millennium of the late Pleistocene. It shows that this eruption injected more sulphur that remained in the atmosphere fo a longer time [six years] than any other volcanic eruption in the last 110,000 years. This may have caused nearly complete deforestation of southeast Asia, and at the same time to have lowered sea surface temperatures by 3 to 3.5 degrees centigrade for several years.

If Tambora caused the " The year without a summer" in 1816, Mount Toba could have been responsible for six years of relentless volcanic winter, thus causing a massive deforestation, a disastrous famine for all living creatures, and a near extinction of Humankind.

The Volcanic Winter/Weak Garden of Eden model proposed in this paper. Population subdivision due to dispersal within African and other continents during the early Late Pleistocene is followed by bottlenecks caused by volcanic winter, resulting from the eruption of Toba, 71 ka. The bottleneck may have lasted either 1000 years, during the hyper-cold stadial period between Dansgaard-Oeschlger events 19 and 20, or 10ka, during oxygen isotope stage 4. Population bottlenecks and releases are both sychronous. More individuals survived in Africa because tropical refugia were largest there, resulting in greater genetic diversity in Africa.

Bahamas Coral Reef Chart

BLOMBOS CAVE : 77,0000 YEARS OLD

Small and portable, this red ochre stone is engraved with what must be "tally" marks. It is one of two such stones recently found in the Blombos Cave in South Africa and have been dated as being 77,000 years old, making them the oldest form of recorded counting ever found.

The stone is worn which probably indicated that it was constantly handled over a period of time, how long is impossible to tell. It looks as though the stone has been reused at least once before as the lighter marks appear to have been erased rather than worn away naturally.

If the dating is accurate this stone was used 5000 years before the Mount Toba eruption of 71,000 years ago. The evidence from the Toba eruption indicates that the world's population of Modern Man was reduced to a total of around 10,000 adults.



TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: bottlenecks; catastrophism; godsgraveglyphs; godsgravesglyphs; helixmakemineadouble; human; late; maunderminimum; pleistocene; pleostocene; population; solarflares; toba; youngerdryas
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To: blam; All

Yup.

Tonight on Nova, PBS, at 8PM, "Mystery of the Megavolcano" about the ruption of Toba.

Still considered to be the single greatest eruption in the last 100,000 years. Even before that, I think it was only rivaled by the Yellowstone caldera stuff 2 mill yrs ago.


51 posted on 09/26/2006 8:50:47 AM PDT by djf (Some people say we evolved. I say "Some did, some didn't!")
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To: djf
"I think it was only rivaled by the Yellowstone caldera stuff 2 mill yrs ago."

Last Yellowstone eruption = 640,000 years ago. Six feet of ash in Nebraska and the Dakotas.

BTW, Yellowstone is 40,000 years over due for an eruption. If a 'Super-Volcano' goes off, don't bother running, you'll just die tired or starve.

52 posted on 09/26/2006 11:46:32 AM PDT by blam
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To: LucyT

Ping.


53 posted on 10/24/2006 9:13:56 PM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv

This subject is presently being covered on the National Geographic Channel. A one hour documentary.


54 posted on 02/28/2007 6:05:51 PM PST by blam
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To: blam

New DNA Study Helps Explain Unique Diversity Among Melanesians
Eureka Alert | 2-28-2007 | Temple University - Preston Moretz
Posted on 02/28/2007 4:34:33 PM EST by blam
http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/1792890/posts


55 posted on 03/01/2007 9:07:09 AM PST by SunkenCiv (I last updated my profile on Thursday, February 19, 2007. https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: Slicksadick

Toba placemark


56 posted on 03/13/2007 7:01:29 AM PDT by gleeaikin
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To: blam; djf

You are right about the last Yellowstone caldera eruption, but there was one a little more than 2 million years ago (I think the largest), and one around 1.3 mya. I am putting this from memory so the figures may not be exact.


57 posted on 03/13/2007 7:15:40 AM PDT by gleeaikin
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To: gleeaikin
Why Toba Matters
58 posted on 04/18/2007 11:26:29 AM PDT by blam
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To: SunkenCiv
Toba Genetic Evidence

by Stephen Oppenheimer

The Toba explosion 74,000 years ago and the genetic evidence

Perhaps more important than the precision of the dating, the connection between stone tools and Toba volcanic ash in Malaysia puts the first Indians and Pakistanis in the direct path of the greatest natural calamity to befall any humans, ever. The Toba explosion was that disaster, the biggest bang in 2 million years. Carried by the wind, the plume of ash from the volcano fanned out to the north-west and covered the whole of the Indian subcontinent. Even today, a metres-thick ash layer is found throughout the region, and is associated in two Indian locations with Middle and Upper Palaeolithic tools. An important prediction of this conjunction of tools and ash is that a deep and wide genetically sterile furrow would have split East from West; India would eventually recover by re-colonisation from either side. Such a furrow does exist in the genetic map of Asia.

In spite of the proximity of Toba to Perak, the Toba ash plume only grazed the Malay Peninsula. The human occupants of the Kota Tampan site were the unlucky ones – others on the peninsula escaped. Some argue, on the basis of comparing skull morphologies, that the Semang aboriginal ‘Negrito’ hunter-gatherers, who still live in the same part of the dense northern Malaysian rainforest, are descendants of people like Perak Man. The continuity of the Kota Tampan culture as argued by Zuraina Majid provides a link back to the 74,000-year-old tools in the Toba ash.

The Semang are perhaps the best known of the candidate remnants of the old beachcombers. Another relict group possibly left over from the beachcombers in Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula are the so-called Aboriginal Malays, who are physically intermediate between the Semang and Mongoloid populations.

For a film documentary, The Real Eve (Out of Eden in the UK), with with which Stephen Oppenheimer 's book is associated, Discovery Channel helped to fund a genetic survey of the aboriginal groups of the Malay Peninsula which I conducted in collaboration with English geneticist Martin Richards and some Malaysian scientists. This survey was part of a much larger on-going study of East Asian genetics.

The mtDNA results were very exciting: three-quarters of the Semang group (i.e. the ‘Negrito’ types) have their own unique genetic M and N lines with very little admixture from elsewhere, which is consistent with the view that their ancestors may have arrived with the first beachcombers. Their two unique lines trace straight back to the M and N roots (the first two daughters of L3 outside Africa). Their M line is not shared with anyone else in Southeast Asia or East Asia (or anywhere else) and, although it has suffered loss of diversity through recent population decline, it retains sufficient diversity to indicate an approximate age of 60,000 years. Their other unique group on the N side comes from R, N’s genetic daughter. This lack of any specific connection with any other Eurasian population is consistent with the idea that after arriving here so long ago, they have remained genetically isolated in the jungles of the Malay Peninsula.

The colonisation of Australia over 60,000 years ago was part of the same Exodus

Some are still convinced that Australian aboriginals represent an earlier migration out of Africa than that which gave rise to Europeans, Asians, and Native Americans. Yet again our genetic trail tells us otherwise. Several studies of Australian maternal clans have shown that they all belong to our two unique non-African superclans, M and N, and large studies of Y chromosomes show that male Australian lines all belong to the same Out-of-Africa Adam clan as other non-Africans (M168). The same pattern is seen with genetic markers not exclusively transmitted through one parent. In other words, the combined genetic evidence strongly suggests Australians are also descendants of that same single out-of-Africa migration. The logic of this approach, combined with the archaeological dates, places the modern human arrival in the Malay Peninsula before 74,000 years ago and Australia around 65,000 years ago. It is also consistent with the date of exit from Africa predicted on beachcombing grounds.

My date estimates for the trek around the Indian Ocean en route from Africa suggest that the beachcombers could have taken as little as 10,000 years to eat their way down the coastline to Perak and roughly another 10,000 years to reach Australia. Such a time requirement is fulfilled by the difference between leaving Africa around 85,000 years ago and arriving in Australia 65,000 years ago. The former date is consistent with dates estimated for the African L3 cluster expansion using the molecular clock.

A genetic furrow in India resulting from the Toba explosion?

There is an abrupt genetic change to the north and east of India. These changes can be inferred even from physical appearance. In Nepal, Burma, and eastern India we come across the first Mongoloid East Asian faces. These populations generally speak East Asian languages, contrasting strongly with their neighbours who mostly speak Indo-Aryan or Dravidian languages. By the time we get to the east of Burma and to Tibet on the northern side of the Himalayas, the transition to East Asian appearance and ethnolinguistic traditions is complete, as is the rapid and complete change of the mitochondrial sub-clans of M and N. In Tibet, for instance, the ratio of M to N clans has changed from 1:5 to 3:1, and there is no convincing overlap of their sub-clans with India. Instead, Tibet shows 70 per cent of typical East and Southeast Asian M and N sub-clans, with the remainder consisting of as-yet unclassified M types of local origin. The north-eastern part of the Indian subcontinent therefore shows the clearest and deepest east–west boundary. This boundary possibly reflects the deep genetic furrow scored through India by the ash-cloud of the Toba volcano 74,000 years ago.

To the south of the Indian peninsula, the main physical type generally changes towards darker-skinned, curly haired, round-eyed so-called Dravidian peoples. Comparisons of skull shape link the large Tamil population of South India with the Senoi, a Malay Peninsular aboriginal group intermediate between the Semang and Aboriginal Malays (see above).

M born in India, N possibly a little farther west in the Gulf M, who is nearly completely absent from West Eurasia, gives us many reasons to suspect that her birthplace is in India. M achieves her greatest diversity and antiquity in India. Nowhere else does she show such variety and such a high proportion of root and unique primary branch types. The eldest of her many daughters in India, M2, even dates to 73,000 years ago. Although the date for the M2 expansion is not precise, it might reflect a local recovery of the population after the extinction that followed the eruption of Toba 74,000 years ago. M2 is strongly represented in the Chenchu hunter-gatherer Australoid tribal populations of Andhra Pradesh, who have their own unique local M2 variants as well as having common ancestors with M2 types found in the rest of India. Overall, these are strong reasons for placing M’s birth in India rather than further west or even in Africa.

What is perhaps most interesting about the unique Indian flowerings of the M and R clans is a hint that they represent a local recovery from the Toba disaster which occurred 74,000 years ago, after the out-of-Africa trail began. A devastated India could have been re-colonised from the west by R types and from the east more by M types. Possible support for this picture comes from the recent study by Kivisild and colleagues of two tribal populations in the south-eastern state of Andhra Pradesh. One of these populations, the Australoid Chenchu hunter-gatherers, are almost entirely of the M clan and hold most of the major M branches characteristic of and unique to India. The other group, the non-Australoid Koyas, have a similarly rich assortment of Indian type M branches (60 per cent of all lines), but have 31 per cent uniquely Indian R types. The Chenchu and Koya tribal groups thus hold an ancient library of Indian M and R genetic lines which are ancestral to, and include, much of the maternal genetic diversity that is present in the rest of the Indian subcontinent. Neither of these two groups holds any West Eurasian N types. The presence of R types in the Koyas but not in the Australoid Chenchus might fit with some component of a recolonization from the Western side of the Indian subcontinent. As evidence of their ancient and independent development, and in spite of their clearly Indian genetic roots and locality, there were no shared maternal genetic types (i.e. no exact matches) between the two tribal groups.

59 posted on 04/18/2007 11:38:40 AM PDT by blam
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To: naturalized

This is 70 millenia ago. The “Great Flood” is much more recent. It could be a massive tsunami that occurred as the Antarctic Ice Cap collapsed into the ocean, or the filling of the Black Sea, or several other things.


60 posted on 07/06/2007 3:10:41 PM PDT by muawiyah
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To: Mad_Tom_Rackham
I bet they were conservatives. Liberals ("give me half your pie, because I didn't make one") came later, after the conservatives rebuilt the world.

Liberalism (the lazy assed give me yours because you owe me something type) can really only exist in a surplus food society that exists like today.

When every day is spent grubbing a subsistence level existence, there isn't much time for naval gazing or figuring out ways to safely steal what doesn't belong to you. Besides, those with liberal tendencies would probably have ended up with a stone ax embedded in his forehead for his troubles.

In a way, it's a shame we're so civilized today...
61 posted on 07/06/2007 3:28:24 PM PDT by Dr.Zoidberg (Mohammedanism - Bringing you only the best of the 6th century for fourteen hundred years.)
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To: add925
"Proud member of Haplogroup G2 :^)"

Haplogroup G (And G2)

I'm in haplogroup R1b (male) and 'V' (female).

62 posted on 07/27/2007 2:01:02 PM PDT by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

A child of Velda’s line you are.


63 posted on 08/16/2007 4:10:25 PM PDT by Siobhan (An official opponent of the Union of North America)
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To: blam

· join list or digest · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post a topic ·

 
Gods
Graves
Glyphs
Thanks Blam, great comment in message 2. Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.
GGG managers are Blam, StayAt HomeMother, and Ernest_at_the_Beach
 

· Google · Archaeologica · ArchaeoBlog · Archaeology magazine · Biblical Archaeology Society ·
· Mirabilis · Texas AM Anthropology News · Yahoo Anthro & Archaeo ·
· History or Science & Nature Podcasts · Excerpt, or Link only? · cgk's list of ping lists ·


64 posted on 02/23/2008 9:26:30 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: Little Pig

How many times has that happened, do you think?


65 posted on 02/23/2008 9:44:55 AM PST by patton (cuiquam in sua arte credendum)
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To: willyd

Because it has to fit into his/her theory, and that explanation might be the only “evidence” there is so make the theory plausible/believable. And, sure enough, some will believe it based on this “evidence.”


66 posted on 02/23/2008 9:51:04 AM PST by DennisR (Look around - God gives countless clues that He does, indeed, exist.)
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To: SunkenCiv
"Thanks Blam, great comment in message 2. "

This One?

"I expect that we'll eventually find that humans were stranded in South America during the Volcano Winter caused by the Toba explosion and were not re-united with the world's other humans until thousands of years later."

67 posted on 02/23/2008 11:08:18 AM PST by blam (Secure the border and enforce the law)
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To: blam

That’s the one. Hey, I just noticed that the topic title has a misspelling.

Sidebar: there’s one English word with three consecutive doubled letters (e.g., “aabbcc”).


68 posted on 02/23/2008 11:33:05 AM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: patton

Wow, is this an old thread.

On some scale, I would imagine something like this has happened to “civilized” humans 10 or 15 times in the past 20,000 years. Unfortunately, we humans have a tendency to forget unpleasant events.


69 posted on 02/25/2008 7:05:15 AM PST by Little Pig (Is it time for "Cowboys and Muslims" yet?)
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To: SunkenCiv

> Sidebar: there’s one English word with three consecutive doubled letters (e.g., “aabbcc”).

That would be “bookkeeper”


70 posted on 02/25/2008 7:05:58 AM PST by Little Pig (Is it time for "Cowboys and Muslims" yet?)
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To: Little Pig

:’) That’s it! Also the plural, and -ing.


71 posted on 02/26/2008 12:38:57 PM PST by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/___________________Profile updated Tuesday, February 19, 2008)
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To: Coyoteman

Amazon starts at $95.00 used for 300 plus pages - might have to round one up.


72 posted on 04/24/2008 2:55:09 PM PDT by norton
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To: norton
Amazon starts at $95.00 used for 300 plus pages - might have to round one up.

Great! That's a pretty good price.

For a search of all copies of that book available try www.bookfinder.com.

73 posted on 04/24/2008 4:31:03 PM PDT by Coyoteman (Religious belief does not constitute scientific evidence, nor does it convey scientific knowledge.)
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To: Little Pig
Sidebar: there’s one English word with three consecutive doubled letters (e.g., “aabbcc”).

That would be “bookkeeper”

Dang, I always thought it was "vaaccuum".

:)

74 posted on 07/24/2008 3:39:35 PM PDT by chindog
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The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: Flood, Fire, and Famine in the History of Civilization The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes:
Flood, Fire, and Famine
in the History of Civilization

by Richard Firestone,
Allen West, and
Simon Warwick-Smith

 
Catastrophism
 
· join · view topics · view or post blog · bookmark · post new topic ·
 

75 posted on 07/25/2008 5:51:08 PM PDT by SunkenCiv (https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/_________________________Profile updated Friday, May 30, 2008)
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To: blam

bump


76 posted on 12/29/2008 9:50:42 PM PST by GOPJ (GM's market value is a third of Bed, Bath and Beyond. Why is GM "too big to fail"? Steyn)
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To: Darksheare

you could also get 4 2liter soda bottles and put some menthos in them and watch , too...........(just being funny)


77 posted on 07/13/2009 12:15:52 AM PDT by MissDairyGoodnessVT (Mac Conchradha - "Skeagh mac en chroe"- Skaghvicencrowe)
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To: blam

This just pisses me off.


78 posted on 04/16/2010 6:24:30 AM PDT by Lazamataz ("We beat the Soviet Union. Then we became them." -- Lazamataz, 2005)
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To: naturalized

Hence sea shell fossils found in high elevations...


79 posted on 04/16/2010 6:25:15 AM PDT by mdmathis6 (Mike Mathis is my name,opinions are my own,subject to flaming when deserved!)
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To: Lazamataz

Are we in the middle of a Lazathon?


80 posted on 04/16/2010 6:31:00 AM PDT by MHGinTN (Obots, believing they cannot be deceived, it is impossible to convince them when they are deceived.)
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To: MHGinTN

YAY!


81 posted on 04/16/2010 6:31:26 AM PDT by Lazamataz ("We beat the Soviet Union. Then we became them." -- Lazamataz, 2005)
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To: willyd

Now that we know about the underwater cities off of Cuba and in quite a lot of other places around the world, the permutations get curiouser and curiouser, do they not?


82 posted on 04/16/2010 6:32:29 AM PDT by mdmathis6 (Mike Mathis is my name,opinions are my own,subject to flaming when deserved!)
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To: Little Pig; blam

LOL - I replied to it in 2008,

How many times have we done this before,,,?


83 posted on 03/25/2011 12:26:39 AM PDT by patton (I am sure that I have done dumber thigns in my life, but at the moment, I am unable to recall them.)
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To: patton

LOL. After I posted the link, I did come back and scan the thread and saw your post.


84 posted on 03/25/2011 4:08:30 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Thoudands of years ago in the Pleostocene?


85 posted on 03/25/2011 4:18:22 AM PDT by aruanan
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To: aruanan
"The Pleistocene (pronounced /ˈplaɪstəsiːn/) is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 12,000 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek πλεῖστος (pleistos "most") and καινός (kainos "new")."

"The Pleistocene Epoch follows the Pliocene Epoch and is followed by the Holocene Epoch. The Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or 6th epoch of the Cenozoic Era.[1] The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the retreat of the last continental glacier. It also corresponds with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology."

86 posted on 03/25/2011 4:27:51 AM PDT by blam
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To: djf
I have heard speculation that during the last third or so of the last great ice age, worldwide population fell to the 10-20K range.

You mean the last glacial period that ended about 11 or so thousand years ago before our current interglacial period of the present ice age that we're in right now?
87 posted on 03/25/2011 4:30:40 AM PDT by aruanan
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To: aruanan

Yes.


88 posted on 03/25/2011 4:32:06 AM PDT by djf (Dems and liberals: Let's redefine "marriage". We already redefined "natural born citizen".)
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To: aruanan

BTW, we are not in an ice age now.
We are pretty close to the peak of the interglacial maximum.

Google Vostok Ice Core images to see the graphs.


89 posted on 03/25/2011 4:35:24 AM PDT by djf (Dems and liberals: Let's redefine "marriage". We already redefined "natural born citizen".)
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To: blam

bfl


90 posted on 03/25/2011 4:38:30 AM PDT by bert (K.E. N.P. N.C. D.E. +12 ....( History is a process, not an event ))
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To: aruanan; djf
Humans thrived in Sundaland during the last Ice Age.
91 posted on 03/25/2011 4:45:22 AM PDT by blam
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To: blam

Bucky Fuller, even though he was a lib, was convinced human origins were southeast asia and not Africa.

BUT!!!

The genetic data seems to disagree.

The odds still seem to be the African bushmen (the klicking speaking people) from Namibia/Sudanland.


92 posted on 03/25/2011 4:52:28 AM PDT by djf (Dems and liberals: Let's redefine "marriage". We already redefined "natural born citizen".)
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To: blam

I read in other places that there were no corresponding animal near extinctions for this event.


93 posted on 03/25/2011 5:30:33 AM PDT by aruanan
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To: djf; blam
BTW, we are not in an ice age now.

No, we are in an interglacial period within the Quarternary Ice Age. Many use "ice age" to refer to the last period of glaciation within the current ice age, but that's not correct. There have been a number of ice ages, each is composed of longer periods of glaciation separated by the shorter, warmer interglacials. The ice ages themselves are separated from each other by long periods of warmth varying between almost 100 million years or more in length.

We are now in the fifth interglacial period within the Quarternary glaciation. There have been at least 5 major ice ages: the Huronian (2.4 to 2.1 billion years ago), the Cryogenian (850-639 million years ago), the Andean-Saharan (460-430 million years ago), the Karoo (360-320 million years ago), the Pliocene-Quarternary (started about 2.6 million years ago) that we are in now, unless this is the shortest ice age of them all, a tiny blip about a tenth of the shortest and most minor heretofore (the Andean-Saharan) and we're coming into another long inter-ice age period.

We are pretty close to the peak of the interglacial maximum.

If anything, we are at the very end of the current interglacial based on the lengths of the previous four of the current ice age and ready to go back to a hundred thousand or so years of deep freeze.
94 posted on 03/25/2011 4:37:07 PM PDT by aruanan
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To: djf; blam
BTW, we are not in an ice age now.

The Cryogenian (850-639 million years ago) contained the Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations which are considered to be the most severe ice ages to have occurred on earth with glaciers that were supposed to have reached almost to the equator.
95 posted on 03/25/2011 4:40:49 PM PDT by aruanan
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 GGG managers are SunkenCiv, StayAt HomeMother & Ernest_at_the_Beach
Blast from the Past.

Just updating the GGG info, not sending a general distribution.

To all -- please ping me to other topics which are appropriate for the GGG list.


96 posted on 10/23/2011 7:13:47 AM PDT by SunkenCiv (It's never a bad time to FReep this link -- https://secure.freerepublic.com/donate/)
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To: blam
I've not seen any population figures associated with that period though.

Like many of us, they avoided giving info to the census takers...

;^)

97 posted on 11/15/2011 3:22:15 PM PST by JimRed (Excising a cancer before it kills us waters the Tree of Liberty! TERM LIMITS, NOW AND FOREVER!)
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To: blam
Ancient Crash, Epic Wave
98 posted on 02/07/2012 9:11:04 PM PST by blam
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To: blam
Santorini Eruption Much larger Than Originally Believed
99 posted on 02/07/2012 9:15:05 PM PST by blam
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To: blam

Does the author state what was the largest known eruption?


100 posted on 02/07/2012 10:29:27 PM PST by Southbound ("A liar in public life is worse than a full-paid-up Communist, and I don't care who he is." - HST)
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